Week 5 Notes
Week 5 Notes PAM 2030
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eunice on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PAM 2030 at Cornell University taught by Professor Sassler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Population and Public Policy in Political Science at Cornell University.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
PAM 2030 Sassler Spring 2016 February 23, 2016 iClicker: according to Putnam: in the long run, diversity is good, short run it’s bad Age transition: o drivers: lowered mortality: population youngs lowered fertility: population ages migration: relocates (generally the younger) populations from donor to host regions ex. Mexico, more males leave note, younger generations are child bearing aged differences in the populations that migrate also depend on whether the migrations are short or long in distance o population processes’ influences of age/gender structure migration: dramatic short run impact change the prevailing age if the age composition of migrants is significantly different tend to be younger child bearing aged populations mortality: affects both the short and long run, not dramatic unless a pandemic occurs all ages and gender are affected with consistent patterns in all countries improved health means decreased death rates at all ages fertility: most important influence though with relatively small short run impact o generally, global populations are aging faster than the US is US: aging: 14.5% is 65+ increases in elderly increases in the old old (over 85 yr) differences spatially (SD vs FL) o youngest states: AK and UT o old age Third Age: 65-84, limited physically but able to work Fourth Age: 85+, senescence, retirement o implications: health and expenditures welfare older people tend to have chronic conditions and more than one of them politics: party split along generational lines economics: retirement age, SS Baby boomers are entering retirement age SS better education >> better health (easier jobs physically) >> longer life, better pay o SS works better for some people than it does for others should there be a change o change the calculation method used to decide monthly benefits o raise income taxes on SS benefits o increase flow of payroll taxes o change the cost of living index o change retirement age what about child poverty, why don’t we care as much o the younger generation is racially diverse America’s Changing Racial/Ethnic Composition o ethnicity v. race race is defined on basis of physical characteristics skin color, hair textures, shape of features ethnicity: based on culture: language, religion, appearance, ancestry, region sense of identity and membership in a particular ethnic group historically: race has gone from an essentialist to a constructionist biological (primordialist) to situational definition o directive No.5: 5 categories for the census, not mutually exclusive American Indian/Alaska Native Asian/Pacific (divided towards Native Hawaiian) White Black Hispanic (been removed) February 25. 2016 iclicker: the real causes of death in US? tobacco use America’s Changing Racial/Ethnic Composition o how have racial classifications changed? 1980: first appearance of classification questions questions about ancestry 1990: not much change “negro” and “Indian (Amer.)” were used order matters o Q4 asked about race, Q7 asked about Spanish/Hispanic 2000: change: allowed people to claim more than one race group order changed o Q5: Hispanic/Spanish/Latino? this is an ethnicity question o Q6: race? o Q10: ancestry? ethnic origin? examples provided which skews responses give white people something 2010: more change “For this questions, Hispanic origins are not races) 2020: ? testing combination of ethnicity and race/origin questions o AQE: Alternative Questionnaire Experiment o combination: higher response rate with unchanged proportions o Hispanic: race vs. ethnicity note, ethnicity is subjective, more so than race assumes a common bond among those in an ethnicity o language, religion, etc, history, values, attitudes OMB : Directive No.5 says this is an ethnic category vs. Asians? (Asians are pan-ethnic) Latinos are under this category although the term only exists in America o Public Law 94521: religious affiliation questions are not allowed questions and concerns do exist particularly about Jews and Muslims o future of America: majority minority population o mortality translation morbidity vs. mortality morbidity: prevalence of disease in a population mortality: patterns of death as morbidity goes down (health improves), life expectancy goe up epidemiologic transition transition from prevalence of communicable diseases to degenerative diseases 3 eras era of pestilence and famine o life expectancy: 20-39 o infectious disease, malnutrition, infant related deaths era of receding epidemics o life expectancy: 30 to 50 yrs o infectious diseases are still prevalent, large mortality fluctuations less common era of degenerative and man-made disease o life expectancy: 50+ o cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes 4 limitations o eras are not sequential, are reversible, no explanation of disease patterns, discusses mortality not morbidity health eras age of environment (up to 1935) o vaccination, antiseptics, health department development, cleaner water, pasteurization age of medicine (1935 to 1950) o sulfa, penicillin, anti TB, antibiotics age of lifestyle o diet, exercise, smoking
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