Psychology 202: Intelligence
Psychology 202: Intelligence
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Date Created: 04/26/14
Psychology 202 CRN 37657 T R 4 550pm Updates None What You Need to Know Notes that you need to know are in black Any notes that I have added for clarity on the topic will be in green Hopefully this makes things a more clear for you all and if you have any ideas in how I can format these notes to make things even easier send me an email at buseruoregonedu Study Tip Turn these notes into ashcards Use bolded words for the front and the definitions for the back Ask questions There is no stupid question only stupid answers as they say and if you have a question likely someone else in our 314 student lecture has the same or close to the same question You won39t know unless you ask which will only hurt you when midterms and the final comes around If you aren39t comfortable asking in front of everyone just be patient after class and talk to the professor privately Tuesday April 22 2014 Corresponding Readings Text p 317363 Vocabulary The Social Brain Hypothesis The idea that our brains grew three times the size over the last six million years in order to keep track of the amount of people knew could know in our social circles The brain is adaptive to hold social information and mathematics etc is a byproduct of that intelligence Gossip which is 80 of conversations that take place is more important than homework when viewing it from a survival standpoint Dunbar s Number This is part of the social brain hypothesis Dunbar s number is 1478 about 150 meaning that we have the ability to know 150 people well enough to consider them close and a threat not a threat When you have groups of humans example military groups average church congregation etc the amount of people on average does not exceed 150 Language This is part of the social brain hypothesis It is thought that language was developed in order to increase our social networking and the ability to know if we can call someone a friend or a foe Runaway Sexual Selection Theory The idea that males and females are attracted to each other based on intelligence so in sexual selection males and females continued to grow more and more intelligent through the generations in order to better appeal to the opposite sex for reproduction It is thought that now that C sections have been developed and other medical technology that human brains may begin to grow again since the size of a woman39s pelvic bone does not matter Why Human Brains Stopped Growing the infant could only have so large of a head in order for the infant and the mother to have better chances of survival through birth and the developmental period If the heads got too big survival rates would go down which was not productive in the spectrum of passing down genes Predicting IQ Intelligence Quotient intelligence quotients IQs are usually defined as follows 115 is the average college graduate 70 is considered cognitively delayed and 160 is Genius level George W Bush was a graduate of Yale and had an IQ of 125 Bill Clinton had an IQ of 149 and it is thought that Iohn Q Adams had an IQ of 165 IQ as a Valid Measure IQ is found to correlate positively with grades obtain in high school job performance income and longevity It has been found to correlate negatively with crime and car accidents This is used through the construct operational definition experimental measurement which is defined in previous lectures The construct is Intelligence and IQ predictive validly is the operational definition Crystallized Intelligence Crystallized intelligence is thought to be knowledge that you learn and the ability to use in it the correct situations For example crystallized knowledge is learning definitions to words or how to do math equations in one particular way Someone who has crystallized intelligence is book smart Fluid Intelligence Fluid intelligence is cleverness and logical reasoning and is not the same as knowledge Fluid intelligence would be how you respond in a given situation based on rightwrong or past experiences This is more street smart and not facts that you have memorized Theories of Intelligence there are two theories of intelligence the entity view and the incremental view Both of these views are defined below Entity View the idea that intelligence is fixed that that there is no increasing one s intelligence or decreasing one s intelligence Someone with an Entity view will believe that either you know something or you don39t and that no amount of hard work or studying will help your intelligence If someone with an entity view misses a question on a test they continue to do poorly on the rest of the test after knowing that they missed that question because they no longer believe that they are smart enough to do it Incremental View the idea that intelligence is always increasing and the people are always learning new things through studying If someone with an incremental view takes and test and misses a question they can recover and still do well on a test Time Line 19051916 The Intelligence Quotient IQ test is developed by Binet 1916 Terman notes that there is an intellectual weakness that cannot be improved by education among non whites 19171919 Goddard notices that US Blacks Southern Whites and immigrants from S and E Europe have a low IQ 1924 Immigration Act of 1924 determines quotas for particular nationalities 1933 Hitler comes into power in Germany 1945 Truth about Holocaust surfaces and Eugenicists remains quiet for a bit 1965 Iensen Publishes How much can we boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement 1994 Herstein and Murray publish The Bell Curve People To Know Iames Flynn found that there had been a sharp incline of intelligence from 19421992 There were 5 possible explanations 1 Presentday schooling and test familiarity when finally taking the exam to determine intelligence 2 Nutrition 3 More access to information as the times progress Vocabulary can be a measure of intelligence and the more access to information we have the more our vocabulary can increase 4 Scientific spectacle of the 20th century 5 Lower disease load When people are having to spend less time worrying about getting sick they can spend more time other things that in turn can increase intelligence Francis Galton Recall that Francis Galton was the founder of Eugenics and was Darwin39s halfcousin Refer back to previous lectures to review Galton tended to measure things such as ear sizes uniforms in the British navy and intelligence Galton developed the Bell Curve The bell curve is a symmetrical curve with the highpoint usually in the middle or the mean and standard deviations that extend away form the mean The standard deviations will always extend in a way that allows the first standard deviation to cover 68 of the population the 2nd will cover 95 of the population and the 3rd will cover 997 Studies BlackWhite IQs studied whether the blackwhite IQ differences were due to genetic differences which they found to be not true genetics had nothing to do with it A series of studies were used to come to this conclusion 1 Found that in a mixed race mostly European all the way through almost entirely African that there was no difference in whether someone s IQ was high or lower depending on where they fell on the spectrum 2 Moore 1986 took middle class black and white families and randomly assigned them to black children that the family adopted It was found that the black children adopted by the middle class black family had an IQ of 104 while the black children adopted by the middle class white family had an IQ of 117 It was concluded that the children matched the IQ of their adopted families 3 At an orphanage it was found that white orphans had an IQ of 103 and black orphans had an IQ of 108 4 During the war black and white American soldiers came back married to German girls The white soldiers and their German wives had children with an IQ of 97 while the black solider and the German wives had children with an IQ of 965 which is considered just about the same Stereotype Threat the idea that someone will do poorly or do well on certain tasks based on what they know the stereotype is about their gender to ethnicity 1 Steele and Aronson 1995 gave black and white students question from the GRE The black students performed below the white students when told that the test was measuring underlying intellectual ability When the students were told that it was a simple problem solving test the gab between the white students and the black students disappeared In general it was found that having to indicate you ethnicity affected the outcome of the black students test scores while it did not alter the test scores of white students 2 When a golf test was described to a group of college boys as a athletic intelligence test white college students did better and when the golf test was described as natural athletic ability the black students did better 3 When women have to indicate their gender before a test it is found that they do worse then when they do not have to indicate their gender a Iohns et al 2004 added a condition where women were taught about the stereotype threat and they performed better when told about the treat