Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: Evolution of Clinical Psychology
Chapter 2 Lecture Outline: Evolution of Clinical Psychology PSYC 3339
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by lambdalambdalambdas on Sunday June 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3339 at University of Houston taught by Noblin in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 190 views. For similar materials see Intro to Clinical Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 06/28/15
Clinical Psychology Science Practice and Culture IIIII 0N Chapter 2 Evolution of Clinical Psychology Andrew M Pomerantz Evolution of Clinical Psychology n The emergence of clinical psychology around the turn of the 20th century was preceded by numerous important historical events I These events quotset the stage for clinical psychology I Some pioneers in the treatment of the mentally ill made important contributions in the 1700s and 18005 Edrly Pioneers a William Tuke 17321822 Lived in England Appalled by deplorable conditions in quotasylumsquot where mentally ill lived Devoted much of his life to improving their treatment Raised funds to open the York Retreat a model of humane treatment Ed rly Pioneers n Phillippe Pinel 17451826 Lived in France Advocated for more humane and compassionate treatment of the mentally ill in France Also introduced ideas of a case history treatment notes and illness classification indicating care about their wellbeing Ed rly Pioneers Eli Todd 17621832 A physician in Connecticut At the time there were very few hospitals for the mentally ill Burden for their care fell on families Using Pinel s efforts as a model he opened humane treatment centers in US Edrly Pioneers n Dorothea Dix 18021887 Worked in a prison in Boston and observed that many inmates were mentally ill rather than criminals Traveled to various cities to persuade leaders to build facilities for humane treatment of mentally Resulted in over 30 state institutions in US and other countries Lightner Witmer and the Creation of Clinical Psychology n Lightner Witmer 18671956 Received doctorate in 1892 in Germany Psychology was essentially academic no practice just study In 1896 Witmer founded the first psychological clinic at the U of Pennsylvania Lightner Witmer and the Creation of Clinical Psychology a By 1914 there were about 20 clinics in US a By 1935 there were over 150 n Witmer also founded the first scholarly clinical psychologyjournal The Psychological Clinic in 1907 Evolution of Assessment Diagnostic Issues a Diagnosis and categorization of mental illness has been central to clinical psychology from the start a Emil Kraepelin 18551926 is considered a pioneer of diagnosis Coined some of the earliest terms to categorize mental illness Evolution of Assessment Diagnostic Issues a Kraepelin s work set the stage for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSIVI which continues to dominate diagnosis today I Published by American Psychiatric Association originally in 1952 El El El El El El Evolution of Assessment Diagnostic Issues DSIVI 1952 DSIVIII 1968 DSIVIIII 1980 DSIVIIIIR 1987 DSIVIIV 1994 DSIVIIVTR ZOOO Growth of the DSM Disorders DSMl DSMII DSMIII DSMIIIR DSMIV DSMl DSMII DSMIII DSMIIIR DSMIV 1952 1968 1980 1987 1994 1952 1968 1980 1987 1994 Evolution of Assessment Diagnostic Issues a Most drastic change in DSIVIs is from DSIVIII to DSIVI Larger including more disorders Specific diagnostic criteria Vutiaxia system a As a consistent trend as the DSIVI has been revised it has expanded to include a greater number of disorders Scientific discovery or social invention Evolution of Assessment Diagnostic Issues a Currently numerous disorders are under consideration for inclusion in next DSM Premenstrual dysphoric disorder lVIinor depressive disorder Recurrent brief depressive disorder Binge eating disorder others Evolution of Assessment Assessment of Intelligence n Assessment of intelligence characterized the profession in early years n Early debates about the definition of intelligence focused on g a single general intelligence vs quot5 specific intelligences n Alfred Binet s early intelligence test 1905 later became the StanfordBinet Intelligence Scales which is still widely used today Evolution of Assessment Assessment of Intelligence n Binet s test was intended for children a David Wechsler published the Wechsler Bellevue in 1939 which was designed for aduhs n Wechsler later created tests for schoolage and preschool children n Revisions of Wechsler s tests are among the most commonly used today Evolution of Assessment Assessment of Personality n Projective tests were among the first to emerge clients project personality onto ambiguous stimuli Rorschach Inkblot Method 1921 Clients respond to ambiguous inkblot Thematic Apperception Test TAT 1935 Clients respond to ambiguous interpersonal scenes Evolution of Assessment Assessment of Personality n Objective tests soon followed projectives Typically paperandpencil selfreport and more scientifically sound IVIIVIPI 1943 comprehensive personality test measuring various pathologies IVIIVIPI2 1989 revised and restandardized IVIIVIPIA 1992 for adolescents Sample MMPI one Rorschach Stimuli n TF I like magazines about motorcycles n TF Sometimes I lie to get what I want Evolution of Psychotherapy n Psychotherapy is the most common activity of clinical psychologists today but before the 1940s1950s it was not a significant professional activity Treatment was by medical doctors not psychologists I World War II created a demand for treatment of psychologically affected soldiers Wars have had many other influences on the evolution of assessment and psychotherapy Evolution of Psychotherapy a When psychotherapy became a more common activity in the mid 19005 the psychodynamic approach dominated n In the decades that followed numerous other approaches arose Behaviorism Humanism Family Therapy a Most recently cognitive therapy has risen to become the most widely endorsed singular orientation Development of the Profession a At the historic Boulder conference in 1949 directors of graduate training programs agreed on a dual emphasis on practice and research a In the 19505 19605 and 1970s Therapy approaches proliferated lVIore minorities entered the field PsyDVai model programs emerged Development of the Profession n In the 19805 Psychotherapy thrived in part due to increasing respect from medical professionals and insurance companies The number of training programs and new clinical psychologists increased Development of the Profession n In the 19905 and 20005 The size and scope of the field continues to grow Multiple training model options are available Empirical support of clinical techniques prescription privileges and new technologies are among major contemporary issues
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