Environments - Paleontology
Environments - Paleontology GEOLGY 317
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This 31 page Class Notes was uploaded by GreenOwl713 on Thursday August 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOLGY 317 at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater taught by Rex Hanger in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Paleontology in Geology at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater.
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Date Created: 08/06/15
Introduce paleoecologic hierarchy Taphonomic clues Paleoecologic Hierarchy 9 Individual Sl 9 Paleoautecology 9 Population Sl 9 Same esp evolutionary trends 0 Community 321 39 PaleOsynecology o Province etc Sgtgt1 39 PaleObiogeography o Biosphere Sgtgtgt1 9 Macroevolution Brachs as ideal paleoecologic entities 0 Articulates with calcite mineralogy I Stable in carbonate facies 0 Simple 2piece skeleton 0 Skeleton with extensive externalinternal features I Readily seen I Modified by environments in regular predictable ways 1022014 1022014 Articulation 9 Articulate brachiopods will separate into 2 valves shortly after death 0 articulated individuals of a population first measure of how good your fossil collection is 9 Eg High good chance Valve ratio O Brachs unlike bivalved clams have 2 different shaped valves Valves behave differently in moving water after death Number of brachial and pedicle valves should be equal How unequal a rough m po m up measure of alteration O O O Size frequency histograms Show absolute sizes ages of all individuals 2 of a single population 9 Multiple measures 9 Changes in measures have meaning Evolutionary trends A Paleoecologic trends Taphonomic alteration S 1022014 m J Measures for comparisonl 9 Mean average size measure eg length H7 Plus other statistical metrics like standard 1 error standard deviation J quot4 4y m39k39b39 fr39i Ty39iwc 393 19 9 anpacuuung h Irnrn Mean3 87mm m J Measures for comparison2 9 Skewness 5 quotquot5 how different from a symmetrical normal distribution 3 Normal Sk 0 Z Leftskewed Sk positive Rightskewed Sk negative J Measures for comparison3 9 Kurtosis measure of how peaked the distribution is I 1 Ir 1 K 3 r n l I Normal K23 I I If f Peakedleptokurtic Kgt3 39 Flat platykurtic Klt3 Lep ukurtix Platfkjln39ir 9 Left skewed is the 9 Lots of juveniles few 9 Assume ancient 0 normal conditions for population ecology 1022014 condition most frequently encountered in modern marine invertebrate populations adults populations were similar l l normal conditions for population paleoecology l l Right skewed is the mg condition most frequently encountered in fossil assemblages 9 few juveniles many adults 0 Juveniles destroyed by ecology physical environment and diagenesis 3 l Do I have a good sample 9 of a population 9 Should be strongly left skewed and leptokurtic 9 Measure fossils collected and eyeball histogram for deviations from this l Epibiont coverage how much growth of encrusting organisms occurred on individuals in your population Categorize as 1c1ean 2slightly encrusted lt5 3moderately encrusted 5 10 4encrusted 10 15 5 heavily encrusted gt15 Epibiont coverage 0 Provides direct evidence of residence time 9 time organism spent on sea oor before burial 0 May be due to changes in sedimentation rate 0 e g heavily encrusted long residence time andor low sedimentation rate l Epibiont locations 9 On inside of shells encrusting occurred after organism was dead 0 long residence times to allow alteration of original population 39 On outside of shells May indicate unique ow patterns etc 1022014 m l bD O4 1022014 Co bsx39oo gtr Awasmm l i ogtL Safmh W143 Aeskxocr m o SWQBLL Corrasion 9 corrosion abrasion 9 Another measure of residence time andor sedimentation rate Corrasion Categories Iuncorraded No loss of detailed ornament IIslightly corraded Minor loss of micro ornament I zcorraded Detailed ornament lost costae remain IVhighly corraded Shell surface relatively smoothed O O O l Fracture types Most skeletal elements will fracture after death of the organism Fractures may occur before or after burial Fracture frequency and magnitude may provide information on residence time sedimentation rate water motion energy scavenging n5 395 disturbance and more l Carinate fractures Breaks chips and breakage caused mostly by movement along the sea oor pre burial Positivecorrelation with corrasion 5 5 Splayed fractures 9 Breakage as radial cracks as skeletal elements are attened post burial 9 May indicate high sedimentation rates Compare with other evidence H H 5 1022014 1022014 l Telescoped fractures 9 Breakage in upward life position during very rapid sedimentation 9 rare l Fracture Analysis l nusccrcn gt 9 Examine each shell or skeletal element looking for fractures 9 Count fracture types 5 i EvLulo gt for each individual 9 Tally for all members of a population EffE Geology 317 39 Brachiopods V Ch 13 pp 230244 Ch 2 pp3037 Brachiopod anatomy dorsal valve hmchium 7 397 I diuartiouium ga ngilliun I K 3y 1 r39 4 l ventra lvalhm V gonad digestigs 1022014 intestine no anus adducmr mesa J dimmer muscle 2 Classes e lnarticulata Through gut Held together by mamas Calcphosphate skeleton Clasticsed EOD s Beaches deep marine Small mostly lt2cm 4 o Articulata Blind gut Hinged at point or line Calcite skeleton Carbonate shelves mostly Pz Mz Cz clastics cryptic Small to large up to 15cm width moms ctr T5 WM 2 Classes cont Inarticulata quot Planktotrophic larvae Benthic panktic Epifaunal infaunal quot Suspension feeding Immobile or pogo quot Sep sexes external fertilization One major extinction low diversity after t Articulata quot Lecithotrophic larvae Benthic Epifaunalquasi infaunal susp feed Immobile quot Sep sexes hermaphrodites external fertilization Boombust thru Pz low diversity ever after b CMVCX Knowll it Figure 136 in text recognizing the following features i Hingeline beak delthyrium costae interarea foldsulcus Commissure growth lines Orthids Strophic mostly Biconvex Ususlly strong radial ornament Small interareas Earliest Cambrian Permian 1022014 mtmma Q 668mm 6m ow meat amps M Wmmdn MVC leerf ag QMUSBBZ quot SKEW 4 mi w mated ULM WsAWWW 6 Mwm beCltlt 1022014 W 3691 A sfcoryim Strophomenids W o Strophic 0 Wide Hingelines o Planoconvex to conc 0 Strong radial ornament o OrdovicianTriassk I39VI d Rologicnl mnm39v r H Minc Mme MA If 7N Chone ds o Strophic o Planoconvex to concavoconvex o Spines hollowon posterior margin only 0 Small interareas o OrdovicianPermian o swim Productids o Strongly concavo convex o Elaborate spines hollow all over shells o Juveniles attached adults free 0 DevonianPermian A JWLl39ld Cuolquml Suivu Oldhaminids o Ventral valve deep convex cemented o Dorsal valve cap underdeveloped o Symbiotic algae o Permian Spiriferids O Strophic mostly o Biconvex Spiral lophophore suppon Large interareas Strong radial ornament o SilurianJurassic O O O Spiral lophophore support 1022014 Rhynchonellids 1022014 o Astrophic o Biconvex 0 Strong radial ornament o Foldsulcus o Delthyrium 0 Spiral Iophophore o OrdovicianRecent Terebratulids o Astrophic o Biconvex Loop support for Iophophore Punctate DevonianRecent O O O Brachiopod Faunas by Period o Cambrian c marticulates mostly simple orthids o Ordovician 9 Orthids dominant strophomenids o Silurian 3 Strophomenids pentamerids Brachiopod Faunas by Period k Devonian i Astrophic spirifers simple strophomenids rhynchonellids terebratulids Carboniferous true spirifers productids chonetids Permian i Productids dominate chonetids large spirifers oldhaminids 1022014 Brachiopod Faunas after PTr Mz faunas with last spirifers strophomenids and some rhynchonellids terebratulids Jurassic to Recent i Terebratulids dominate rhynchonellids minor 9102014 Phylum Bryozoa Read Chapter 13 pp 244 250 QBIOMEDJM ASSOCIATES 39 O W xAcNquot Clan Hm k 508231 lt3 8066wa Benthic egglilegf ostly marine immobile colonles 39 Lophophore sus ension eeding B 39 Very small size up to 1mm diameter individuals colonies to many cm X l JOrder Trepostomata M C im much L Mrw f 9 OrdTriassic 9 Long tubular zooid skeletons tubes circular or polygonal 7k MRW Cmth MW 9 Massive calcite v colonies 9 Low encrusting basal colonies erect branching limbs 9102014 380 36 A5 Qarx 2 atom wow I c9wa ans 9 OrdovicianPermian 9 Tubular zooids 9 Delicate fanshaped colonies 9 All zooid open on one side only facing water currents 9 Mostly marine in limestone and other calcareous rocks 9 Frame builders in some Pz reefs 9 Usually in communities with brachiopods crinoids solitary corals molluscs 9Skeleton shape determined 5y EOD esp water energy v Skeletal Morphologies 9 Quiet lowenergy 9 Rapid highenergy 9 Delicate tall 9 Robust low encrusting N branching colon1es colon1es predormnate Predominate 9 Usually fairpoor Usually good pm preservatlon F 9102014 J Practical Approach 9 Do not count individuals count colony fragments v 9 Measure colony max length Count general morphology types Colony Growth and Size 9 Encrusting colonies limited laterally 9 Water enters colony vertically leaves laterally 9 Velocity of water leaving increases with size of colony QC it wquot Size regulation Assume avg lgphgp izore telntacle sheath 5 IM k NM extens cma ovecoony H twigM mi mst M U 39 v surface Avg pumping velovity v is v approximately 04 cms S w it n 0 Then volume Q escaping from lateral I margins of colony is Calculated as v H r2 Calculate Q for various sizes C 1 l 0 l ow 9102014 J Q calculation 0 Example I Colony with diameter of 8cm I Radius would be 4cm I Q v H r2 or O4cms3l4l64cm2 I Q20lOcm3s l J Escape velocity V 9 velocity of water leaving colony laterally 9 V cms QA where Ai area 9 A H 39 d 39 h 9 d colony diameter h height of lophophore tentacle sheath J V calculation 0 Example I Colony with diameter of 8cm I Q from previous calculation 20lOcm3s I V QA 20100m3s 314168cm0020m I V20lOcm3s 0500m2 I V 4020ms 1 Geology 317 Cnidaria 9 Read Chapters 12 amp 8 in text VB relation to EOD works here too 9 High water energy I Laminar VB lt01 Low domical VB 0105 0 Low water energy High domical VB 051 Extended domical gt1 9 Can be used for other colonial skeletons bryozoa corals sponges Phylum Cnidaria characters 1 1 9 Radial symmetry mouth coelenleron 9 Nematocysts stinging cells 9 Attached immobile polyps or freemoving medusae tentacles mouth 9 Precambrian Recent tentacle coelenteron mesenteries 9102014 9102014 l C Scyphozoa 9 The jellyfish 9 No hard parts mostly so very poor fossil record 9 PrecambrianRecent l SubClass Conulariida 9 CambrianTriassic I 1 a 4 l 9 Elongate pyramid form 9 Chitinophosphate skeleton 9 4fold symmetry 9 Attached juveniles free adults Conularids Radial and concentric ornament Flexible corners Internal septae possible calyx 1 se tum septum p dissepiment fossula tabulae O Rugosa line septum epitheca septal igal furrow 9 OrdovicianPermian 9 Calcite skeleton Q Solitary OR colonial 9 Septae inserted in groups of 4 Equal size septae 9 Common horn shape l l Order Tabulata I a 9 Always benth1c s1 39 39 1 1 W ep1faunal 15133 5 lb 1 14quot 9 Always colonial i 133 3 F 39t I all 9 Ordov1c1anPerm1an 3333 Cm Hastes Ch 39 C I39 9 Calc1te skeleton am or Syringopora Aum on 9 Many closely spaced 0 93quotP P99mquot P at 39 9 39 tabulae y 4 Cr 9 Septae absent or small I 7 quot l F avosites 9 SilurianDevonian 9 honeycomb coral 9102014 9102014 9 SilurianDevonian 9 chainlink coral UAulopora 9 SilurianDevonian 9 minihorn coral USyringopora 9 SilurianDevonian 9 Organpipe coral Order Scleractinia 63 9102014 Aragonite skeleton TriassicRecent V Colonial some solitary Septae in multiples of six Unequal sizes 7 No tabulaej Hermat ic reef builders Symbiotic algae Ahermatypic in deeper colder water lt a he Reefs through time i 0 Numerous Cenozoic ReiJJm of Modern Reefs organlsms Cretaceous Eiivalve Mounds 9 CoralAlgae Jurassic First Modern Reefs tOday Coralf algae ff Pe m aquot 9f Many Mounds E 3 D1 erent patterns All buildups are mounds through tlme Devonian Spectacular Stremateporoid reefs Squot a ReefEiuildup cramman A f Uncertainty Reef mounds 98 D Cambrian Q igs inhg fyg igg Proterozoic and mounds PERIODS BOHERMS MAJOR SKELETAL ELEMENTS T V Li39 f H TERTIARY 39 5 CORALS T 4 vi e 777 rudifsAls T r Eryozoa D 77 Wei 2 100 CRET 5 EUDAISTS icgraLs slromaloporoids K sponges j JURASSIC 4 CORALS stromaloporoids r w 39 TL a V7 ORALS stromalopormds 2quot 200 TR39ASSIC 39 39 3 Corhl ipjggef Z 7 quot 39SVbong S bi agg igiai al 83 m PERMIAN Lmsgqugitenesle lidrbryozoa FEEIE Lu lt PHYLLOID lubular loraminiiers 1 300 PENN ALamp A A Moms 5 gt br 929a I MISS Tnslraie br 9zoa W NT7 DEVONIAN Q o 7 STROMATOPOROIDS corals 5 400 SILURIAN 0 f quot T 39ORD Sfocdmsg 5 3E3 7 o 500 SPONGES skeletal ilgec LU r k o 7 u skeletal aigae ARCHAEDCYATHIDS 3 SKELETAL ALGAE m me soo lpnecma f me 5ceJmes Q0 33M Lquot occpw M 6r sm3Ult C3661 9 CGLCt39 L any CA Qg F magmal cme o ess a 3036 Mi NSquot 53 Czwwkos ow gawk ENVIRONMENT Wave Energy Sedimentation GROWTH FORM Delicate branching low high a 9 Thin dolncate platedike low low Globular bulbous 39 columnar moderate high Robust dendrold W branching modhigh moderate Hemispherical domal irregular massive modm39gh low a Encrus ng Intense low Tabular moderate low 39 Water energy 9 Sedimentation rate 39 Growth rate 9 All control Gro th 30rm quot GFII39 SNOOP TWIN m5 H v m Art39HEII AL quot7 sounuur39l 139 H39LAL I R CCLL MNGR SHE Il39r39 TS I39lII39EH BLENESS AHGH SUIBLIH ISAD39T A l Ei Rfllr 39vl SS CCNDROIC skeletal form shape margins u JLT GRAHCNIHG or 575 BRAKIJ NC l Hi E Carbonates 9 Grainstone Bioclastsupported No mud matrix 9 Packstone Bioclastsupported Some mud still present 9102014 1 Low E Carbonates 9 Wackestone Mudsupported gt10 bioclasts 9 Mudstone Mudsupported lt10 bioclasts J Reef Associated Rock Types BAFFLESTONE BINDSTONE FRAMESTONE Reefs in Cross Section 9102014 Paleontology i 111 1 1 4 gt Paleoecology of higher ecologic entities gt Diversity and gradients of diversity gt Measuring diversity gt Using PAST X Species richness alpha d we rSlty S simple count of number of spp present in a sample locality etc No account for sampling size or effort gt Eg La Capilla Fm o S 8 n273 gt Eg 2 hypothetical o S 8 n10 gt Eg 3 hypothetical 0 58 nlOOO V V Margalef diversity gt S 2 5 1 In n gt n number of individuals sampled gt La Capilla Fm o S 8 1ln273 125 gt Hypothetical 1 o S 8 lln10 304 gt Hypothetical 2 o S 8 lln1000 101 11112014 11112014 Menhiniclk39s diversity gt M S xn gt La Capilla o M 8x273 048 gt Hypothetical i o M 8x10 253 gt Hypothetical 2 o M 8M1000 025 Comparative Diversity gt Calculate S then correct for sampling with some index gt May now COMPARE o Localities eco or strat 0 Times eco or strat 0 Persons 0 Types of collecting Eg 1 Sample A r Egg 2 Ef arniplrz S 10 n 1000 S 09 113quot Each of the 10 spp has i exactly 100 individuals 39 39 a 7 or spp have i individdal Higher evenness Higher doimiinancei Measures of ancelEvennese Be rgerParl index Eg 1 Sample A y Egg 2 Sil ii iill 5 10 n 1000 s 2 11311113 B P of individuals of most abundant taxon n B PiOOlOOO ii J Higher dominance Higher evenness PAST and diversity gt PAST calculates 10 different indices gt Plus confidence intervals l gt Exercise 5 0 Part A you will do Part B with your NE data Tables 16 Ob mFCCoo3 La Cavi za Gm 11112014 McOSWWM E k lLi39thoWW WWfis 101 Le 7 gem NANA e0l5 rb a Cmow 5 BA a 50 an WWW L pzhwvozoan s 3 1 10302014 Br ach Outhne Morphologies b QD 9 d b VtX r W b C D a CMCmo 1 COM D 3 l Web 3 wa 1quot M on mac Emma Yb DWW bi WNA kw emerkg J Snowshoe morphology gt L0 Energy Muds W llceberg morphology VON gtHiEnergysediments r W 39 39 39 d coastline continental k quot V7 7 h gt r tn 39 r l uquot a L A 39 gt I quot b4 quot continental 0 Re their efs Preclslon Graphlcs Carbonate lRock Textures 1 CW lCrf7 W k t 39 39 a gigsgioggf L t gt10 clasts M l mudstone W 556 Al FDKXB mud supported lt10 clasts 39 hr Low Energy Environments Carbonate lRock Textures 2 grainstone c n0 matrix I my 3 clast supported High Energy Enviror packstone 7 i W some matrix clast supported i 5w 10302014 mmg J Figtmlte gt5 44 yi a4b C V16 315532 3935 coastline 4 5 at W a continental 5W continental O Beers shelf Precision Graphics amp Vb l L m A z Sl1 fj v quot i Mem V J Littleno reefs on siliciclastic shelves
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