Bio200_lectures17-23.pdf BIO 200LLB - A
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zainab Alkhamis on Saturday June 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 200LLB - A at University at Buffalo taught by Dr.Poulin in . Since its upload, it has received 182 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Biology in Biology at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 06/20/15
BioZOO Evolutionary Biology Funqi share six traits Most fungi have a number of cell types Fungi have cell walls with chitin Some fungi have dikaryon stages Fungi undergo nuclear mitosis Many fungi have both sexual and asexual reproduction Fungi are heterotrophs that absorb nutrients Fungai uses external digestion They need their nutrients be dissolved in water before they take it in they can be doormat when things are dry Hyphae can be septate or coenocytic Groups of hyphae form complex structures Mycelium Fungi have cell walls with chitin example Cicada shell and Bracket fungus Dikaryons form from the fusion of two haploid mating strains Fungal ces use nuclear division The nucleus replicates and forms two copies but the cell remains a single unit Fungi use sexual and asexual reproduction Sexual stages are used to identify fungus making it hard to finalize the fungal phylogeny Microsporidia 1 2 Tiny Obligate intracellular parasites Infect with polar tube Replicated by host cell Fungus are monophyletic Chytrids are likely paraphyletic Aquatic 1 Unicellular life stages BioZOO Evolutionary Biology 2 Flagella present Coenocytic Amphibians are getting extinct slowly because of fungai like the batrachchytrium Zygomycota 1Saprobic or parasitic 2Coenocytic 3Sexual reproduction is rare 0 Glomeromycota are mycorrhizal coenocytic and do not form mycelia Ring worms are fungas not WORM o Difficult to treat End of lecture 17 What makes an Animal Animal Animal phylogenies are monophyletic multicellular they lack cell walls hetertrophic they feed on other animals sexual reproduction their gametes are haploid they have embryonic developments 0 R dial symmetry was the first symmetry to evolve Sponges don t have any form of symmetry 0 All animals either have radial or bilaterial symmetry wwewwr First kind of symmetry Bilateral cephalization which means forms head first Bilateral are divided into two groups 1 Protostomes which means mouth before anus includes lophotochozoans they grow by adding mass to their bodies Second type is eclysozoans Molt which has cuticles 2 Deuterostome which means anus before mouth includes Coelomates the coelom forms within mesoderm and it has more control over the movement They have one plane symmetry and an anterior end How animals develop by embryos they have two layers diploblastic they are ectoderms they are endoderm s JON L BioZOO Evolutionary Biology 4 three layers of embryonic tissues ectoderm which covers the nervous system mesoderm which covers the skeleton muscle endoderm which covers intestines and digestive organs 0 Animals are divided into three groups 1sponges 2 Dipolblasts 3 Tripoblasts Protostomes are bilaterians like Arrow worms Lophotrochzoans called that because of their lophosphore feeding structure Flatworms can t eat digest or excrete their body is near the surface to extract 02 both partners act as both sexes can subdivide and regenerate Rotifers are pseudocolemates similar phylogeny to flatworms they have a complex digestive system cilia beat in unison Ribbon worms they re similar to flatworms they have a digestive track they move using muscles probscics through their entire length they can be up to 20 meters long End of lecture 18 1 Annelids segmented bodies hallow rings stacked together like Earthworms and Leeches This segmentation allows reproduction digestionfeedingexcretionrespirationlocomotionprotects them physically and useful for anterior sensory organs Lonhotrochozoans Mollusks transition when it comes to size and complexity Mollusks are highly diverse like the blue ring octopus One of the most holds the organs including systems reproductive etc They excrete mucus from their feet Mantle a thick sheet of skin it covers the respiratory organs and it secretes the shell Radula teeth in rows inside the mollusks to scrape algae sometimes it looks like a drill BioZOO Evolutionary Biology They have male and female organs hermaphrodic and sometimes can change which sex they want to be Cross fertilization Mollusks groups 1 2 3 4 Polyplacophora The chitons 8 dorsal plates they are herbivorous and live in shallow water Gastropoda snails and slugs they use tentacles for their sensory system The color is to warn predators Bivalves Oysters scallops and giant clam Cephalopoda octopodes squids and nautili marines predators and they re highly intelligent Ecdysozoans Pseudocoelomates TYPiCally parasitic Separate sexes Hydrostatic skeleton they grow by molding C elgans matures in three days Transparent body and limited cell It has a special structure called eutely There are four groups of arthropods 1 PW Trilobites had jointed appendages Arthropod body plans are dominated by jointed appendages ArachnidsMouthparts are chelicerae Four pairs of legs like spiders scorpions Myriapods mouthparts are mandibles like centipedes End of lecture 19 1 Deuterstomes chimoderms hymochodate chordates triploblastic BioZOO Evolutionary Biology monophyletic phyryngeal gill slits chordates have phyrngeal slits to filder their feeding organisms that live in auatic environments 2 echinoderms close to humans examples are sand dollar and starfish They have three tissue layers Bilateral larvae Oral and aboral Asexual Internal skeleton 3 Chrinoids example sea lililes and feather stars many arms 4 echinozoans like sea cucumbers no arms bilateral 5 Astirizoans star form predators live in deep waters 6 hemichordates like acorn worms proboscics sister taxa to sea urchins BioZOO Evolutionary Biology 7 chordates lancelets tunicates vertebrates non verberates are two groups lancelets like cephlochordates and urochodrdates second is tunicates which forms coloniesbudding hollow nerves pharyngeal slits postnail tail they are all segmented End of lecture 20 Verberates characterstics head vertebral column replaces the natocord internal skeleton like lungs liver kidney s stomach encorine and glands internal organs located in the coelon circulatory system Sister taxa for hagfish The group cyclostomes include fish amphibiansmammalsreptiles and birds Fish are half vertebrate species they re originally amphibians they have jaws and teeth Phylgynetic to sharks Invasion of lind was by two groups Lobed finned fish and ray finned fish which has parallel bones and internal muscles Amphibian means double life cutaneous respiration examples Frogs salamanders caecilians have jaws and teeth End of lecture 21 BioZOO Evolutionary Biology l Maui1 39lnewtij bodies New leg t l mgemmt Remain gills lmr g l Lu a eiemg immastmg axggm imtn ice lmr g d heart a cmiemtij and dietiveng to L 39rg r muscles mammal w writhing P lmtilmg ell5in out of W twtight Eggs Firewanting the bed from bra watertig slain out o Reptiles trait that we share 1 Amniotic eggs contains food source in them water shells four internal membranes which allows for gas exchange and waste removal internal fertilization 2 Dry skin layer of keratin rich scales that prevent water loss 3 Thoracic breathing due to lung capacity increases oxygen intake through a mouth opening called the glottis 4 Improved kidneys 5 Ectotherms their body temperatures according to the environment 6 all reptiles alive today are diapsids they WERE synapsids Example Pelycosaurs the rst synapsid which is extinct today 0 Therapsids evolved from synapsid groups 0 First bipedals Archosaurs 0 Birds evolved from dinosaurs Birds don t have teeth only beaks And feathered tails Feathers maintain internal temperature Bird bones are thin and hollow passerifromes are songbirds o Mammals are unified by five traits 1 Hair BioZOO Evolutionary Biology 2 Mammaryglands Nipples for milk 3 Endothermy 4 Sweatglands 5 Placentas There are two groups of mammals 1 Prototherians Monotremes 2 Therians Marsupials and Eutherians End of lecture 22 and 23
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