Chapter 10 Lecture Outline: Personality and Behavioral Assessments
Chapter 10 Lecture Outline: Personality and Behavioral Assessments PSYC 3339
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This 25 page Class Notes was uploaded by lambdalambdalambdas on Sunday June 28, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3339 at University of Houston taught by Noblin in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 610 views. For similar materials see Intro to Clinical Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 06/28/15
Clinical Psychology Science Practice and Culture IIIII ON Chapter 10 Personality Assessment and Behavioral Assessment Andrew M Pomerantz Multimethocl Assessment a No measure of personality or behavior is perfect I It is best to use multiple methods Tests Interviews Observations Other sources I Convergent conclusions can be made with more confidence EvidenceBased Assessment n Assessment based on what works empirically n Similar to movement regarding what works in therapy but data is not quite asabundantyet n Typically tied to particular disorders Ex SCID and BDIII for assessing depression Culturally Competent Assessment a Every culture has its own definitions of norma and abnormal n Culturally competent clinical psychologists are aware of this and of the influence of their own cultural perspective I Especially important not to overpathologize View as abnormal what is culturally normal I Obiective Personality Tests n Include unambiguous test items offer clients a limited range of responses and are objectively scored a Typically selfreport questionnaires n Typically a series of brief statements or questions to which clients respond in a truefalse or multiple choice format Minnesota Multiphosic Personality Inventory2 MMPl2 a Most popular and most psychometrically sound objective personality test Used worldwide translated into dozens of languages I Pencil amp paper format I 567 selfdescriptive sentences a Client marks true or false for each Minnesota Multiphosic Personality Inventory2 MMPl2 cont n Original IVIIVIPI was published in 1943 Primary authors were Starke Hathaway and J C VcKiney Empirical criterion keying was used as test construction method a Revised edition IVIIVIPI2 was published in 1989 Better norms Less outdated wording of items Minnesota Multiphosic Personality Inventory2 MMPl2 cont n IVIIVIPI and IVIIVIPI2 feature 10 clinical scales 1 Hypochondriasis 2 Depression 3 Hysteria 4 Psychopathic Deviate S IVIasculinityfemininity 6 Paranoia 7 Psychasthenia 8 Schizophrenia 9 IVIania O Social Introversion I Also feature supplemental scales and content scales for additional clinical information Minnesota Multiphosic Personality Inventory2 MMPlZ cont n IVIIVIPI and IVIIVIPI2 also feature validity scales To measure testtaking attitudes Can identify clients who quotfake good or quotfake bad or clients who respond randomly n IVIIVIPIA for adolescents age 1418 was published in 1992 Similar clinical scales validity scales and administration I lVIIVIPIZRF most recent edition briefer less overlap between clinical scales Minnesota Multiphosic Personolity Inventory2 MMPl2 cont n Strengths include psychometrics established reliability and validity and comprehensiveness n Limitations include length reading requirement attention requirement and emphasis on pathologyabnormality Minnesota Multiphosic Personality Inventory2 MMPl2 cont a Therapeutic Assessment Interesting use of lVIIVIPIZ developed by Stephen Finn and colleagues lVIIVIPIZ feedback used as a brief therapeutic intervention What psychologists intend as assessment clients can experience as therapeutic Millon Clinical Multidxidl Inventory MCMllll n Originally created by Theodore Millon I Like the lVIIVIPIZ in some ways Comprehensive objective personality test Selfreport pencil amp paper format a Main difference MCIVIIIII emphasizes personality disorders Its clinical scales are based on DSIVI personality disorders eg antisocial borderline narcissistic paranoid El El NEO Personality Inventory Revised NEOPlR Originally created by Paul Costa and Robert VcCrae Another objective personality test Pencil amp paper selfreport format IVIain distinction measures normal personality traits not pathologies Based on Five Factor model of personality Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Conscientiousness Agreeableness Lacks validity scales and of limited help with clinical diagnosis California Psychological InventoryIll CPIIll In Another objective personality test Pencil amp paper selfreport I Like NEOPIR doesn t emphasize pathology n Emphasizes positive attributes of personality strengths assets internal resources a Consistent with recent positive psychology movement I Also goes by name CPI434 434 items Beck Depression Inventoryll BDlll a Not a comprehensive test of personality but a brief targeted measure of one characteristic depression symptoms I 21 items takes 510 minutes to complete a Pencil amp paper selfreport format I Lacks validity scales and much more limited scope than other tests discussed to this point Projective Personality Tests n Based on the assumption that clients will project their personalities when presented with unstructured ambiguous stimuli and an unrestricted opportunity to respond I Lack of objectivity in scoring and interpretation Considered by many to be empirically inferior to objective tests Usage has declined in recent decades a Advocates claim they are less fakeable Rorschach Inkblot Method In Created in 1921 by Hermann Rorschach n 10 inkblots 5 in color 5 black amp white are presented a Clients say what they see in each blot in response phase a Later in inquiry phase explain what features of the blot caused them to make their responses I Exner s Comprehensive System is most widely used scoring system Rorschach lnkblot Method cont n Scoring emphasizes how the client perceives the blot as well as what the client sees a Scoring variables include Location Whole blot large part or small detail Determinants Form color or shading of blot Form Quality Conventional Distorted Popular What others see Idiosyncratic Content What kinds of objects appear frequently a Reliability and validity are questionable and hotly debated Thematic Apperception Test TAT n Published in 1943 by Henry Murray and Christiana Morgan I Like Rorschach in that it involves a series of cards with ambiguous stimuli In Cards feature interpersonal scenes rather than inkblots a Client tells a story to go along with each scene a Often not formally or empirically scored a Reliability and validity are questionable TellMedStory TEMAS n Recent TATstyle apperception test a Greater emphasis on cultural sensitivity via portrayal of diverse individuals in cards a Greater emphasis on empirical scoring via normative data Sentence Completion Tests The ambiguous stimuli are not inkblots or interpersonal scenes but beginnings of sentences Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank RISB is most widely used Simulated examples I enjoy It makes me furious My greatest weakness Not often formally or empirically scored Reliability and validity are questionable Behavioral Assessment n Assumes that client behaviors are not signs of underlying issues or problems instead those behaviors are the problems a The behavior a client demonstrates is a sample of the problem itself not a sign of some deeper underlying problem Techniques of Behavioral Assessment n Behavioral observation is the most essential technique Direct systematic observation of a client s behavior in the natural environment Also known as naturalistic observation Requires operationally defining target behavior and measuring its frequency duration or intensity across specified time periods Often more accurate than asking client to report on their own behaviors Techniques of Behavioral Assessment cont a When naturalistic observation is not possible analogue observation is used Replicate situation in clinic a Recording of behaviors is crucial Done by parent teacher friend or client Enables functionality of behavior to be determined This functionality is key concept in behavioral assessment Technology in Behavioral Assessment a Laptop computers or handheld devices can be used to record observed behaviors n Numerous software programs have been created for this purpose a Clients can use similar technological tools for selfmonitoring
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