Psychology 202: Development 1
Psychology 202: Development 1
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This 3 page Reader was uploaded by Bryce Buser on Saturday April 26, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Oregon taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 101 views.
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Date Created: 04/26/14
Psychology 202 CRN 37657 T R 4 550pm Updates None What You Need to Know Notes that you need to know are in black Any notes that I have added for clarity on the topic will be in green Hopefully this makes things a more clear for you all and if you have any ideas in how I can format these notes to make things even easier send me an email at buseruoregonedu Study Tip Turn these notes into ashcards Use bolded words for the front and the definitions for the back Review a little every day even after Midterms This course is cumulative throughout the entire term so even after a midterm continue to review your notes ashcards so you are still fresh on the material when learning new material and taking future midterms Thursday April 24 2014 Corresponding Readings Text p 365419 Vocabulary The Autism Spectrum Autism High Functioning Autism Asperger s Syndrome Normal 1 Mirror Test Pass 24 months 2 Sally Ann False Belief Task Pass 4 years 3 Reading the Mind in the Eyes Systematizing the need to create a systemic way of doing things Empathizing the ability to distinguish other s thoughts and feelings and to therefore act appropriately NatureNurture There are two sides of the spectrum black slates are completely Nurture way of viewing child development while genetic determinism is a completely Nature way of viewing child development In reality both Nature and Nurture play significant roles in child development and it is not just one or the other Nature it is said that environmental stimulus affects babies psychologically when in the womb Blank Slates Recall IB Watson and his development of the idea of Behaviorism in 1930 Watson and Behaviorism have been covered in detail in prior lectures In the Blank Slate theory it is a completely Nurture way of viewing child development 1 Steven Pinker s The Blank Slate introduced the idea that babies are born with a set of learning mechanisms 2 Recall Galton and eminence people who aren39t great shouldn39t breed 3 Dangers of Blank Slate argument excessive blame for failed parents or the release of psychopathic criminal under the assumption that they should have been reformed through nature Genetic Determinism the idea that genes Nature are the only determination in how a child will be and how they develop with no thought to the Nurture side of the spectrum SelfReport of Children in correlation with the methodological limitation of Piaget39s Stage Theory When dealing with young children alternative methodologies are needed There is a language barrier and a limited attention span Newborns can distinguish languages spoken by their mothers 68 hours old The children suck harder if they like are interested Slows when board and then speeds up when something new catches their interest Epigenetics above the genome One way of looking at epigenetics is that the genome is the computer while epigenetics is the software that tells the computer how to run Some genes can be turned on and off within the genome and the genes that are expressed are referred to as epigenetics People To Know Iames Piaget 18961980 formed the Piaget Stage Theory which was made up of four stages that defined development See below under stages theories for a complete explanation of Piaget39s Stage Theory Studies Theories Piaget39s Stage Theory 1 Sensorimotor 02 years Development of object permanence the ability to understand that an object exists even when not in sight as well as the development of separation anxiety An infant also takes in the world through direct sensory and motor contact 2 Preoperational 26 years The child cannot reason logically but can use symbols to indicate specific objects they are referencing The child develops the ability to pretend and is considered egocentric 3 Concrete Operational 712 years Can think logically leading to the ability to add and subtract as well as can understand conversation 4 Formal Operational 12 years Adult The adolescent can think in hypothetical terms as well as can reason abstractly Pros and Limitations of Piaget39s Stage Theory 1 Pro the theory is testable unlike developmental theories before Piaget39s 2 Theoretical limitation explains only the stages and not the process through the stages 3 Methodological Limitation everything relied on self report of children SallyAnn False Belief Test tests Theory of Mind which is the knowledge that not everyone knows the same things as you and that people can have different thoughts SelfRegulation Self recognition is essential to survival In the video it is shown that when given a mirror chimps first attack the mirror thinking it is another chimp but can final realize that they are looking at themselves Humans can recognize themselves in a mirror at two year using the Mark Test Other animals that can recognize themselves in a mirror are orangutans gorillas dolphins orcas elephants and Bonobos Monkeys cannot Delay of Gratification Walter Mischel and the Marshmallow test Four year olds are left by themselves and if they can wait fifteen minutes to eat it they can have two 23 of the children could not wait fifteen minutes Children would sing or cover their eyes to try to resist They would also make the reward less desirable such as saying it is a cotton ball This test predicts that in ten years there is a large correlation with this test and with lower drug use higher SAT scores higher popularity more self control and social skills better planning and coping skills as well as higher education levels
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