Chapter 9 Lecture: Language
Chapter 9 Lecture: Language PSYC 3350
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by lambdalambdalambdas on Wednesday June 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3350 at University of Houston taught by Victoria Wagner in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 199 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 06/24/15
10292013 Chapter 9 Lecture Outline Language 2010 by W W Norton amp Co Inc Il E39 Chapter 9 Language I Lecture Outline EIOrganization of Language El Phonology El Words El Syntax II Sentence Parsing El Biological Roots of Language El Language and Thought 39l ll Chapter 9 Language I Language El Unique to humans El Present in all cultures El Essential for knowledge and culture The Organization of Language Thoughts become sounds Sounds become thoughts V HOW Hierarchical organization 10292013 The Organization of Language I Sentence sequences of words I Word smallest free form I Morpheme smallest unit of meaning I Phoneme smallest unit of sound The Organization of Language I Hierarchical with each level composed of other sublevels SENTENCE The umpires talked to the players PHRAle The umpires talked to the players WORD The umpires talked to the players l MDIFIPHEME The umpire s talk ed to the play er s PHONEME a i nmpayr z talk t tuw ae pley er Production of phonemes Phonology Dental V39Paulisle Modulation of air by mouth and nose Flow of air from lungs Linea ful ls 4 lm ma lam 10292013 I Voicing El Whether vocal folds vibrate 2 d b v D Or not 8 t I0 iii I Manner of production El Whether air is fully stopped b p d t El Or merely restricted z s v f I Place of articulation El Where in the mouth the air is restricted I Closing of lips b p I Top teeth against bottom lip v t I Tongue behind upperteeth d t z s Phonology Phonology Many words have no clear boundaries yet speech segmentation is effortless Phonology The sky is NOT falling Bril39 hymns Min filf n39 39 HRH agar N 39 Jr 1w 39lt39 pr l39 h L39 u39rrym39d 10292013 Phonology I Coarticulation the blending of phonemes at word boundaries El My name is Dan Reisberg El My name is Noam Chomsky F S is slightly different D and N are slightly different Phonology I Perception of language is constructed I Use prior knowledge to fill in missing information The state governors met with their respective legilatures convening in the capital city 10292013 I Pollack and Picket 1964 El Spliced out words from conversations I Easily identified in context I Hard to do without context Phonology My name is Dan Fleis iberg I I McGurk Illusion I Visual influences on speech perception I HYPCI EHE TlC AL lDEN lIFICR lION mm Phonology quotJOE Percenmgs dentlying saunas as Ihal h Continuous variation of sounds Permmga iucml ying s as li Fll39jrt39Jnlalgc g I eroDr mtmietmsf are to produce clear phonemes ACFUHL IDEl39 l39l39lFICM39IGH DATA Percentage 25 c 25 59 45 a voiceonset tme rts 10292013 Phonology I httpwwwvowelsandconsonants3ecomc ha ter 10html 2010 by W W Norton amp Co Inc Phonology I Sequences I Only some are acceptable in a language I For example the sequence tl is not acceptable in English IIAdjustments for certain phoneme sequences I For example the s sound becomes a z in words like bags Words I For each word that a speaker knows there are several kinds of information El Phonology the sequence of phonemes that make up the word EIOrthography how the word is spelled it the person is literate II Syntax how to combine the word with other words I Semantics what the word means 10292013 Words I The referent is the actual object action or event in the world that a word refers to El Conceptual information 5 Words I Generativity El New words can be formed I Hardware software lead to spyware and malware IIWords can take on new meanings I l have been hacked by a hacker Syntax I Generativity I Infinite number of sentences by combining finite set of words Words 1 She can place the books on the table 2 She can place on the table 3 quot She can sleep the books on the table 4 She can sleep on the table Syntax tells us which verbs can take direct objects 10292013 5 Syntax I Acceptable sequences III The boy hit the ball I Unacceptable ones III The boy hit ball the I Who is doing what to whom III The boy chased the girl 5 I Jabberwocky Syntax I Twas brillig and the slithy toves did gyre and gimble in the wabe 10292013 Syntax A Phrase structure rules The ferocious dragon charged the timid mouse HOW the trees branch 8 NIP VF NF ldet M N VIP ti l lNPl VP 2 llquot 3 VP 2 u PF Syntax I Descriptive rules To boldly go where no one has gone beforequot I Prescriptive rules To go boldly where no one has gone beforequot I Syntax Phrase N0 structure phrase structure The large tomato The made large tomato made a satisfying splat a satisfying when splat when h it hit hit the the floor oor Easier Harder 10292013 Syn tax m VP discuss with l39iF was T R 5e JL sax I PIP with IIL Ha wantscto dmuss sea with Jay Lane I saw the gorilla in my p i m n k The shooting of the hunlers was lerrthe They we roasting chickens Visiting relatives can be awfuL Twlnncmpmers WE IEpunEd smlen by the TV announcer He wants to discuss He wants to discuss sex sex with Jay Leno with Jay Leno Syntax I Linguistic universals El Rules that apply to all languages I Subjectverbobject II Sally ate the apple El Preferred order for 98 of the languages I POLICE BEGIN CAMPAIGN TO RUN DOWN JAYWALKERS I SAFETY EXPERTS TO SAY SCHOOL BUS PASSENGERS SHOULD BE BELTED I DRUNK GETS NINE MONTHS IN VIOLIN CA I FARMER BILL DIE IN HOUSE I STUD TIRES OUT I SOVIET VIRGIN LANDS SHORT OF GOAL AGAIN I PANDA MATING FAILS VETERINARIAN TAKES OVER Syntax real newspaper headlines I 00 LOZ U 8 U01J0N 39M 39M REE 10 10292013 Syntax I Linguistic universals El Innate knowledge of these universals may prepare children for learning language rapidly IIOthers suggest that grammar learning is constrained by many factors Sentence Parsing I Parse El Process of assigning words to a phrase structure Sentence Parsing I Gardenpath sentences I The secretary applauded for his efforts was soon promoted II Fat people eat accumulates I The horse raced past the barn fell 11 Sentence Parsing I Gardenpath sentences I Because he ran the second mile went quickly Reinterpretation Something Wrong First interpretation 10292013 Sentence Parsing I Minimal attachment simplest phrase structure One phrase Because he ran the second mile he was able to finish quickly Because he ran the second mile went quickly Two phrases Background knovWedge plays a part Sentence Parsing Detectives usually examine Evidence does not 12 Sentence Parsing I Extralinguistic context I Put the apple on the towel into the box 10292013 Sentence Parsing I Prosody refers to the patterns of pauses and pitch changes that characterize speech production It is used to El Emphasize elements of a sentence El Highlight the sentence 3 intended structure El Signal the difference between a question and an assertion Sentence Parsing I Pragmatics El What happened to the roast beef El Well the dog sure does look happy He must have eaten it 13 The Biological Roots of Language Tongue Jaw Motor projection areas Throat Lips related to speech Motor planning Language Comprehension Wernicke s area Auditory projection area 10292013 The Biological Roots of Language I Children learn language even with no exposure I May have some biological mechanisms for that The Biological Roots of Language I Specific language impairment I Normal intelligence I Normal muscle movement I Difficulty learning and using language I May be evidence of specialized mechanism for language learning 14 The Biological Roots of Language Overregularization errors El Yesterday lthinked 10292013 The Biological Roots of Language I Learning of information present in the environment is also critical to language acquisition I Children as young as 8 months are sensitive to the statistical regularities in the language that they hear as shown in studies employing nonsense syllable streams The Biological Roots of Language I Semantic bootstrapping refers to using semantic knowledge to make inferences about the syntactic structure of a language 15 Language and Thought I Linguistic relativity is the hypothesis that people who speak different languages think differently 10292013 I Language and Thought I A language s A color categories may affect how its speakers at 39 perceive and remember 5 color I Language and Thought I The spatial terminology of a language for instance whether absolute or relative terms are used m ay affect how its speakers perceive and remember spatial information 16 How do you form plurals 10292013 Language and Thought I One possibility for such results is that the language you speak determines the concepts and categories that you use and as a result shapes what you can think about I A more flexible possibility is that language influences what we pay attention to and this shapes experience which influences how we think 17
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