Chapter 10 Lecture: Visual Knowledge
Chapter 10 Lecture: Visual Knowledge PSYC 3350
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by lambdalambdalambdas on Sunday June 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3350 at University of Houston taught by Victoria Wagner in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 176 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 06/28/15
10162013 Chapter 10 Lecture Outline Visual Knowledge 2010 by W W Norton amp 00 Inc Il I Chapter 10 Visual Knowledge I Lecture Outline IVisual Imagery El LongTerm Visual Memory iIThe Diversity of Knowledge Il I Visual Imagery I A variety of daytoday problems seem to require the use of visual imagery El How many windows are in your apartment IIWas David in class yesterday IIWill this sweater look good with your blue pants I What is the nature of these mental images 10162013 I Francis Galton 1883 El lntrospection to study mental imagery l Selfreports suggested they could inspect mental images as pictures Visual Imagery a Visual Imagery I Chronometric studies IIAsk participants to manipulate the mental images IIObserve how long these manipulations take Visual Imagery I Kosslyn 1976 asked participants to answer yesno questions about their mental images El Imagined cat confirm that cats have heads faster compared to confirming that cats have claws III The reverse was true if the participants were asked to think about cats not to imagine them E HAVE HIEARWS EAT FDDU ANIMALS BREATHE HAVE SKIN fies CANFL i39 is quotquotHAUECLAWS quot DEESCHASECATS LAYEEES PU RFI BARK 3 X I Iquot E RUBIN mutant cHESHIRE ALLEY cm EULLIE IEFiFtlE CAN SING IS YEILDW EicI C Visual Imagery I Imagescanning procedure Kosslyn et al 1 978 I Memorize this map I Scan from one landmark to another on the imagined map 10162013 Visual Imagery Imagined distance corresponds to real distance Response time seconds 2 4 a B m 112 14 18 18 Dietance centimeters Visual Imagery I Does a mouse have whiskers Visual Imagery I Image Scaling Kosslyn 10162013 I Mentalrotation task Visual Imagery Which of these pairs is the same The further the distance the longer it takes Visual Imagery The greater the angle the longer the time Flespnnse lime secmdsil I I I I cl 2 113 an 50 IEIEI12IJ1LDIED1BJ D an 10 5D BD 100120140168 Ian Angle a rcrtalinn degrees A Plcturea lane pair39s B Depth pairs I I I As if they were rotating the images in real life I Demand character El Did experimenters somehow cue people El Even without instruction participants still form images Visual Imagery 10162013 Percentage of Dietecttionss 1u39isuail Auditory signal signal While r VISUEI Iiizin g 5139 67 While maintaining an auditory 53 image Less accurate when Visual Imagery Percentage of False Alarms While visualizing While maintaining an auditory image signal and image are the same Visual Auditory signal signal 18 33 33 7 53 More likely to wrongly choose that the stimulus matches the image when signal and image are both visual or auditory I Imagery IICan interfere with perception mismatching IICan facilitate perception matching Visual Imagery 10162013 Il E39 Visual Imagery I Occipital areas used for early visual processing IIActive during visual imagery El Transcrania magnetic stimulation TMS disrupts mental imagery i Patient can only see the right side of the plaza Visual Imagery 39l ij Patient can only see the right side of the plaza Visual Imagery Visual Imagery I Functional equivalence between imagery and perception Visual acuity higher can see two dots Visual acuity lower need more space to see two dots 10162013 Visual Imagery I People who have been blind since birth also demonstrate the same effects in mentalrotation or imagescanning tasks with response time being proportional to the distance traveled I Thus we need to distinguish between visual imagery and spatial imagery I Spatial imagery may be based in movement or body imagery or it may be abstract and not tied to any one sense Visual Imagery I Vivid imagers versus nonimagers El Report seeing images better El The same for spatial imagery El Vivid imagers better for visual imagery 10162013 5 Visual Imagery I Eidetic or photographic memory I Extremely rare I Found in some autistic individuals Visual Imagery I Mental images different from pictures I Perception is not neutral and goes beyond the information given I Interpretations are present in images Visual lmagery I Imagery only preserves one interpretation 10162013 Visual Imagery I Thus images like percepts are organized depictions I One way to think about mental images is as a packagethat includes the depiction itself as well as a perceptual reference frame I For instance the duckrabbit image understood as a duck is associated with the reference frame facing to the left Visual Imagery I Don t know what this is I Close your eyes and rotate it 909 clockwise 2010 by W W Norton amp Co Inc 27 10162013 Visual Imagery I Sometimes putting an idea down on paper can help make a discovery that requires a change in the reference frame Visual lmagery I Mental images IIAlternative to verbal description I Spatial layout and geometry are preserved II Reflect perceptual interpretation and are associated with reference frames Long Term Visual Memory I What is the nature of visual imagery taken from longterm memory 1O LongTerm Visual Memory I Images in longterm memory I Stored in a piecemeal fashion I Must activate representation of image frame I Elaborate on this frame El Images that have more parts or detail take longer to create 10162013 Long Term Visual Memory gt Generating three rows faster Generating four columns slower LongTerm Visual Memory I Longterm visual memory El lm age files I Recipes or instructions for how to construct an active mental image of the object or shape I May represent visual information in terms of propositions or verbal labels 11 10162013 A English nanling Long Term Visual Memory Will have more accurate memory for something that is either blue or green B lElenna39no nanling 1 i We 1 391 a 4 1 2 39 A Will have less accurate memory Long Term Visual Memory I Interpretation Participam39s Label Original Label Participant39s drawing supplied figie suppli d deing reconstruction of Eyeglass gamer the image 39 57x Seven Four Long Term Visual Memory Which is farther south New Orleans or Tijuana Which is farther north Seattle or Montreal CALIFORNIA 39 12 10162013 Long Term Visual Memory Imagery helps memory especially vw39th an interaction Long Term Visual Memory I Dual coding El Highimagery words for instance can be coded as both word and image El Lowimagery words only have a verbal code Long Term Visual Memory I Studies of memory for pictures illustrate ways in which longterm visual memory reflects general principles of memory such as El Primacy and recency El Encoding specificity II Schemata or generic knowledge EISpreading activation and priming El Familiarity and source memory 13 Long Term Visual Memory I Schematic retrieval El Friedman 1979 found that participants failed to notice differences between previously seen and new pictures if both were consistent with a schema eg a kitchen or barnyard II Pictures that contained violations of a schema eg kitchen with a fireplace were readily no ced 10162013 Long Term Visual Memory I Boundary extension III Information is filled in that was not present in the picture The Diversity of Knowledge I Visual working memory is based in imagery and uses perceptual spatial representations III Image scanning rotation zooming I Visual longterm memory is based on propositional knowledge and shares many representational principles with other forms of longterm memory III Spreading activation priming schematic knowledge 14
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