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Week 5 Notes

by: Eunice

Week 5 Notes PAM 2030


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About this Document

Mortality, age transition, population transitions, race
Population and Public Policy
Professor Sassler
Class Notes
population, PAM
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eunice on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PAM 2030 at Cornell University taught by Professor Sassler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Population and Public Policy in Political Science at Cornell University.


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Date Created: 02/27/16
PAM 2030 Sassler Spring 2016 February 23, 2016  iClicker: according to Putnam: in the long run, diversity is good, short run it’s bad  Age transition: o drivers:  lowered mortality: population youngs  lowered fertility: population ages  migration: relocates (generally the younger) populations from donor to host regions  ex. Mexico, more males leave  note, younger generations are child bearing aged  differences in the populations that migrate also depend on whether the migrations are short or long in distance o population processes’ influences of age/gender structure  migration: dramatic short run impact  change the prevailing age if the age composition of migrants is significantly different  tend to be younger child bearing aged populations  mortality: affects both the short and long run, not dramatic unless a pandemic occurs  all ages and gender are affected with consistent patterns in all countries  improved health means decreased death rates at all ages  fertility: most important influence though with relatively small short run impact o generally, global populations are aging faster than the US is  US: aging: 14.5% is 65+  increases in elderly  increases in the old old (over 85 yr)  differences spatially (SD vs FL) o youngest states: AK and UT o old age  Third Age: 65-84, limited physically but able to work  Fourth Age: 85+, senescence, retirement o implications: health and expenditures  welfare  older people tend to have chronic conditions and more than one of them  politics: party split along generational lines  economics: retirement age, SS  Baby boomers are entering retirement age  SS  better education >> better health (easier jobs physically) >> longer life, better pay o SS works better for some people than it does for others  should there be a change o change the calculation method used to decide monthly benefits o raise income taxes on SS benefits o increase flow of payroll taxes o change the cost of living index o change retirement age  what about child poverty, why don’t we care as much o the younger generation is racially diverse  America’s Changing Racial/Ethnic Composition o ethnicity v. race  race is defined on basis of physical characteristics  skin color, hair textures, shape of features  ethnicity: based on culture: language, religion, appearance, ancestry, region  sense of identity and membership in a particular ethnic group  historically: race has gone from an essentialist to a constructionist  biological (primordialist) to situational definition o directive No.5: 5 categories for the census, not mutually exclusive  American Indian/Alaska Native  Asian/Pacific (divided towards Native Hawaiian)  White  Black  Hispanic (been removed) February 25. 2016  iclicker: the real causes of death in US? tobacco use  America’s Changing Racial/Ethnic Composition o how have racial classifications changed?  1980: first appearance of classification questions  questions about ancestry  1990: not much change  “negro” and “Indian (Amer.)” were used  order matters o Q4 asked about race, Q7 asked about Spanish/Hispanic  2000: change: allowed people to claim more than one race group  order changed o Q5: Hispanic/Spanish/Latino?  this is an ethnicity question o Q6: race? o Q10: ancestry? ethnic origin?  examples provided which skews responses  give white people something  2010: more change  “For this questions, Hispanic origins are not races)  2020: ?  testing combination of ethnicity and race/origin questions o AQE: Alternative Questionnaire Experiment o combination: higher response rate with unchanged proportions o Hispanic: race vs. ethnicity  note, ethnicity is subjective, more so than race  assumes a common bond among those in an ethnicity o language, religion, etc, history, values, attitudes  OMB : Directive No.5 says this is an ethnic category  vs. Asians? (Asians are pan-ethnic)  Latinos are under this category although the term only exists in America o Public Law 94521: religious affiliation questions are not allowed  questions and concerns do exist particularly about Jews and Muslims o future of America: majority minority population o mortality translation  morbidity vs. mortality  morbidity: prevalence of disease in a population  mortality: patterns of death  as morbidity goes down (health improves), life expectancy goe up  epidemiologic transition  transition from prevalence of communicable diseases to degenerative diseases  3 eras  era of pestilence and famine o life expectancy: 20-39 o infectious disease, malnutrition, infant related deaths  era of receding epidemics o life expectancy: 30 to 50 yrs o infectious diseases are still prevalent, large mortality fluctuations less common  era of degenerative and man-made disease o life expectancy: 50+ o cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes  4 limitations o eras are not sequential, are reversible, no explanation of disease patterns, discusses mortality not morbidity  health eras  age of environment (up to 1935) o vaccination, antiseptics, health department development, cleaner water, pasteurization  age of medicine (1935 to 1950) o sulfa, penicillin, anti TB, antibiotics  age of lifestyle o diet, exercise, smoking


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