Week 10 - 11 Oceanography
Week 10 - 11 Oceanography GEOLGY 300
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by GreenOwl713 on Thursday August 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOLGY 300 at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater taught by Rex Hanger in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Principles Oceanography in Geology at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater.
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Date Created: 08/06/15
Geology 300 Fall 2014 No correlative text readings for deltas and glacial coasts the next two note sets gt Especially important gtgt coasts built out by land processes covered in notes below 0 l deltaic coasts o 2 glacial coasts S Deltas V coasta type formed by sediment accumulation amp reworking at stream mouths From 5th century BC Herodotus Nile River Usually on passive margins S V V Factors in delta development gt 1 input of sediments 0 Chapter 5 gt 2 wave reworking 0 Chapter 10 gt 3 tide reworking 0 Chapter 11 t 9quot 2 m my quotup 10262014 Wave Dominated Delta gt One ort rImar exit channels gt Snmrreworked shoreli e g feEli s dunes longshore currents etc gt Eg Nile River delta amp mmquot TideaDominated Delta quot39 gt Multiple dee channels gt Channels usually perpendicular to W coastline gt Ebbflow oftides overwhelms river k input gt Eg Ganges River 39 l delta E x L 29 77 M0 F s gt Multiple channel splays gt Channels are multidirectional gt Sediment deposition much greater than any reworking gt Eg Mississippi I River delta 10262014 EN A NW ltdllvnb Lab amp gm to ggem Avon moc WM Ld a dc er V241 at mansions oanxwrcW avo dtgktwpehz agrattj L03 Vow5 MIAlow K 594 CW 06 mm lust WW Maxmw Ls 53hr GloVothb M MLOMICWL awn5 6 KCWD WS WAMmb Mt Qarzwt Jm Mm DN6ltBL t bira bku 230 WW sat 5 39 MC HI WE wave at lr39amp24r 6quot HECV WL Q wan AVMYMV xc CW DQUb 10262014 Other Wavesquot W5 l M D lleIA gt Waves not caused by or not continually forced by winds jg Wavelength L is so large that they are alwaysusually feeling bottom gt Le L2gtgtgtgtd or wavebase is much larger than depth of water l VJ l CJLSi lo away X lootgxa ac wager 905w Sto rm su rge 7V E5 3 39 Owl A Wonk C L39 3410C V gt bulge of water period v waves pushed out in front of large gtth rtllqs75m H 5t WM 399 NVW 0163 23533 m lt 0 03m consists of only a crest no trough I no orbitals etc MM 5 90 m 9WD NM gt rocking backforth I 12 sdc zz irssfgts 1 Vapouma 30 Wc NM 0 net amplitude at V center node r Maximum net 2 amplitude at margins antinodes NO fonNard movementjust vertical oscillation Seiche V V V 10262014 Aiswmmw J gamma oavc WasVWS by room MW e quot 3L HMS Tsunami gt Typical wavelengths L 100 200 miles gt Wavebases v lJEiEi es 300 w h Unimum 39 39 x r gt5 1 in I500 mileshour u r v Cm Qagta Sax Maw CEVW 20 b all M 50bMQ W gt Mint 5K6 SWQ xe f I WW 2 ww Cmawb 39 Mew am 9 SawM1 I it L lf vcwds 9 M51173 quot r e 5 we gt ML gt gt V 3quot f A n 7 39rj39 quot 5 3 I n erna aVES quot 39 t Ink x V 1 539 v U r gt Disturbances at pycnochne gt All wave features just subsurface gt L up to 100 s meters Tides gt High tide crest gt Low tide trough gt So L 2 1000 s miles gt Wave period time between two successive crests 124 to 248 hours 0 Time between successive high tides Tide Causes gt Gravitational attraction of moon sun then all other objects with mass gt Tractive forces pull 4 water towards a mass gt Opposite side feels I flinging force Tide Causes gt So high tide in direction of pull gt And another high tide in direction of quotmquot fling gt The earth rotates underneath these bulges gt Continents get in the Iway and complicate A 10262014 10262014 Moonisun orientations i gt Spring Tides gt 2 highest high tides and lowest low tides 0 50 Largest range in tides gt Earth moon and sun in linear orientation gt Occur at Full and I New Moon Moonisun orientations 2 gt Neap Tides gt lowest high tides quotmm and highest low tides 0 So least range in tides gt Moon and sun at 900 in relation to Earth gt Occur at first and second quarter Moons Semicliurnal Titles gt Most common tide ty p e Eamon Massachusetts gt Two approximately equal high tides and low tides in single day 10262014 Mixed Semidiurnal Tides gt Also two highs two lows w gt Unequal amplitudes gt Due to unique bathymetric locations X MLLWCI 0 12 24 Tlme hr 0 Semldunai mixed type Diurnal Tides gt Only one high one low tide per day gt Usually within enclosed bacinc 5 Pensacola Florida MLW o 0 12 24 Time hr Feet Tidal lBo re gt Tide in extremely small basins gt Le tides moving inland up stream vaHeys gt Can move 100 s miles inland 10262014 a f Ca lmt mm 49 Tidal Energy J gt Need at least 7meter d j x 7 flcir iiiewatemms uoamprvoal r kw mw turbine to generate w quotw I wvmhvw electricity gt 250 sites identified worldwide gt Need about 250000 worldwide to equal oil energy production 3amp3 im do Longshore Current gt Waves meeting shore at oblique angle will produce backwash perpendicular to shoreline gt Net resultgt water particle motion parallel to shoreline amp Longshae current moves suspended sand in sun zone Path of sand gains Littoral Drift gt motion of sedimentary clasts Lmewnemms suspended sand in surfzone usually sands by the longshore 39 current gt So also parallel to shoreline Path of sand gains Baymouth bar Sand movement 10262014 Littoral Cells gt Longshore currents amp littoral drift does not continue along a coast forever but exist as separate cells gt End with dumping of clasts seaward into basins gt Useful garbage umping spots lowlanth l t Ll Stopping littoral drift gt L drift erodes clasts and transports them s75 Deposltlon away bad if you m 53quot SEA want a stable beach gt Seawallsjetties groins etc erected to stop this gt BOTH prevent and enhance erosion I a A Headland Erosion gt Headlands sticking out into ocean force waves to bend or refract around them gt Erosive energy concentrated on points gt Deposition in quiet bays between headlands gt Acts to straighten coastlines X 10262014 10262014 Waves Read Ch 10 gt movement of energy through matter gt NOT flow of water rather the flow of energy Free vs Forced Waves gt Free formed then nolongerin uenced by that causing force gt Forced force is maintained gt in Oceans both usually forced X Ocean Waves gt Glassgtgt capillary waves cwgtgt gravity waves gwgtgt swell gt for cw and gw restoring force acts to return the ocean surface to glass 0 for cw restorer is surface tension 0 for gw restorer is gravity S 10262014 10262014 Wave Size gt Directly proportional to gt wind speed length of blow fetch distance over which wind blows Oscilllat oryOrbital Waves gt Wave motion passage of energy is a straight line vector BUT individual water particles move in circular orbits Orbit diameter decreases in size to zero at L2 2 Wave Base X Dtembn 0 wave travel gt V V Wave Measurement 1 Dream ol wave travel 9 gt L 2 Wave Length crest to crest horizontal distance gt H 2 wave Height trough to crest vertical distance gt S Wave steepness HL 7 10262014 awlhwx gt L a 2 in C on Wave Measurement 2 031 A W AW 4 d 2 water depth gt ifdgt L2 thennp frictional contact etween oscillations and bottom gt if dltL2 then waves feel bottom and are A 1 Lg P9 wows CaL W slowed by frictional g b Chib kVQ firstjgtode bottom 6 Anatomy of A Progressive Wave
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