Week 12 - 13 Oceanography
Week 12 - 13 Oceanography GEOLGY 300
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by GreenOwl713 on Thursday August 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOLGY 300 at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater taught by Rex Hanger in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Principles Oceanography in Geology at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater.
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Date Created: 08/06/15
Geology 300 Ecology Population and Community levels Tolerance Limits Optimal range Too low lower limit of tolerance OP lMUm 39 1 Environmental gradient Too high upper limit 0 tolerance 1 Each environmental or limiting factor temperature nutrient supply etc has both minimum and maximum eyond which a species cannot survive or is unable LLL f D E Exponential growth the unrestric ed Hll lfquotl in a population also called the biotioLpo a population 7 Carrying capacity the maximum number of individuals of any species that can be supported by a particular ecosystem on a sustainable basis 11162014 Pelts Growth to a Stable Population Cumghlc39 Inc Population Overshoots and Diebacks Capngm c IVE Population size Population Oscillations I 1850 1 860 1 870 1 880 Snowshoe hare Canada lynx 1 890 1 900 Year 1910 1 920 1 930 11162014 11162014 Communities gt 2 views gt A Integrated interacting groups of populations of different species 0 superorganism gt B Ships that pass in the night Abundance and D jersitty l Abundance the number of indivild In an area iversty the number of different cies itm eh area A useful measure of the variety of ecolog niches or genetic variation In a community Delcreases as we go from the equator towards the po es Abundance and diversity depend on total resource availability in an ecosystem Community structure Distribution of members of a ppulation in a given space can e gt Random individuals live wherever resources are available gt Ordered often the result of biological competition gt Clustered individuals of a species cluster to ether for protection mutua assistance reproduction or to gain access to a particular environmental resource Keystone species species that play essential community roles examples mycorrhizae the giant kelp 11162014 lxzplom 396065 quot2 59065 W esszwlr commonm pm5 6X 3 be law 4 dblanwa M UMWMQ 136L165 11162014 Primary Productivity gt Units are gCmZyr gt grams of Carbon bound into organic matter per square meter of surface per year phytoplankton 90 96 V gt large sea plants 2 5 LeaumnnIIRq39iw NlrmnrMIl39 inW w39 1 I h e r wow whmimm scum by39vuuzanm smfmw M7on Major Phytoplankton gt Diatoms o 2 piece silica skeleton gt Dinoflagellates 0 organic walled skeleton gt Coccoliths o multi element calcareous skeleton gt All 3 form biogenous sediments Sm Marine Vs Land Productivity net primary total biomass turnover time productivity billion tons years gCmZyr Marine 35 50 1 2 002 006 Land 50 70 600 1000 9 20 x Turnover Time gt time for one cycle of photosynthesis to respiration gt Photosynthesis 0 carbon dioxide water E gtgt glucose oxygen gt Respiration 0 glucose oxygen gtgt carbon dioxide water E lPhotic Zone gt 2 portion of water column that sunlight will penetrate into gt euphotic zone 2 upper half of photic rsumce wo zone A i t I gt variable depths IE worldwide but less g u than 2 of ocean 38 volume with almost 1 all marine life bCoastal ocean water To space Wavelength nanometers 500 600 700 2391 ll Compensation Depth gt depth where production via photosynthesis is equal to consumption via respiration gt approximately 200m so just below shelf edge gt below this depth plants consume their own resources and die Photosynthesis mbiled here because oi too much ghl Daplh cl Trauma product ly Lower light levels quotskim photosynthesis down hen Poslllon 01 bottle pair 3 in Figure 147 Campenu un depth Irtlon equate phololynunela Position at Dollie pair I In gure 147 7 R Irailon quot1quot 11162014 b b b b Tropics lProductwlty 0 30 latitudes lots of solar radiation and carbon dioxide but Littleno nutrients due to strong thermocIines JFMAMJJASOND low productivity MW Phytoplankton Biomass Zooplankton c Tropical seas X VV V V V li olar Productlwty 60 90 latitudes low values most of year but very high summer peaks 24 hour sunlight Ice cover gone upwelled nutrients southern hemisphere higher than northern bc more oceanless Month land a Siberian seas Phytoplankton Biomass X VV V V Te m pe rate Prod uctWity 30 60 latitudes moderately high sunlight levels no ice cover high nutrient runoff from land 3 to 5 times greater over year than other latitudes combined twopeaks JFMAMJJASOND Month Phytoplankton Biomass gt b Japan Sea X 11162014 Latitu d i nal Prod UCt iii rili Mariabiiiw x yi a x I an m E31 nix m Productivity and primary consumption gt Zooplankton TN gt peaks in m zooplankton 397 i biomass occur after phytoplankton peaks 9 21 219Jb 6Q N awogm 9W I imam mob 11162014 quot g no M ngmj zm 10me v as can oyWVo k frowvh m 11162014 Geology 300 Ecology Province level Boundaries between regions V Recall Charles Lyell But fortunately the extent of the same r on zoological provinces especially those of marine animals is very great so v that we are entitled to quot 9 15 V expect from analogy that quot 39 the identity of fossil species throughout large areas will often enable us I to connect a great variety of detached and dissimilar i formations 1833 l tquot 7 1 Principles of Geology 3 3 39 H H 39 sm deep time quot Provincialism gt Cosmopolitan organisms o Widespread over large geographic regions 0 Wide ecolo ical tolerances gt Endemic organisms 0 Restricted geographic distribution 0 provincial5m Multiple taxonomic levels species genus family Why endemic g gt 1 they originated there and did not disperse mmquot gt 2 the entire range has shifted after Vip4er r Vj39yggja is origination r 93 gt 3 they survive in 5 r K5 small part of 39 eisgfsza original range 111ij 11162014 Areas of endemism gt Autochthonous vs allochthonous endemics gt Geographic region containing 2 autochthonous endemic taxa gt May be mapped gt Patterns regeatea to I form Provinces gt circumscribed regions of Earth s surface that share common taxonomically distinct biotas gt Hierarchy of realms regio provinces districts X 11162014 11162014 Provinces as ecologic entities gt Ecologic hierarchy gt Individuals populations communities provinces regions gt In this context biotic factors interactions important factors in delimiting provinces X Biotic factors Plants and animals also interact with other species and their biological interactions can control the geographic ranges and population densities of species Example Factors gt Competition gt Predation gt Symbiosis X Competition gt Interspecific competition gt Two types 0 Based on resourceexploitati contact or Interaction o Interference competition involves physical or chemical contact gt Limiting geographic distribution of species gt Eg displacement of native species by an 39 der Competition The impact of competition along an environmental gradient gt Competition between two species leads to an abrupt replacement of one species by a competitor gt Partitioning of ecospace Predation Occurs when one organism consumes another If a predator depends on onlyone particular speCIes for Its prey the eographic distribution of e predator is limited to the geographic distribu ion of the prey speCIes Prey switching But for the yast majority use manfy different speCIes or food Overall predators may ossiblybroaden the tion of speCIes V V V V Symbiosis gt Close association between two 5 ecies that generally deve ops through coevolution gt Includes 0 Mutual5m interaction that benefits both speCIes o Commensaism Benefits one species but no impact one the other 0 Parastsm One species benefits at the expense of the other 11162014 Provincial boundaries as barriers gt Boundaries due to both physical and biologic factors gt Congruence of barriers over deep time leads to provincialism Palms Family Arecaceae Mountains Trenches island arcs B a e seamounts abyssal hills Land Land platforms 0 lt Land area gt 100 50 l I I I I I I I I I l l I l I I I I I 50 0 lt Ocean area gt 11 11162014 Ocean Currents 11162014 Wamwale ccrrcni azldwalw Cu39lEm Identifying Provinces gt Barriersboundaries and gt Taxonomic content as compared to other provinces gt Species lists diversity m counts of species quot 39 are of utmost importance S
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