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Psychology The study of mind amp behavior Psychology Is a scientific of behavior and mental processes depends on empirical evidence philosophy is not a empirical study Nativism Nativism isn t accepted in psychology Thomas John Locke George Berkley they felt that human knowledge should be based on empirical research Mind Our private inner experience our flow of consciousness that is made though thoughts memories perceptions and feelings Behaviors Observable action of human beings and nonhuman animals things we do alone and around others Schools of thought Who tired to analyze the mind by breaking it down to basic components Who focused on how mental abilities allow people to adapt to their environments Greek philosophers thoughts about how the mind works Plato Aristotle like how cognitive abilities and knowledge is inborn or are acquired only through experience Which maintains that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn Plato Aristotle believed that a child s mind is a blank slate where experiences were written All knowledge is acquired through experiences Psychologist don t believe the PE amp nature is completely true How much is nature and nurture French philosopher Rene Descartes 15961650 Argued that the body and mind are fundamentally different things body is material substance amp mindsoul is immaterial or spiritual substance Thought the mind influenced the body through a tiny structure of the brain pineal gland French doctor Dr Franz Gall 17581828 thought that the mind and body was linked by the size rather than the glands He looked at the size of the brains examined the brains of animals dead people healthy adults and children Mental ability often increased w brain size and decreases w brain damage his finding were accepted and the brain damage finding still stands today Developed the specific mental abilities and characteristics from memory to the capacity for happiness are located in a specific regions of the brain Hippocampus involved in memory Amygdala involved w fear 0 candle and Ben s skull the size of bumps or indentations on the skull reflected the size of the brain region beneath them the bumps could tell if a person was friendly cautious assertive idealistic it was proven invaded bc of the evidence Pie rre Flou rens 17941867 was a biologist who disagreed w Gall he conducted experiments on animals by removing specific parts of their brains he found that their actions and movements differed to intact animal brains Paul Broca 18241880 was a surgeon who worked with patients that suffered damage to a small part of the left side of the brain Monsieur Leborgne couldn t speak but could understand what was said and used gestures to answer 0 When damage to a specific part of the brain impairs certain mental functions Showing that that the brain and mind are closely connected 0 in the middle of the 19th century psychology benefited from physiology which is the study of biological processes especially in the human body Hermann von Helmholtz studied physiology amp physics developed a method for measuring the speed of nerve impulse in frog legs then applied it to human beings 0 He trained participants to respond to stimulus sensory input from the environment to different parts reaction time time it takes to react to a certain stimulus 0 He found that it took people longer for them to respond when their toes were stimulated than their thighs o The difference in reaction time allowed an estimate for how long it took a nerve impulse to travel to the brain Others thought that mental processes happened instantaneously proved that it wasn t true Wilhelm Wundt was credited w the emergence of psychology taught at the university of Heidelberg and gave the first course in physiological psychology he wrote the principles of physiological psychology in 1874 the book was to mark out the field of psychology as a new domain of science 0 He opened up the first laboratory ever to be for psychological studies at the university of Leipzig 0 He thought that scientific psychology should focus on analyzing consciousness a person s subjective experience of the world and the mind 0 We can be conscious of sights sounds taste smells bodily sensations thoughts or feelings He thought about how chemist broke things down to basic elements and wanted to do the same w the mind Wundt created the approach called structuralism or the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind 0 This involved breaking consciousness down into elemental sensation and feelings structuralist tend to work in labs the subjective observations of one s own experience raw sensory experience instead of interpretations of the experience 0 One experiment found that slow participants also had to interpret the significance of the tone and pressed the button Faster participants focused only on the response of pressing the button Many traveled to study with Wundt Edwa rd Titchene r studied w him for 2 years He then went to the US to set up a lab at Cornell University 0 He brought some of Wundt s ideas but added some changes he focused on identifying the basic elements instead of emphasizing the relationship between elements of consciousness 0 44000 elemental qualities of psychology conscious experience most of them visual 32820 auditory 11600 Edwa rd Titchene r a once a student open a laboratory at the university of Syracuse William James Taught at Harvard and American university where he had labs He wrote the principles of psychology 0 James agreed w Wundt about the importance of focusing on immediate experience and the usefulness of introspection But disagreed about the claim of consciousness could be broken down into separate elements 0 He beloved that doing so could distort the nature of consciousness He felt that it was a flowing stream not a bundle of separate elements 0 James developed functionalism the study of the purpose mental process serves in enabling people to adapt to their environment Sets out to understand the functions of those mental processes served This thinking was inspired by Charles Darwin s book the origins of species by means of natural selection 1859 Natural Selection the features of an organism that help it survive and reproduce are more likely than others to have features that can be passed down to a subsequent generation James reasoned mental abilities must have evolved bc they were adaptive bc they helped people solve problems and increased survival Consciousness must serve an important biological function This ideology did well in North America G Stanley Hall 18441924 studied with James amp Wundt s at Johns Hopkins University Hall believed that as children develop they pass through stages that repeat the evolutionary history of the human race 80 mental capacities resemble though out generations He founded the American journal of psychology in 1887 Development of clinical Psychology was around the same time of structuralism amp functionalism 0 Clinics were studying patients w psychological disorders by looking at how things breakdown to figure out how it works JeanMa rtain Cha rot 182593 amp Pierre Janet 18691947 were French doctors who interviewed patients who had developed hysteria a temporary loss of cogitative or motor functions usually as a result of emotionally upsetting experiences The patients were either blind paralyzed or lost their memories even tough there was no known physical causes When patients were under which is an altered state of consciousness characterized by suggestibility and the symptoms disappeared Pa ras Pea rlz the whole was greater than the sum of its parts and you had to study a person all round Physical amp mental observations 0 This form was important for group therapy 0 Ground work for perception Sigmund Freud 19005 observed people w hysteria theorized that many of the patients problems could be traced to the effects of a painful childhood experience that a person couldn t remember and he suggested that the powerful influence of these seemingly lost memories revealed the presence of an unconscious mind is the part of the mind that operates outside of the conscious awareness but influences thoughts feelings and actions that emphasizes the importance of the unconscious mental process in shaping feeling thoughts and behavior 0 This theory as controversial bc it suggested the understanding of a person s early sexual experiences unconscious sexual desires 0 Psychoanalytic was influenced by literature amp politics and the arts 0 Freud though that human nature was dark and marked the limitations and problems rather than the possibilities and potentials Most behaviors are due to unconscious Treating mental illness Unconscious motivation John Watson Columbia university can t be observed you can t study things that can t be observed Behaviorism looked at how you learned Science required replicable objectable measurements of phenomena he suggested that behavior should be studied what people do rather than what they experience 19505 B F Skinner a student of Watson developed functional analyzes focused on rewards and punishments stimulus and response worked w white rats Abraham Maslow amp Carl Rogers they believed that our whole life is to bring ourselves to reach a goal is reaching a peak Eleanor Roosevelt martin Luther King jr Mother Theresa What do you do to reach self actualization Your growth as a person named after Carl Rogers person centered directive therapy this is what most therapists say they are bc they take a mixture of different schools of psychology that works w them Approaches 1 Biological assumes there are hormones brain systems 2 Evolutionaryadaption of people from generation to generation natural selection Darwinism genetic codes 3 Pathology studies how animals develop in a certain environment 4 Psvchodvnamic approach unconscious and society Watson behavior is an environmentally based thing 5 Coonitive behavior thinking underlying learning how we process information we get everyday 5 6 7 8 9 Humanistic unique Sub elds of psychology Experimental basic building blocks into personality biological physiology memory and problem solving Social how social interactions affects you do you act differently when you are w someone and alone Personality What makes you consistently unique compare and contrast to others Develoomental The changes that happen in a life time human growth and development early childhood adulthood old age conception to death Pathologist study how animals develop for their particular environment Psvchodvnamic unconscious conflicts Cognitive mental processes how we adjust Humanistic if left alone humans are capable of solving their own issues Clinical seeing someone for a time of 200400hrs 10 Counseling group or schoolwork 11Community prevention psychology will not treat but will try to prevent mental illness 12 Educational they look at how teaching effects learning development lesson plans for slow students What is shaping your behavior 13Quantitative they use math and statistics to develop test on behaviors 14 Health study how physical health can effect behaviors psychosomatic Behavior 15Sport how behavior changes in competitive athletic competition 16Forensic deals with law courts why people commit certain crimes Social diversitv and psvcholoqv social culture variables variations in social cultures backgrounds gender nationalities and beliefs etc lndividuaist empathizes the achievement of the individual Culturist is a part of a team is for the group What s the difference between being licensed amp certi ed Certified meaning that you are liable Licensing has the education to do something Two schools of medicine Greek dogmatikosmeaning belief who thought that the best way to understand illness was to develop theories about the body s functions More people tended to die from the dogmatists method Emeiriko s meaning experience who thought that the best way to understand illness was to observe sick people Modern day To describe the belief that is accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation Scienti c Method A set of principles about the appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence Is a set of rules and techniques for observations 3 things make humans hard to study 0 Complexity It s hard to explain how the brain is able to have 500 million neurons that bring about thoughts feelings and actions 0 Variability How humans are different in thought amp experience 0 Reactivity People act differently when observed and when not Observational de nition A description of property in concrete measurable terms Demand characteristics Those aspects of an observational setting that causes people to behave as they think they should One way of avoiding this is not letting people know they are being observed Naturalistic observation page 45 A technique for gathering scienti c information by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environment You have to attend watch wo intervening quot looking at eye blinks during signs of anxiety It is best to keep the people being observed from knowing what is the true nature of being observed quot Law of large numbersquot the larger the more vindictive it will be for the population Research is a requirement to get hired at schools amp need a PHD Study research you have to do while teaching scholarship Have an idea hypothesis that is based on a testable proposition quot an education guessquot if stated clearly and concisely Operational de nitions Statements that describe exact operation Description Giving function and meaning to an object the term IQ is meaningless bc it isn t a operational de nitions bc there are thousands of IQ test OD have to be exact Variables are going to manipulate GPA outside activities at least 2 variables in every study lndependent manipulate Dependent depends on what39s being manipulated in the study Example A study was done on two different schools who were the experimental and control group Newburg experimental Treats the water w uoride Middletown control Just observe don t treat the water w uoride Quanti able evidence Base conclusion by the data that was collected Statistics To have proven data static amp descriptive Has to publish data and work though magazines amp journals Conformation basis conformed your hypothesis and made it public when hypothesis are proven wrong or right it helps experiments fro being done more than one Bases in experimentally shown through statistics Experimental Basis The experimenter and the people in the experiment don t know who gets what or that is being handed out quot sugar pill quot a lot of experiments use these pills a integrated set of data that have been proven tentative explanations F only study that gives you cause and effect is experimentation bc you are controlling and manipulating something to happen useful when a study is new or complex they are usually done with individual w an understanding that any information is con dential Important in Neuro psychology case studies are expensive Can t compare a case study to a population Surveys are given to a broad group of people and you can do it in groups Surveys can be rigged and leading to a result that a researcher wants to see Try to get the group to be the most representative as possible 4 main goals 0 Describe a phenomena Predict on the basis of your work Control Explain ln NYS law that they are a part of an experiment must tell people What you are looking for is a representative sample can be use for the population so you can say that the sample can be a larger scale Gender population social or cultural things when drawing your research sample has genes or heredity effect behaviors that one of the things we can t control So we have to study into this quot can t control but must studyquot Studying families and to see if this also w distant relatives identical twins have the same genes Adoption studies how behaviors often differs from biological studies Statistical analysis descriptive statistics Mean commutative avg Median the half way point Mode The number that accrues most often Measures of central tendency Median halfway point Mode the number that occurs most often Measure the avg difference from each score amp mean of the data set and tend to know what your scores are Range the difference from the highest and lowest score Correlation how strongly one variable is related to another and the direction of the relationship lnferential statistic A way to say that the value of your statistic is strong enough to put out to the mass population quot to be signi cant in the populationquot 1010 810 Observation is to manities as it experimentation is to observation inform consent must be able to make an inform decision Hypothesis comes from theories must analyze their research in order to inform the participants Animals used in a study must not be subjected to pain starvation and other inhumane conditions should give compete up to date information that isn t a bias point of view Psychology shouldn t reveal info from the client judgments and con icts of interest anything that can charm someone else Cell body the part of a neuron that coordinates information processing tasks and keeps the cell body Glial cells support cells found in the nervous system Dendrites Receive information from other neurons and relay it to the cell body Synapse are groups between dendrites All sensory transmission travels through one neuron to the next Dendrites don t touch each other they have gaps called synapse Axon Transmits information to other neurons muscles or glands base of the spinal cord to the big toe Positivity charged cells nd a gap in the axon when a H and H charge meet each other it creates an action potential It travels the length of the axon quotIt is all or nothing it doesn t diminish quotWhen nothing happens it is called refectory When nothing happens it is called refactoring the depolarization of the cell Positive cells are expiratory postsynaptic potential or hyper polarization If the charges more negative it is inhibitory postsynaptic potential Synapse are groups between dendrites Refectory Period the time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated Action Potential an electric signal that is conducted along the length of a neuron s axon to the synapse this happens when the electric shock reaches a certain level page 85 an insulating layer of fatty material Neurons are covered by Myelin sheath it protects the neuron multiple scorosis MS destroys this sheet snake venom can be used to wrap around the neurons and keep them from transmitting 2 major divisions peripheral nervous system page 92 o Somatic a set of nerves that convey information into and out of the central nervous system 0 Autonomic quot weight amp vegetatequot when emotions kick in quot ght or ightquot Digestion stops starts to breath deeper or heartbeat gets faster The adrenalin glands openquot GAS General adaptation syndrome when the body39s shortterm and longterm reactions to stress Operates at all times quot breathing heartbeats etcquot This system carries transmissions to the central nervous system from neuron to neuron up to the brain Theses neurons go to muscles then goes to the brain ls messages that are sent away from the brain Page 96 Held together by the reticular formation a network of cells from the hind and fore brain If disconnected for any reason a coma will happen Cerebellum Is the store house for well re ned movements quot coordinated movement piano threading a needle ballet motor skills page 97 the most develop part of the brain most complex aspects of our behavior 4 Parts page 98102 relays sensory signals except one smell regulates basic drives such as eating Damage to the lateral hemisphere Will make you start or stop eating page391 the 24hr clock sircric rhythm quot sleep eating patternsquot Traveling from west to east bc of the time difference Medication can be taking quot hippocampusquot it s the part of the limbic system regulates emotions and cognitive ability frontal occipital temporal and parietal lobes The sensory and motor cortex receives sensory from different nerves is the one nerve that is used for vision is for hearing if one is damage the other one will pick up the response Motor cortex Control voluntary movements quot sensory motor informationquot Motor Neurons Carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscle to produce movement Sensory neurons Neurons that receive information from the external world and convey this information to the brain through the spinal cord lnterneurons neurons that connect sensory neurons motor and other interneurons Brain is divided into left and right hemispheres iSpoken language logic controls the right side of the body Recognition of facial tasks and 3D shapes creativity controls the left side of the body Corpus Callosum Fibers that connect the two hemispheres together Split brain is when one part of the brain is gone Synaptic plasticity the ability of the brain to create new parts of the brain The glial parts of the brain does this Chemisty is a group of nerves that communicate w each other this is a neurotransmitter Acetylcholine controls the contraction of muscles Voluntary motor control Norepinephine morphine sympatric nerves wakefulness and sleep learning and mood Serotonin In uence mood and appetite regulates sleep wakefulness aggressive behavior Dopamine Responsible for this effects the lost of emotions distorted perception emotions which puts your mind in a different world It regulates motor motivation pleasure emotions page87 Amino Acids quotGABAquot a major inhibitor transmitter a lost of this is uncontrollable movement Glutamate Excitatory neurotransmitter it s the origin learning and memory Endorphins have to do w pain and cause sleep Endocrine system hormones are secreted from the glands and travel the bloodstream They will target tissues and organs increase reproductive system and sexual arousal Immune system defense the body its similar to the nerve and endocrine system to look for the presence of foreign objects Can build this system up too much and can become auto immune disorder it starts to attack normal body cell Prosopagnosia diseasepage 76 The inability to recognize faces drugs that increase the action of neurotransmitters drugs that decrease are Sensation A sense is a system that will translate information from the environment into Neuro activity this message is an sensation 4 stages of sensation 1 Accessory Structures ear nose 2 Transduction Converts energy from the outside world through the language of the environment translated in to he page 127 3 Sensory receptor Specialized cells that dictate the language of sensation 4 Adaptation Would be always being conscious that you are wearing a watch on your wrist When a stimulus doesn t change a sensory stimulus constantly Sensory nerves carry these nerves to the nervous system Pain vision etc is all made to travel to the cerebellum through the thalamus Sound is a repetitive fluctuation in the present of the median sound waves A Amplitude Difference in the air pressure from baseline to the peak B WavelengthDistance from one peak to the next C FrequencyNumber of complete waves that pass through a given point in a second Loudness is the amplitude Pitch is the frequency Timbre quality of sound Pinna is the accessory structure outer ear page 158159 Sound is picked up through the pinna and passes through a canal to the middle ear It will strike a tightly stretched membrane called the ear drum tympanic membrane The vibrations are transferred to a tiny chain of bones 3 bones malleus hammer incus avail and stapes these bones amplify the sound waves Oval window is where the transduction happens when this occurs the cochlea a tube running down called basilar membrane The fluid starts to move at the bottom are hairs called the organ of Corti The auditory nerves start there and go to the brain Synesthesia Disease the perceptual experience of one sense that is evoked by another sense 0 When you get hit in the eye and see stars you can start to perceive something seeing sounds hearing colors The amplitude of light brightness electro magnetic radiation visible light must have wavelength of 400750nm To be detected by human Entering the eye through a smooth curve layer cornea and passes through the pupil opening behind the cornea light amplitude purity lris Gives the eye its color and controls the size of the pupil Lenses ls curved so it bends light rays that passes through the retina that causes the rays to the back of the eyes for visual transduction Photoreceptor Are responsible for detecting light RodsPeriphery of the retina black amp white light Cones Cluster of cells in the center of the retina color vision These cells will connect to a ganglion cells in the back of the eye the optic nerve is formed which passes to the op Blind spot Which is insensitive to light where light doesn t reach where there is no rods or cones Retina Lightsensitive tissue lining the back of the eyeball Lateral inhibition When the light reaches the photoreceptors cells differentiate the cells with more light this is why we can see walls Edges These are cells are differentiating light 1 Enternerion cells help us see edges 2 color vision the dimension of wavelength hue is determined by dominate wavelengths black and white aren t hues Saturation Color is pure if one wavelength is more intense Brightness is the overall intensity of a wavelength Color Theory Trichromatic theory 0 Short wavelength cone response to blue 0 Middle wavelength response to green 0 Long wavelength response to red amp yellow Opponent Process Theory Each of the 3 color sensitive elements are organized it pairs where the Red Green Blue Yellow Black Color Blindness Discern fewer colors bc you process 2 of the 3 color sensitive layers that oppose each other Chemical Senses olfaction means to smell an odor there are senses in the upper part of the nose and the upper part of the mouth Nerves makeup the olfactory it is the only nerve that doesn t go through the thalamus but instead synapse to the brain Smell Taste and favor Smell and taste are components of favors salty sour bitter sweet savory Nutritional needs texture pain fibers can be triggered by hoy spicy foods Somatic sense Touch amp Temperature it s a vestibular sense in the inner ear has to be w balancing the head Pain 2 types of these endings Adelta fiber sharp prickly pain and they are fast Cfiber dull aches burning sensations itching they are slow 0 Pain shows that there is some damage being done to the body teaching how to control your pain bc pain signals have to pass their gates This is done by rubbing the pain from the body you have to rub an area wo pain This effects the functional gate that is in spinal column Aspirin blocks pain by blocking the pain gate Melatonin Vestibular sense Semicircular Canal balance tells the brain the position of the head in comparison to the bodyquot Amygdala Modulates pain 2 vestibular sack and 3 canals they are filled w fluids send vibration the auditory nerves Kinesthesia Tells you were pair of your body are in distance from each other cell phone Kinesthesia is changed and slowed w cell phone uses Perception Perception the process in which sensations are interpreted into mental presentations Knowledge and understanding the world which makes the sensation more meaningful Perception isn t easily done it is consistently trying to make sense of a solution so it can be used by the brain for action 3 approaches 0 Compensational turns raw information into meaning like a machine 0 Constructivist reality is constructed for fragments of knowledge and culture from your past experiences expectations Ecology ecological says that the environment contain most of the information needed to form a perception Psychophysics describes the relationship between physical energy in the environment and the experiences you have from it Absolute Threshold The minimal detectable amount of energy that a sensory system can detect amount of energy you can detect 50 of the time Superlimited Sensation that is so high that it cant be detected Signal detection Theory A persons ability to pick up a particular signal Response Criteria False Alarm Your willingness to pick up a signal when no signal is presented and the patient thought there was one Miss Alarm When a signal happens but the signal was too low to responds Hit when the signal occurs and its detected Correct Rejection no signal is reported by the subject or is given Weber s Law The smallest difference or change stimuli we can detect is called the difference threshold just notable difference JND page 130 Signal detection theory an observation that the response to a stimulus depends both on a person s sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of noise and on a person s response criterion Magnitude estimation Fechner s Law how intense is the sensation Increase in energy is necessary to perceive the difference in magnitude 9 In a dark room you can see a small beam of light but not in a brightly lit room because the room had the larger magnitude Parapsychology Goes beyond psychology extra sensory clear buoyancy Telepathy psychic not enough evidence to prove it is real 0 existence of an extra sensory perception 0 Diet not sleeping o Are inaccurate lllusion Is an incorrect perception of a stimuli Delusion mistaken or misleading opinion idea belief Hallucinationperception in the absence of stimulus there s nothing there you can hear smell see things that aren t there face with a complex we pick out objects that need to be emphasize and things that don t we put them in to the background Group certain inherit properties that lead us to group together Proximitythings that are close together Similaritysimilarities team can be a group team uniformsO Credulitysensations that appeared to be continuous or continuously formed Closurewe tend to fill in to make it complete object Common Faith sense of objects moving in the same direction and speed marching bands Depth and Distance Depth Ability to see the world in 3 dimensions lnterpositions Close objects block the view of things further away Relative sizeIf two objects are assumed to be the same the size object that is producing the largest size on the retina will be presumed as bigger Height in a visual field The more distant is usually higher than the visual field Texture gradienttext appears less detailed as the distance from the object decreases Linear perspectiveThe closer together two lines are the greater the distance the closer they seem to come together Motion Parallax Objects that are closest to you appear to move faster Cues in psychology 1 Accommodation muscles surrounding the eye lenses either tighten in the focus and flatten for distance 2 ConvergenceEach eye rotating inward to project an image of an object on each retina 3 Binocular disparity Two eyeballs slightly different receiving images from the same object the brain uses this difference to calculate the objects depth 4 Visual Cliff Infants will continue to crawl off the end of an object up to a 5 certain age to develop depth perception 6 Looming Is a rapid expansion of a size of an image to fill a retina it is an expanding stimulus baseball thrown in your face 7 Stroboscopic Motion Our tendency to interpret a image stimulus as continuous motion when still images are flashed a rapid speeds movies 8 Perceptional consistencyAbility to create a consistent perception 9 size consistency The size stays the same 1D shape consistency The shape will still a peer to be the same 11 brightness consistency No matter how much light will hit an object or changes you will still perceive light relatively consistent Top down processing preexisting thought motivation expectation to promote meaning to stimulus Schemas perceptional set 14 18233442 what is the next number you can think about seeing a can w 3 wheels so you would group them Bottom up processing extract the meaning color light children tend to do this type of processor Parallel distributing process recognition occurs as simultaneously through connected units of the brain which creates perception Attention the process of directing their attention to a perception Covert orientind by point a certain sensory systems head turning so you can hear Overt orientation means you can sense without moving it is voluntary goal directed orientation lnattentional blindnessFocus on some stimulus when avoiding others Parallel processing ability to search rapidly for target to find something out Serial processing will be a stepbystep to find something Computer interaction cursors allow quick parallel processing icons also help parallel processes LearningIt s a process through which experience modi es pre existing behaviors And can become semi permanent p264 0 Gives the ability to adapt in different environments 0 You are only born with the ability to suck food and to throw your head back with a bad smell Classical conditioning Pavlov page 265 a dog will salivate when meat is place next to him or is put in his mouth At rst it is a re ex but becomes blurred when the dog is hungry o 1 Show the food ring the bell natural stimulus the response is the salivation the stronger the unconditioned stimulus the better you learn Classical Conditioning when a natural stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response Unconditioned Stimulus US something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism the presentation of the food to the dogs Unconditional Response UR a re exive reaction that is reliably produce by an unconditional stimulus the dogs salivation Conditional stimulus CS a stimulus that is initially neural and produces no reliable response in an organism when sounds buzzers tones were used to activate salivation Conditional response UR a reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus when fold was pair with a sound the dogs learned that they would get food when they heard a sound Acquisition The phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together w the gradual learning it starts off slow then rises rapidly then slowly stops Secondorder conditioning page 268 conditioning where the US is a stimulus that acquired its ability to produce learning from an earlier procedure in which it was used as a CS 0 2 Forward conditioning Extinction The stopping of behavior the gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer presented Spontaneous Recovery the tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period Stimulus Discrimination response to the stimulus that you want to see Punishment negative reward the fear of re you don t want to remove this phobia bc they can learn to love res which is a Pyromaniac Generalization a process in which the CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during acquisition page 269 Discrimination the capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli Operant conditioning page 277 a type of learning in which consequences of an organism s behaviors determines whether it will be repeated in the future Skinner box reinforced with food We study the presses pre minute and the rat will start slow w 10 presses and will learn and the presses will increase If there is no reward the rat will go extinct much faster Behavior modification use this w learning disabilities gradually changing behaviors Adverse Conditioning Biological preparedness a propensity for learning particular kinds of associations over time my response w rainbow and not eating or like seafood Reinforcer Positive amp Negative any stimulus or event that function to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it Punisher any stimulus or event that ructions to decrease the likelihood of the behavior that led to it Thorndike law page 277 That behavior was followed by pleasant behavior is most likely to respond again And w negative they won t respond again Law of effects the principle that behaviors that are followed by a quot satisfying state of affairs tend to be repeated and those that produce an quot unpleasant state of affairs are less likely to be repeated Operant behavior BF Skinner behavior that an organism produces that has some impact on the environment Escape Conditioning occurs when you make a response to be remove from it or an environment You do something to avoid the adverse stimuli Avoidance conditioning Shaping behavior reinforcing successive approximation behaviors successive approximations behavior modi cation learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a nal desired behavior page 285 Over justi cation effect circumstances when external rewards can be undermine the intrinsic satisfaction of performing a behavior Fixed interval schedule Fl an operant conditioning principle in which reinforcements are presented at xed periods provide that the appropriate response is made Variable interval schedule FR an operant conditioning principle in which behavior is reinforced based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement Fixed ratio scheduling FR an operant conditioning principle in which reinforcement is delivered after a speci c number of responses have been made Variable ratio schedule VR an operant conditioning principle in which the delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses Intermittent reinforcement an operant conditioning principle in which only some of the responses made are followed by reinforcement Latent learning Tolman a condition in which something is learned but it is not manifested as a behavioral change until sometime in the future Cognitive map or a mental representation of the physical features of the environment Observational learning a condition in which takes place by watching actions of others Diffusion chain where individuals initially learned behavior by observing another individual perform that behavior and then serve as a model from which other individuals learn the behavior Implicit learning learning that takes place largely without awareness of the process or the products of information acquisition Habituation a general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in response Developmental psychology Is the study of continuity and change across the life span Temperament Characteristics patterns of emotional reactivity Reflects what you have inherited Thomas amp Chess 3 types of temperament in infants 0 Easy Baby most common reacts cheerfully or happy babies Difficult Baby irritable and difficult 0 Slow warm up Babies Reacts wearily and then learns to enjoy it Goodness of fit Temperament that is aligned with the temperament of the parents temperament and environment together can produce favorable outcomes Attachment Babies interact w parents amp other figures and the babies will form an attachment in many culture the attachment is to the mother but when the baby gets older it develops to other people Forms of attachments Secure Most babies are mother tolerate grief separations the mother is responsive and knows the child need Insecure 3 types Avoidant child Will ignore it s mother when she leaves and act angrily Ambivalent childls upset when the mother leaves but rejects her when she gets close Disorganized child Depressed inhibited when they start crying it39s hard for them to stop they don39t get comforted anxious clingy to anybody so are vulnerable to stranger abuse unachieving unmotivated Has lasting effects as adolescents they tend to remember positive events Eric Erikson Saw personality develop in 8 stages each stage has a psychosocial crisis page 454 1 Birth 1218monthes Feeding Trust vs Mistrust the child must develop a belief that the environment must be trusted to support whatever is needed 2 18months 3years Toilet Training Autonomy vs Shamedoubt The child learns to control a sense of free will 3 36years Locomotor Initiative vs Guilt the child learns to begin actions and start to feel remorse 4 612years Latency Industry vs lnferiority children learn to do things well or exceptionally through standards 5 1216yearsAdolescene ldentity vs Role Confusion developing a sense of self 6 1940years Young Adulthood Intimacy vs Isolation starts to make long term decisions 7 4070years Middle Adulthood Generativity vs Stagnation you guild the younger people especially if you have been successful 8 70Death Geriatrics Integrity vs Despair I am happy with how I lived life or would I change anything Jean Piaget page 429 Cognitive development The emergence of the ability to think and understand Four Stages Sensorimotor Stage A stage of development that begins at birth and last through infancy in which infants acquire information about the world by sensing it and moving around within it Preoperational stage The stage of development that begins at about 2 years and ends at about 6 years in which children have a preliminary understanding of the physical world Concrete operational stage The stage of development that begins at about 6 years and ends at about 11 years in which children learn how various actions or operations can affect what transformed concrete objects Formal operational stage This stage of development that begins around age of 11 and last through adulthood in which people can solve nonphysical problems Relationships with parents and Peers Parental styles Socialization come from parents and they teach you what is acceptable in culture and society 3 tvoes of parental stvles A Authoritarian Parents that are strict protective unsympathetic they value obedience from children they seldom raise their children they are attached 0 Children who grew up like this are unfriendly l39m trustful more likely to cheat on less likely to feel guilt or feel that they are being late B Permissive They give children complete freedom and little discipline 0 Children are immature dependent unhappy they don t do well in school or in life C Authoritative They reason with their children they encourage give amp take They give child responsibilities set limits but remain understanding if they are broken promote independent 0 Children are friendly cooperative selfsufficient socially reliable they do better in school and all welladjusted to parental divorce D Abusive they say they love their children they are patient has little selfesteem responds in anger to the infant plagued w stress Lacks resources to deal w it and takes it out on the child 0 Children aggressive distrustful difficult to manage and develop psychosocial problem stealing homicide they will tend to abuse their children Children learn social competence girls are able to learn faster than boys learn languages lean empathy feeling w and sympathy feeling for 0 Gender roles start very early What color blanket pink or blue what type of toys 0 Gender Skills Girls mature much faster suffer less from behavior or language problems 0 Helplessness self helplessness you can t build that because you are a girl Gender Schema play with that Schemas Theories about or models of the way the world works Assimilation The process by which infants apply their schemas in a novel situation Accommodation The process by which infants revise their schemas in light of new information Object Permanence The idea that objects continue to exist when they are not visible Resilience and risk When parents devoice children develop problems with longlasting effects 0 When parents devoice when children are very young the child will die early 0 They will have some mental disorder Puberty and adolescence 0 With girls this can be negative when they mature fast Menstruation Menarche Late Girls who develop are treated nicely like little girls 0 Boys in a positive way bc they are look at as leaders 0 Late Boys are picked on by the earlier boys who matured faster 0 This can cause family conflicts for teens that don t feel close to their parents parents can be taught to listen moral reasoning Kohlberg The development of moral reasoning Preconventional Stage The stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor Conventional Stage The stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rule Postconventional Stage The stage of moral development at which the morality of an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values 0 Kohlberg Was criticized by Gilligan she doesn t believe that moral identity was the same for males and females she showed the women cared more for emotion she only you ve women in my studies Adulthood 20 40 Physical growth continues the prime of life Middle age 40 60 Signs of hearing problems vision disintegrates farsightedness increases bone mass decrease heart disease increases fertility decreases Late 40s 50s Menopause develops estrogen levels drop hot flashes night sweats emotional swing In men sperm count drops Later Ages Harding of arteries digestion slows down brain shrinks reflects Gross week because of load flow two changes memory disappears some functions better Social change social clock timetable for certain things 9 Female adulthood 20 years Intimacy vs Isolation Will depend on when you reach this point they worry about being abandoned and they become a parent start sharing responsibility 9 Midadulthood Midlife transition happiness how you feel about yourself you can except things that depends on your adolescents 0 Being forced to retire can create mental problems like depression 0 Late adulthood 45 larger than 100 years ago they look inward cautious and they interact less Become selective of people resistant to social networks 0 Death and dying A few months before that is Terminal drop awareness of death evaluating if your life is meaningful or meaningless more reflective want to die w dignity and no pain research shows longevity is greater in women and people w no drug and heart problems 0 Older people spend more time thinking about the present Egocentrism The failure to understand that the world hears differently to different observers Conservation The notion that the quantitative properties of an object are invariant despite changes in the objects Birth page 425427 Zygote A fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both sperm and an egg Germinal Stage The 2week period of prenatal development that begins at concep on 0 Embryonic Stage The period of prenatal development that last from the second week until about the 8th week 0 Fetal Stage The period of prenatal development that lasts from the 9th week until birth 0 Myelination The formation of a fatty sheath around the axon of a neuron Teratogens Agents that damage the process of development such as drugs and viruses 0 Fetal alcohol Syndrome A developmental disorder that stems from heavy alcohol used during pregnancy Perceptual and motor develooment page 428429 Motor development The emergence of the ability to execute physical action Reflexes specific pattern of motor response that are triggered by specific patterns of sensory stimulation Cephalocaudal Rule The top to bottom rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the head to the feet Proximdistal Rule The inside to outside rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center to periphery Cognitive development The emergence of the ability to think and understand Consciousness A person s subjective experience of the world and mind The process of being aware in the outside world and ones thoughts processes would expand mental abilities and the context it embraces this mental ability Consciousness Wo Awareness Under amnesia They will sense the world but are unaware that they have done so You can learn cognitive strategies wo being aware Mirror exposure effect The tendency to like previously expose stimuli even after encountering new ones Nero Psychology Certain brain damage causes a coma damage to the brain thalamus Brain damage can be Prosopagnosia the ability to recognize familiar faces or their own faces Blind Sight Visual cortex injuries a person can guess when they can t see they can guess where it is blind sight can recognize color Hippocampus Damage Anterograde amnesia problem forming new memories but they can learn new things Phenomenology How things seem to be conscious person Problem of other mind The fundamental difficulty we have in perceiving the consciousness of others 2 dimensions of mind perception 0 Capacity of experience Such as the ability to feel pain pleasure hunger consciousness anger or fear 0 Capacity for agency Ability for selfcontrol planning memory or thought Mindbody problem The issue of how the mind is related to the brain and the body Page 178 Rene Descartes thought that the human body is a machine made of physical matter but that the human mind or soul is a separate entity made of thinking substance He suggested that the mind has its effects on the brain and body through the pineal gland 4 Basic Properties of Consciousness Page 179180 L lntentionality The quality of being directed towards an object 2 Unity Or resistance to division when you try to do multiple things at the same time 3 Selectivity The capacity to include some objects but not others consciousness filters in and out o Dichotic listening A task in which people wearing headphones hear different messages presented to each other 0 Cocktail party phenomenon A phenomenon in which people tune in one message even while they filter out others nearby 4 Transience Or the tendency to change Levels of Consciousness Page 181 182 Minimal Consciousness A lowlevel kind of sensory awareness and responsiveness that occurs when the mind inputs sensations and may output behavior When someone pokes you in your sleep and you turn over Full Consciousness Consciousness in which you know and are able to report your mental state Self consciousness A distinct level of consciousness in which the person s attention is drawn to the self as an object 1nonconsciousness You can experiences sub consciously monitoring your blood pressure 2Pre consciousness Something that can be back to consciousness you can bring it back quickly 3Unconscious Sexual and aggression unacceptable thoughts these are unreachable Page 183Experience technique When people are asked to report their conscious experience at a particular times Daydreaming Page 184 A state of consciousness in which a seemingly purposeless flow of thoughts comes to mind Mental Control The attempt to change conscious states of mind Thought suppression The conscious avoidance of thought Rebound effect of thought suppression The tendency of a thought to return to consciousness with a greater frequency following suppression Ironic processes of mental control Mental processes that can produce ironic errors because monitoring for errors can itself produce them Freudian Unconscious Page 187 Dynamic Unconscious An active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories the persons deepest instincts and desires and the person s inner struggle to control these forces Repression A mental process that removes unacceptable thoughts and memories from consciousness Modern view on Cognitive unconscious Page 188 Cognitive unconscious The mental processes that give rise to a person s thoughts choices emotions and behavior even though they are not experienced by the person Subliminal perception A thought or behavior that is influenced by stimuli that a person cannot consciously report perceiving Sleep and Dreaming Page 190 Altered states of consciousness Forms of experience that depart from normal subjective experience of the world and the mind Dream Consciousness Drugs weed LSD when under this state your learning ability goes down Jazz musicians that would get stoned thought they played better but they didn t Circadian rhythm A naturally occurring 24 hour cycle takes queues from light you will eat or sleep at a certain time 0 Jet lag ls when circadian rhythm is all screwed up when someone changes from day to night vice versa 0 Superacyloimatic nuclei this is where this is located in the hippocampus it drives the circadian rhythm REM sleep A stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and a high level of brain activity Stages of sleep Is an altered state 1 Eye movement 2 2 Brain waves Electrooculograph EOG An instrument that measures eye movement And other physiological measurements EEG includes Alpha waves w wave peaks and 12 cycles per second 3 Zero Sleeper is relaxed eyes closed but is awake 4 Day Dreaming you are entering the First Stage of sleep 0 Quiet sleep shows irregular EEG theta waves Second Stage sleep spindle bursting high frequency waves 5 K complex High amplitude 6 Third stage low frequency Delta waves Fourth Stage 50 of sleep will be delta waves at the end it be active sleep REM sleep rapid eye movement predoxical there is a fast EEG high heart rate fast breathing blood pressure goes up eyelid closed but eyes moving Sleep Disorders lnsomnia Difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep A person is tired during the day and can t sleep at night we don t know if it is causes or is caused by mental illness 9 Sleeping pills amp Alcohol Can be dangerous but removes long time sleeplessness Sleep apnea Page 195 A disorder in which the persons stops breathing for a brief periods while asleep 9 Your breathing stops and you are awaken ad unable to remember circadian rhythms are messed up You wake up not rested happens when you are obese treated w weight loss or nasal mask Somnambulism sleepwalking Page 195 Occurs when the person arises and walks around while asleep This is nonREM sleep happens a lot children you can wake up a sleepwalker Narcolepsy Page 195 A disorder in which sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of waking activities action to REM sleep 9 Loss of muscle tone in 7040 minutes you can wake up again the causes is unknown but it can be genetic Sle Sudden infant death syndrome when sleeping infants stop breathing But causes are not known they think that they will start root w loose clothing It happens less when they sleep w parents Sleep paralysis The experience of waking up unable to move Nightmares Scary dreams adults don t have more than children Night terrors sleep terrors Happens in stage 4 of quiet sleep and last through REM and they are woken up afraid Abrupt awakening with panic and intense emotional arousal REM behavior disorder You will act out your dreams sometimes Sleep desperation Causes fatigue and irritability the night after you will spend more time in REM sleep not quite sleep 0 REM help accurate learning and memory Stress Management Time meditation sleep restriction therapy associates your bed with sleeping only and nothing else Dreams 5 major characteristic of dream consciousness Page 196 1We intensely feel emotion 2 Dream thought is illogical 3Sensation is fully formed 4Uncritica acceptance 5Difficulty remembering 8090 of dreams happen in REM sleep stage muscle tone does away because your body goes through paralyze you can t walk or move in REM sleep 9 If a person wasn t sleep if the person is sleepwalking o If motor neurons were moving REM desperation meaning they can function through REM sleep and are capable of killing you partner Goes through all those stages of sleep 45 times a night 0 the ability decreases with age Dream Theories Manifest content A dream s apparent topic or superficial meaning Latent content A dream s true underlying meaning real meaning Activationsynthesis model The theory that dreams are produced when the brain attempts to make sense of activations that occur randomly during sleep That sees dreams meaningless Daytime activities control your dreams Dreaming as problem solving Lucid dreaming When you are aware that your dreaming when the dream is happening Freud thought that dreaming was wish for filling Drugs amp Consciousness Page 200 201 Psychoactive drug A chemical that influences consciousness or behavior by altering the brain s chemical message system Drug tolerance The tendency for larger doses of a drug to be required over time to achieve the same effect Types of psychoactive Drugs Page 203 Psychopharmacology A person who studies psychoactive drugs are drugs that are not physiological needed Substance abuse is for nonmedical drugs all psychological drugs limit and alter neuro transmitters o Angonist blinds and stimulants a neurotransmitter Antagonist blocks a neurotransmitter Main effects Is the desirable effect Side effect Is the undesirable effect Self administration When drugs are giving outside of medical use Physical dependence When you use drugs because you think you need it This is having an addiction you have to take the drug away and will have withdrawal Tolerance Happens when a larger drug dose is needed to achieve a main effect Depressants Substances that reduce the activity of central nervous system Depressants suppress activity in the central nervous system GABA reduces the whole ability etc alcohol genetically can be more prone to alcoholism Expectancy theory The idea that alcohol effects can be produced by people s expectations of how alcohol will influence them in particular situations Learned expectation You know what to except if you spike the punch but didn t and people believe they day are drunk Balanced placebo design A study design in which behavior is observed following the presence or absence of an actual stimulus and also following the presence or absence of a placebo stimulus Alcohol myopia A condition that results when alcohol hampers attention leading people to respond in simple ways to complex situations Stimulants Page 205 Substances that excite the central nervous system heightening arousal and activity levels Stimulants speed or uppers increase morphine in the brain and the sympathetic brain and autonomic nervous system raises heart rate suppress appetite server restlessness confusion behavior is in distinguishable from schizophrenic behavior dopamine causes schizophrenia o All potently addictive drugs stimulate dopamine quot Brain pleasure centerquot Cocaine Is a stimulant that increases dopamine activity and it acts very fast and fatal over doses are common 0 Crack ls pure cocaine and it is smoke able form of cocaine and has a short duration lt stimulates the aggressive part of the brain and it ischeapeh Caffeine coffee tea chocolate induces physical dependence you have withdrawal symptoms and cravings Nicotine Tabaco strong autonomic stimulate weak central nervous system effects w withdrawal systems you will die of lung cancer MDMA Ecstasy Causes hallucinations emotional abuses increased heat rate dry mouth lockjaw hyper activity Continuing use causes positive effects to diminish to get negative effects which causes a panic disorder Heroine comes from morphine but is more powerful than it opiates all point by being an agonist for endorphin withdrawal symptoms Narcotics or opiates Highly addictive drugs derived opium that revives pain Opiates causes sleep relives pain comes from poppies plant brings feelings of euphoria and morphine is an active ingredient but is 3x more potent Hallucinogens Drugs that alter sensation and perceptions and often cause visual and auditory hallucinations psychedelics causes hallucinations lose control of reality there resemble mental illness LSD Lysergic acid can have bad trips bad hallucinations its not physically addictive but can develop a tolerance Marijuana The leaves and buds of the hemp plant 0 High levels can cause effects similar to LSD o Leads to car accidents 0 You don t get addicted but dependent Barbiturates Downers sleeping pills cescoal manthola relation mind loses the ability of mental concentration Withdrawal symptoms that it can cause is sudden death Tranquilizers Anxiolytic quot one ew over the cuckoo s nest quot reduces anxiety layum xanax librium Hypnosis Page 209 Hypnosis Alter state of consciousness through someone s suggestion dangerous and anyone can do it o It is not an entrainment thing 0 You cant be hypnotized if you don t want to be but some people are susceptible to it 0 Changes in movement behavior age regression body movements 1 Reduced pain 2 Enhances ability to fantasize 3 Reduces ability to role reality more open to except distortions o Dentist use it for pain child births burns cancer migraines headaches nicotine alcohol and other drugs Chemotherapy reduces nausea surgeries improving the memory of an eye witness testimony Posthypnotic amnesia The failure to retrieve memories following hypnotic suggestions to forget Hypnotic analgesia The reduction of pain through hypnosis in people who are susceptible to hypnosis Flashbacks Distorted visual sensation Harm reduction approach A response to high risk behaviors that focuses on reducing the harm such behaviors have on people s lives Meditation The practice of intentional contemplation Design to reach another state yoga alpha waves are in stage 1 or 2 in quiet sleep Memory The ability to store and retrieve information over time Encoding The process by which we transform what we perceive think or feel into an enduring memory Storage The process of maintaining information in memory over time Retrieval The process of brining to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored Elaborative encoding The process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory Visual imagery encoding The process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures Organizational encoding The process of categorizing information according to the relationship among a series of items Sensory Storage Sensory memory A type of storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less Iconic memory A fastdecaying store of visual information Echoic memory A fastdecaying store of auditory information Short term storage and working memory Shortterm memory A type of storage that holds nonsensory information for more than a few seconds but less than a minute Rehearsal The process of keeping information in shortterm memory by mentally repeating it Chunking Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in shortterm memory Working memory Active maintenance of information shortterm storage Longterm memory A type of storage that holds information for hours days weeks or years Hippocampus page 229 Anterograde Amnesia The inability to transfer new information from the shortterm storage into the longterm storage Retrograde Amnesia The inability to retrieve information that was acquired before a particular date usually the date of an injury or operation Consolidation The process by which memories become stable in the brain Reconsolidation Memories can become vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled requiring them to become consolidated again Memories neurons and synapses 231 Longterm potentiation LTP A process whereby communication across the synapse between neurons strengthens the connection making further communication easier NMDA receptors A receptor site on the hippocampus that in uences the ow of information between neurons by controlling the initiation of long term potentiation Retrieval cue External information that helps bring stored information to mind Encoding speci city principle The idea that a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps recreate the speci c way in which information was initially encoded State dependent retrieval The tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval Transfer appropriate processing The idea that memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding context of the situations match Retrievalinduced forgettingA process by which retrieving an item from longterm memory impairs subsequent recall of related items Explicit and implicit memory Explicit memory The act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past expedences Implicit memory The in uence of past experiences on later behavior even without an effort to remember them or in awareness of the recollection Procedural memory The gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice or quotknowing how to do thingsquot Priming An enhanced ability to think of a stimulus such as a word or object as a result of a recent exposure to the stimulus Semantic and episodic memory page240 Semantic memory A network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world Episodic memory The collection of past person experiences that occurred at a particular time and place Transience Forgetting what occurs with the passage of time Retroactive interference Situations in which information learned later impairs memory for information acquired earlier Proactive interference situations in which information learned earlier and impairs memory for information acquired later Absentmindedness A lapse in attention the results in memory failure Blocking A failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it Memory misattribution Assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source Source memory Recall when where and how information is acquired False recognition A feeling of familiarity about something that hasn t been encountered before Suggestibility The tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollection Bias The distorting in uences of present knowledge beliefs and feelings on recollection of previous experiences Persistence The intrusive recollection of events that we wish we could forget Flashbulb memories Detailed recollections of when and where we heard about shocking events Emotion A positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity Motivation The process that initiates guides and maintains goaloriented behaviors Theones James Lange Theory A theory which asserts that stimuli trigger activity in the autonomic nervous system which in turn produces an emotional experience in the brain 0 CannonBard Theory A theory which asserts that a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the autonomic nervous system and emotional experience in the brain Twofactor Theory A theory which asserts that emotions are inferences about the causes of physiological arousal Emotion Regulation The use of cognitive and behavioral strategies to in uence one s emotional experience Reappraisal Changing one s emotional experience by changing the meaning of the emotioneliciting stimulus Emotional expression Any observable sign of an emotional state Universality Hypothesis The hypothesis emotional expression has the same meaning for everyone Facial feedback hypothesis The hypothesis that emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they signify Display Rules Norms for the controls of emotional expression Hedonic Principle The notion that all people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain 0 Sources for motivation Biological Factor Avoidance of pain food air water sex 0 Emotional Factors Anger love fear 0 Cognitive Factors Social Factors Behaviors that you have to choose bc you think its possible to do Theories of motivations Intrinsic Motivation A motivation to take actions that are themselves rewarding o Instinct Theory Autonomic involuntary unlearned xed action and are released with certain stimuli instinct are inherited quot goal avoidance of painquot 0 18 recognizable instincts why do we pull our hand away from hot stove o Instincts can t accommodate learning biologically prepared with certain associations example and if it will shy away from a snake association that kicks off instinct o Extrinsic Motivation A motivation to take actions that are not themselves rewarding but that lead to reward Evolutionary Chooses partners for love partly for instinct Males look for youth attractiveness WomenMake more investments Homeostasis The tendency for a system to take action to keep itself in a particular state Drive An internal state generated by departure from physiological optimally Drive reduction Theory Look for blame in our lives hemostasis we look for in our lives health primary amp secondary drives 0 Primary food air water avoidance of pain 0 Secondary we learn from things that makes us feel better you feel better when you moderately aroused too high can be dangerous Arousal Theory You try to avoid being bored or overly excited Incentive Theory goal directed game positive insensitive when trying to avoid negative incenses or punishment Conscious motivation A motivation of which one is aware Unconscious motivation A motivation of which one is not aware Need for achievement The motivation to solve worthwhile problems 0 Approach Motivation A motivation to experience positive outcomes 0 Avoidance motivation A motivation not to experience negative outcomes Hunger amp Eating Hunger the state of wanting the feeling of satiation wanting to feel full There are brain neurons that will tell you when you re hungry they are located in the hypothalamus the bers in lateral area of the hypothalamus destroyed will make you want to start eating When they are stimulated you start to eat more in the ventromedial nucleus you will eat huge amounts increasing it 300 Set point Concept It thinks that it is defending you when you are on a diet for example and you start eating the same way again Flavor ls culturally learned smell and taste give you avor if you have a multicourse meal with multiple avors craving intense desire for certain foods Speci c hunger for different foods Eating Disorder 40 of Americans are overweight obese is a state of being overweight they tend to be nicky eaters and can be genetically inherited or a environmental Bulimia nervosa An eating disorder of binge eating followed by purging Anorexia nervosa An eating disorder by an intense fear of being fat and severe restriction of food intake Metabolism The rate at which energy is used by the body Sexual behavior Men more testosterone women more estrogen Most heterosexual some are homosexual Both Bisexual Sexual dysfunction men In erectile man Premature ejaculation Women Arousal disorder Selfconsciousness Human Sexual Response Cycle The stages of physiological arousal during sexual activity Mortality Salience hypothesis The prediction that people who are reminded of their own morality will work to reinforce their cultural worldviews Personality An individuals characteristic style of behaving thinking and feeHng Self report A series of answers to a questionnaire that asked people to indicate the extent to which sets of statements or adjectives accurately describe their behavior or mental state Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory MMPl2 A well researched clinical questionnaire used to assess personality and psychological problems it doesn t measure creativity or imagination You have to factor in fatigue This diagnosis personality disorder Projective techniquesA standard series of ambiguous stimuli designed to elicit unique responses that reveal inner aspects of an individual s personality Rorschach lnkblot Test A projective personality test in which individual interpretations of the meaning of a set of uninstructed inkblots analyzed to identify a respondent s inner feelings and interpret his or her personality structure There are common stories we look for weird stories Thematic Apperception Test TAT A projective personality test in which respondents reveal underlying motives concerns and the way they see the social world through the stories they make up about ambiguous pictures of people Make up a story describing what you see A series of pictures Trait A relatively stable disposition to behave any particular and consistent way 0 Trait Theory of personal allport traits are continuous their differencing but consistent central trait broadly characterizing a person s personality 0 Secondary trait ls situational condition of a trait like someone liking chocolate 0 Biological trait theory They are biological determined psycotism emotion stability introversion or extroversion Raymond Cattell Factor analytic cluster of traits 16 traits uses factor analysis to determine what was the fastest and weakest Big Five The traits of the ve factor model conscientiousness agreeableness neuroticism openness to experience and extraversion OCEAN Psychodynamic approach An approach the regards personality as a formed by needs strivings and desire largely operating outside of awareness motives that can also produce emotional disorders Dynamic Unconscious An active system encompassing a lifetime of hitting the person steepest instincts and desires and the person s inner struggle to control these forces ID The part of the mind containing the drives present at birth it is the source of our bodily needs wants desires and impulses practically our sexual and aggressive drives Ego The component of personality developed through contact with the external world that enables us to deal with life s practical demands Superego The mental system that re ects the initialization of cultural rules mainly learned as parent exercise their authority Defense Mechanisms Unconscious coping mechanisms that reduce anxiety generated by threats of unacceptable impulses Rationalization A defense mechanism that involves supplying a reasonable sounding explanation unacceptable feelings and behavior to conceal mostly from oneself one s underlying motives orfeeHngs Reaction formation It defense mechanism that involves unconsciously replacing threatening and inner wishes and fantasies with an exaggerated version of this opposite Projection A defense mechanism that involves attributing one s own threatening feelings motives or impulses to another person or groups Regression A defense mechanism in which the ego deals with internal con ict and perceived threat by reverting to an immature behavior or early stage of development Displacement A defense mechanism that involves shifting unacceptable wishes or drives to and neutral or less threatening alternative Identi cation A defense mechanism that helps deal with feelings of threats and exciting by enabling us unconsciously to take on characteristics of another person who seems more powerful or better able to cope Sublimation A defense mechanism that involves channeling unacceptable sexual or aggressive drives into socially acceptable and culturally enhancing activities 0 Psychosexual stages and the development of personality pg 484 Psychosexual stages Distinct early life stages through which personality is formed as children experience sexual pleasures from speci c body areas and care givers redirect or interfere with those pleasures There is a con ict with your need and society If you don t resolve you will xate on that period of life You will still mice on but be in the past Fixation A phenomenon in which a person s pleasure seeking drive comes psychologically stuck or rested and particular psychosexual stage Oral stage The rst psychosexual stage in which experience centers on the pleasures and frustrations associated with the mouth sucking and being fed smoke eats a lot biting sarcasm drink a lot desperate dependence on other people Anal stage 23yrs The second psychosexual stage which is dominated by the pleasure and frustrations associated with the anus retention and expulsion of feces and urine and toilet training if you don t work your way through are anally stage stingy suborn obsessed w control 0 Anal retention xation control 0 Anal expulsion disorganized Phallic Stage 35yrs The third psychosexual stage during which experience is dominated by the pleasure con ict and frustration associated with the phallic genital region as well as coping with powerful incestuous feeling of love hate jealousy and con ict Oedipus Con ict lt developmental experience in which a child s con icting feelings towards the opposite sex parents are usually involved by identifying with the samesex parent Castration compex they are trying to woe their mothers 0 Women compete w mommy for daddy Penis envy BC girls don t have one you can consider yourself inferior to men Fear aggression are worked out at this time Latency stage The fourth psychosexual stage in which the primary focus is on the further development of intellectual creative interpersonal and athletic skills working out pervious 6 years focusing on education to at least adolescents are worked out this time Genital stage The nal psychosexual stage a time for the coming together of the mature adult personality with a capacity to love work and relate to others in a mutually satisfying and reciprocal manner last for the rest of yourl e Boys have womb envy Girls have penis envy It all comes form the ID and developed from ego and superego NEO Freudian Albert Adler The need to dominate other people your need to reach ful llment in order to defect inferiority Karen Horneye Men are jealous of women bc they cant bare children Self actualizing Tendency The human motive towards realizing our inner potential Existential approach ls school of thought that regards personality as governor by an individual39s ongoing choices and decisions in the context of the realities of life and death Social cognitive approach An approach that views personality in terms of how the person thinks about situations encountered in daily life and behaves in response to them Person situation controversy The question on whether behavior is caused more by personality or by situational factors Personal constructs Dimensions people use in making sense of their expedences Outcome expectancies A person s assumption about the likely consequences a future behavior Cognitive behavior approach John Rottener quot expectancy theoryquot people are general expectancy Locus of control A person s tendency to perceive the control of reward as internal to the self or external in the environment Internal your own effort will control events External I failed bc of the prof or they won t say its their fault Albert Ba ndura Reciprocal Determinism All behavior interacts w each other Ex Say basketball what comes to mind 0 Created resource rooms Phenomenological approach carol Rodger humanistic Approach genial approach A drive to get to ones full potential it s the motivating factor in our personalities Positive regard approval from others 0 Self concept The self refers to who the person really is Self veri cation The tendency to seek evidence to con rms the self concept Selfesteem The extent to which an individual likes values and accepts the self Self serving bias People s tendency to take credit for their successes but downplay responsibility for their failures De ciency orientation Growth orientation 0 They try to see how people see ones self replaces faith in ones abilities CONS too vague to be tested or explained only described Narcissism A trait that re ects a grandiose view of the self combined with the tendency to seek admiration from an exploit others Psychological Pathology A pattern of thought and emotion behavior personal direst or significant impairment 40 of American people has some kind of mental disorder 20 are children There are minor differences in gender and ethnic groups Abnormal infrequency equating abnormality with conformity How rare is a behavior Norm violation It equates abnormality with violation of cultural rules Content of a behavior Appear irrational etc if you don t act in a set way to your gender culture that can be abnormal Suoernatural behavior Godsamp demons to lock at someone in the room with a dead animal bc the smell would be so bad that the demon would have to leave Diathesis stress Empathizes that you inherit a biological conditions that creates a disposition to a certain disorder Ex schizophrenia 0 You inherit a biological illness that can lead to mental illness when you have enough stress lmbalances in the body would be the biopsychological model medical model thought that mental illness was biological Dementia Lost of memory effects in memory amp personality deterioration of the brain injury to the brain long term alcohol and drug abuse Social cognitive Say the psychopathology is a learned behavior or schemas that can become a mental disorder Humanistic thought you have a block to self actualization Thomas Saws if you label anybody you are pigeon holing them they will start viewing themselves and other as such Dangerous because you are defining them as such DSM 4TH or 5th edition JR criteria that tells what signs you must have in order to diagnose someone w a mental illness Axis 1 contains major mental disorders bipolar schizophrenia Axis 2 Personality disorder mental retardation Axis 3 understanding a specific disorder Axis 4 Psycho social environmental problems Axis 5 A rating of 1001 to psychological mental person functioning reliability is better w structured reviews Validity ls poor with diagnosis because ones issue may not show in treatment but could show signs two issues personal bias can affect Medical student disease You can see the behavior of what you learn them in yourself mental illness exaggerated behaviors Anxiety disorders Phobia persistent or expression of fear of something intense irrational fear of an object or situation that may not be dangerous it will interfere with your daily life These intense phobias have to be deal with learning techniques 10 of Americans have phobias Social phobias Being afraid to be embarrassed Agoraphobia Being afraid of not being able to escape the panic sometimes often found in women Generalize phobia When you have a floating fear of something exciting irritability can t focus depression substanceabuse Panic disorders Terrifying comes without warning heart palpitations chest pressure sweating statements often diagnosed as heart attacks 30 of the population has panic attacks OCD A person is having obsessive thoughts contamination infection sexual things that causes anxiety the compulsion reveals the anxiety you can inherit this OCD Predisposition to all disorders Somatoform disorder Psychological problems that take physical form Conversion disorder lf person appears to be well but they are blind can t walk it appears that adolescents under a lot of stress Basketball player misses a layup and is now paralyzed once to avoid on controllable situations we can tell if you re under a lot of stress they have no real concern so whatever is wrong this is rare cant be explained Hypochondriasis Hypochondriac Unjustified fear of having cancer or any illness the spending a lot of their time learning about the illness 0 They have a fear of having a multitude of illnesses Pain disorder Severe often consistent pain in the neck back chest with no physical causes this is related to childhood experiences Dissociative disorders They are intense longlasting distractions in memory and consciousness 1 Dissociative fugue Sudden loss of personal memory involves unplanned travel or wandering and is sometimes accompanied by the establishment of a new identity 2 Dissociative amnesia Sudden loss of memory they don t travel 3 DID Multiple personality appears to have more than one personality they live in that all memories causes they don t know but it can be a massive repression the memories and a new person develops in a situation 0 DSM 4 TR Mood disorders Extreme moods like depression the moods may not make sense with the situation that is happening Affective disorders women tend to be more depressed hopelessness and sadness for extended period of time feeling of worthlessness guilt changes in eating habits that leads to weight change sleeping disturbances inability to make decisions major depression can have delusions Dysthymia disorder A person shows sad moods loss of pleasure milder form of depression and can be for a few years these are increasing in our culture Suicide No such thing as an attempted suicide it wasn t completed hopelessness about the future wanting to escape happens to women because they are taught to be helpless it s an automatic depression European males are 16 to hundred thousand Types of schizophrenia page 576 Psychotherapy With psychological treatment 0 Biological therapy With medication as treatment Client and therapist In hospitals patients Inpatient treatment In hospital for residential treatment for own well being Outpatient treatment Psychotherapy outside of hospitals and community and upper amp middleclass patient psychiatrist with MD with special skills and PhD 0 Outpatient Clinical therapist marriage counseling psychiatric nurses pastoral counseHng Basic goal To help troubled people change their thinking and take care of conscious conflicts Psychoanalysis Freudian therapy free association clients relaxes on the couch and reports everything that comes to mind 0 This gives clues to unconscious motivation looks for childhood fantasies or experiences through insight uses dream analysis to look at the unconscious meaning of the dream latent content Slips of the tongue that have a lot of information There has to be a Transference the client will unconsciously react feel or conflicts of childhood w their parents there is no progression wo transference Counter transference When a therapist falls for a client Time limited or dynamic therapy More conversation between patient and counselor goes for the core conflict Humanistic therapy Emphasizes the positive treatment is a human encounter by equals not a cure or treatment by a specialist improves on their own 0 The client has to feel supported by a human being client centered therapy patient centered therapy the client must show positive regard they will listen without interrupting or interpreting exactly what is said wo evaluating page 601 Psychodynamic Emphasizes the negative Empathy Must be shown with unconditional positive regard empathy you must feel w the patient true emotional understanding 0 Reflection Repeating what the patient says to the therapist the patient has a genuineness and consistency for what the patient or client feels Rogerian therapy Learnt behavior BF Skinner and Watson Learning experiences cause problems fast learning will cause problems Systematic desensitization Methods for reducing intense anxiety amp phobias by reducing those stimuli works with the fear of flying Also known as graduated exposure therapy counterconditioning therapy Progressive relaxation therapy Teaches you how to relax prevent anxiety relaxation is incompatible w being afraid o Desensitization Diminished emotional responsiveness to a negative or aversive stimulus after repeated exposure to it 0 Can be more effective with real thing but not affect do with treating people with bipolar unclear why it works Modeling When people do a behavior so you don t have to shape behavior using positive and negative reinforcement o Token economy Clients are given tokens for desired behaviors which can be traded for rewards o Extinction Removal w reinforcement anxiety will go Flooding Exposure techniques keep a person in fear but not harmful locked in closet with roaches Aversive conditioning Things clients want to avoid used rarely but it does work Electroshock therapy Has been shown to help people stop smoking cigarettes Punishment or unpleasant stimulation is used to reduce a frequency of something Cognitive behavior therapy CBT Learning principles to change the way a person thinks A blend of cognitive amp behavioral strategies page 601 Rational emotive therapy RET Albert Ellis patient is taught the effect emotional well being by changing negative and irrational thoughts to positive rational ones 0 stop thinking 0 problem causing thoughts selfdefeating thoughts 0 Anxiety filled depression depends on how she s feels Psychodrama s role playing of patients where someone else reenacts a situation This can be done in groups Gestalt therapy Goal of helping clients become aware of their thought behaviors experiences and feelings and to own or take responsibility for them Group therapy 12 person groups Individuals w the same therapists come together 0 Can see the interaction between clients in a social setting 0 They feel less alone and see that there are similarities 0 Clients learn from one another learning new techniques from one another 0 It s a cheap form of therapy 0 Example weight watchers AAA Selfhelp or mutual health organization People w some problem publish a book to help others facing the same issue Family and couples therapy Problem from the same family system Rules amp Rights of the American psychological association N L 4 5 6 you cant have sexual relationships w clients Confidentiality can t real info to outsiders unless Severely disturbed and need hospitalization uses history of therapy in a lawsuit malpractices 0 uses history of therapy in a civil case 0 sexual physical abuse of a child or incapable adult 0 if patient commits a violent act against someone Clients are protected from being committed into a mental institution the state must show that the person needs to be committed Periodic review of every patient to determine if they should ne released Person deserve the right to be treated in hospitals Person deserves the right to deny treatment Kendra s law NYS law It grants judges the authority to issue orders that require people who meet certain criteria to regularly undergo psychiatric treatment Failure to comply could result in commitment for up to 72 hours Kendra39s Law does not require that patients are forced to take medication Psychosurgery amp convulsive therapy Surgical techniques to destroy brain tissue Has decreased because of psychoactive drugs Antidepressant ncreasing serotonin and Norepinephrine need several weeks of conditional use 0 Prozac secondgeneration Fewer side effects helps people with panic disorders 0 Lithium Mineral saw that reduces the frequency and intensity of manic phases people who diagnosed bipolar use this with lithium you gain a lot of weight Anxiolytics tranquilizers discovered in 50s barbiturates o Xanax Widely used for panic disorders in Agoraphobia Zoloft Buspar Avoids the dependences of this medication but you need weeks of use Evaluatind druo treatment Many limitation drugs cover problems doesn t heal a problem can be treated with psychotherapy all drugs have unwanted effects not clear data whether drugs or therapy is better or both at the same time Psychotherapist can t write a prescription Iatrogenic illness A disorder symptom that occurs as a result of medical or psychotherapeutic treatment Start w biological approach and add or switch to psychological approach Community psychology A movement w the aim in the prevention they can be in a home or halfway house Women have negative attitude towards seeking help Catastrophic event Unexpected events potentially life affecting ie Natural disasters military Life changes stresses Less stressful ie divorces illnesses moving to a new place midterms Chronic stress Stress that happens for a long period of time ie high crime in neighborhood Daily hassleslrritations pressure for anxiety that have an accumulative affect Catastrophizing Thinking that something is worse than what it is Ruminative thinkingDwelling on the same thought or theme Emotion focused The none existence of a problem trying distracting ourselves Problem focused Targets the cause of stress in a practical way that deals with the problem or stress Contemplation Action I m looking thoughtfully at something Catecholamine associated with stress General adaptation syndrome GAS styl syndrome A 3 stage physiological reaction to an emergency that increases readiness for action 1 Alarm phase The body rapidly mobilizes its resources to respond to the threat Energy is needed body uses stored fat and muscles like flight or flight response happens immediately if you jump into cold water for example 2 Resistance phase body adapts to the high arousal state of arousal as it tries to cope with the stressor Body continues to draw resources and shuts down unneeded processes growth digestion sex drive menstruation stops production of testosterone and sperm decreases 3 Exhaustion phase when GAS goes on for a long time body s resistances collapse Which can lead to susceptibility to infection tumor growth aging irreversible organ damage or death Fight or flight response Emotional and physiological reaction to an emergency that increases readiness for action Resistance A reluctance to cooperate w treatment for fear of confronting unpleasant unconscious material Post traumatic stress disorder PTSD A disorder characterized with chronic psychological arousal recurrent unwanted thoughts or images of the trauma and avoidance of things that cause the traumatic event to mind Adverse reaction after a traumatic experience can t sleep eat sexual dysfunction depression 0 Can be part of diathesis stress Primary appraisal You can evaluate your stress by knowing that it can occur again that some point to learn how to deal with it Actually believing that something is controllable and reduces the stress Burnout A physical emotional and mental exhaustion created by long term involvement in an emotionally demanding situation and accompanied by lowered performance and motivation Happens to police teachers social workers Immune system Helps us bodies first line of defense against stress because it kills foreign things in the body Psychoneuroimmunology If that immune system is impaired you are not able to deal with stress white blood cells called leukocytes made in the bone marrow leukocytes are called into action B cells form by white blood cells and produce antibodies circulate proteins and bind to the toxin in the body for deactivation o Tcell mature in the thalamus and kills other cells 0 Natural killer cells antiviral and for cancer cells Macrophages Engqu a foreign cell and digest it is called phagocytosis Alter secretions of certain cells by the different medicines that we take Repressive Coping Avoiding situations or thoughts that are reminders of a stressor and maintaining an artificially positive viewpoint Emotional coping strategies AAA work on your stress in a group for support Physical coping strategies Drug use prescription drug use time management Rational Coping Facing a stressor and working to overcome it Reframing Finding new or creative way to think about a stressor that reduces its threats Turning a negative into positive thought Cognitive restructuring Developing strategies to replace catastrophic thinking in behavior Ex smoking Precontemplation No threat doesn t plan to change 0 Contemplation Whatever problem is causing some type of problemsome people stop here 0 Prevention Wants to change and make plans and take steps to move into action and makes the behavioral change 6 months you won and beat it maintenance Stress inculcation training SIT A therapy that helps people to cope with stressful situation by developing positive ways to think about the situation Relaxation therapy A technique for reducing tension by consciously relaxing muscles of the body Relaxation response A condition of reduced muscles tension cortical activity heart rate breathing rate and blood pressure Social support The aid gained through interacting with others Psychosomatic illness An interaction between mind and body that can produce iHness Somatoform disorder A the set of psychological disorders in which the person displays physical symptoms not fully explained by general medical condition Somatization disorder A psychological disorder involving combinations on multiple physical complaints with no medical explanation Conversion disorder A disorder characterized by debilitating physical symptoms that appear to be voluntary but that the person experiences as involuntary Sick role A socially recognized set of rights and obligation linked with illness Self regulation The exercise of voluntary control over the self to bring the self into line with preferred standards Malinger A person who is consistently messing up a Type A personality anger aggression Cardiovascular system cynical hostility can create holes in their hearts Type A personalities always competing smoking Stress resistant personalities They are internal and think about stress as a temporary thing dispositional optimism A general expectation that more good things than bad will happen can be developed 0 Gender may play a role 0 Men get angry women will help other people quottend and befriend Females tend to have more social support Irwin Rosenberg Health belief models Perceived Seriousness The perception of the consequences of a negative health condition is also subjective Beliefs of an illness causing pain debilitation social stigma or death are examples of seriousness perceived Perceived Bene ts of Taking Action Deciding on a course of action is shaped by the options accessible to the individual and the belief in their effectiveness Action is thus dependent on having at least one course of action to prevent an illness from occurring while believing it will produce acceptable results Barriers of Taking Action Despite a belief being established that a particular course of action may reduce a health threat indecision may still take place If readiness is low and negative aspects of the course of action are viewed as high barriers are constructed preventing action 0 The person receives a quotcue to actionquot or a precipitating force that makes the person feel the need to take action 0 35A 0 38D 0 63D 0 64A 0 67D 0 76D 0 82A o 97D Personality Traits 0 Type A behavior competitive ambitious impatient aggressive fast talking 0 type A individuals tend to be very competitive and selfcritical They strive toward goals without feeling a sense of joy in their efforts or accomplishments Type B behavior relaxed noncompetitive Type C behavior nice hard working but become apathetic when faced with stress 0 A psychological disposition whereby an individual seems quiet and thoughtful but is in fact frustrated and angry
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