Week 14-15 Oceanography
Week 14-15 Oceanography GEOLGY 300
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This 28 page Class Notes was uploaded by GreenOwl713 on Thursday August 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOLGY 300 at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater taught by Rex Hanger in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Principles Oceanography in Geology at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater.
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Date Created: 08/06/15
D D D D D D D V V V Latitudinal diversity gradient Equator to pole decrease in species diversity S Both hemispheres Terrestrial amp marine Animals amp plants Fossils too All major ocean life habits Benthic habitat 2 living on the sea bottom or living within sediments of the sea bottom on the bottom 2 pifaunal benthic within the bottom infaunal benthic life controlled by sediment type Benthic life habit gt Epifaunal on top of ocean bottom gt lnfaunal 2 life within ocean bottom seds or rocks gt All Envs littoral to hadal especially sublittoral on continental shelves 11302014 Benthic habitat related to environment EOD gt i Supralittoral 0 bottom above high tideline gt 2 Littoral 0 bottom between high and low tides gt 3 Sublittoral 0 bottom on continental shelf o mostiml ortant zoicfe Benthic habitat related to environment EDD gt Lots of terms for life zones off the edge of the continental shelf eg bathyal abyssal etc gt We will just refer to them as Deep Water EOD X Nektic life habit gt Actively swimming gt Eg fishes whales etc gt Within neritic and oceanic environments X 11302014 Number of species Number of species V V V VVV Planlktic life habit Passively floating in water column Also helpless swimming Travel with ocean currents Usually small body sizes Animals 2 zooplankton pl ants phytoplankton Latitude Gradient Examples 0 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Fishes North America I O l l l l l l l l l 1 O 11391110111 10 20 30 40 50 6O 7O Latitude Plants Europe 1 1391 l 1101 10 20 30 4O 50 60 7O Latitude Mammals South America 12 10 8 6 4 2 I 0 11111111 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Latitude EWEOM WV quotHM Em FUN l Flnt C an Elun Anutn n Birds North America 20 O 16 12 8 4 000 11391111391391 0 10 20 30 4O 50 6O 70 Latitude 8005mm quotHM Em FUN IQHWIHU C an Elun Anutn n 11302014 Pattern complexitym gt Reflecting latitude Plus topography geology etc gt Aves of North America gt Oceans Exceptions gt Numerous gt Some peak diversity in Boreal high latitude regions gt Most peak in mid latitudes Varying taxa It i Inan39rtnnrmIvquotMininm39u R 5 a 4 39 39r A o a z E 1 397 C 392 a 39 y 395 ES 1 1 a ii 0 in 21 34 4n ll an Lilliludui I gt Why the exceptions I I ill I BI lthnuunuuudu Specie richness ITEIK1 ulK nm 391 I o l l l T 1quot 4D in m 7 I Latitude i I 41 l A i In 4 I39ll LJllILIdL39I NI DI 1114th Number 0 span394 Rumbur of species 120 r ID V N ll 20 30 4U 5U 111 TU I1IIILIC l Ampllipmk I a 21 311 41 54 1 70 I xliluiiu l 11302014 Latitude What is the pattern 1 7 quotJich i v AVquot 391 1 c quotquotquot 3 a x t r t quot1 In o l Rx 4quot A x t r o 392 V f J r 4 l 39 l o gt Patterns yesbut what process X Thus the nearer we approach the tropics the greater the increase in structure grace of form and mixture of colors as also in perpetual youth and vigor of organic ll e Alexander von Humboldt 11302014 Sx gk 1L0 Oat all M 0ampon 61W CEACMM CW OLD Ow Bwucntbcobh 65 11302014 ll Nlull model hypotheses Mlc 9 WMA amp Ls m m m Whom gt No causal process gt Eg Mid domain effect gt 2 hard boundaries poles animals distributed between so highest overlap of rangesisin middle 2 Biological interaction SW1d QfDUQV35 mm gt Ecologic interactions multiple levels create the pattern 39 structure gt Competition predation etc gt Mostly circular o Eg more species from more competition from more SPECIESgtgt Mom alum omrcwvton 1 QiemwvwM 9 normal seldom L2 MBV 00A 30 3 Environmental hypotheses gt Abiotic W gt best ones relate to solar energy and its decrease towards the poles o More solar energy higher primary productivity cascading throughout Q L communities 25 J Arteries UMJVM 4 integrative hvrli ltS gt Contain biological abiotic and area explanation gt Still explanation for latitudinal diversity gradient remains elusive w Ecologic variation A luldl rithnc 1 m Total gastropod richness Vllti a tlll 2 7m gt hUll v itlli gt 4m gt illti 7 201M HM 39 U 1 J 1 l L 10 3 ll Ill 30 41 I 1 H 711 El Latitudel Inmoauowv quot 0 ya quotrumquot m 1 Ecologic variation B 45 Ratio of carnivores 4 to noncarnivores 5 4 3 I l I I All l 10 ll 3 40 Latitudtl l l 3 1 ill Tl SH WWW muva n n pquot n r r39 u AyM 11302014 omu 3 4i SWOH C f RBn 5gt bollMA PM W 5E1A 3 oo k 9W9st Va CmS V B Brachyura Diversity A Anomura Diversity Taxonomicgeographic region variation 250 I 200 39 Southwestern Atlantic 150 0 Southeastern Pacific 100 QO 0 0 DO 000 000000 0 1 l I l 10 20 30 4O 50 60 Latitude Taxonomicgeographic region variation 60 r Zubi 2001 Southwestern Atlantic 40 0 Southeastern Pacific 00000000 quotoooo o39 39 ooo 20 oo 0 I l l an I 10 20 30 4O 50 60 Latitude 11302014 11302014 Basic model species richness gt Species richness S varies from O to maximum P gt Plotted as x axis mmwm Wm gt P is the number available to i colonize a given island from nearby large landmass x l 1 In munv Mm 39yvu39 mo w Basic model Immigration Rate gt 2 rate of arrival of propagules of s ecies not a ready present on the island gt Maximum when l39hnctiun gt Minimum when v H 0 Sometimes called colonization rate u lt 539 c p Ninnlwr nl xpm um Basic model Immigration summary Rate must decline from max value when island is empty eg after major 2 disturbance to zero when the island contains all of the I iossible species V Basic model Extinction Rate 11302014 gt E rate of local extinction loss of existing insular species gt Maximum when SP gt Minimum when SO 1 Basic model Extinction summary gt As island fills with species from the large landmass the number of island species 3 that can suffer extinction increases so rates should as I well Equilibrium value gt Point where immigration rate is same as extinction rate gt I E lmmlgmtiun l39mnttmn Equilibrium species richness gt When I E gt Have an equilibra lmmigmtiun l39wnttlun spece5 S If the island ecosystem is disturbed in any way it should return to this va ue V Equilibrium species turnover gt When I E gt Have an e ulibra rare 0 species 1mmquot Wm turnover T If the island ecosystem is disturbed in any way it should return to this va ue V Equilibrium perturbed rates gt When I gt E 0 Will have less species than S 0 Will return to 11302014 Equilibrium perturbed rates gt When EgtI 0 Will have more species tha S lmmlgmtiun l39mnctmn 0 Will return to lncerporating SpeciesArea 11302014 gt smaller islands will have smaller equilibrial number of species S gt Model explains why small islands have less spp than large idmasses r N P Incorporating SpeciesIsolation gt farther islands will have smaller equilibrial number of species S gt Model explains why far islands have less spp than ones nearer e 11302014 Predictions gt Species richness SSFltSSNSLFltSLN s 300E Speciation r32 Extinction gt Look at Ch 12 119 Wag out of hearts Lat he gave me a liver Adaptations gt specialized features that allow animalsplants to perform one or more functions useful to them Eg sharks with sharp teeth to cut meat Parrot fish with tightly packed bladed teeth to scrape coral for algae V Adaptations gt Evolution is remodeling not new construction gt Common ground plans suggest common origins o Eg again gt cheek teeth in ALL mammals X 11302014 l1 Adaptation m 051 i m 10 rta nit mm 5 flared t0 increase vea t Bean Emmi 11302014 Rounded Truncated Forked Lunated Heterocercal r f4 g g i 1 Variable Fishes ounder salmon herring tuna shark butter y sh pike perch mackerel Aspect ratio fin egl 39Ieiiiiii eif very exible slows memeweemg 189 ge iieimquot somewl iai flexible WUQWE E EEWQ 1 11302014 fi n egq tfiei i herring somewhat flexible fin elgli lleli marine er Lime very rigid HQ 900de W mameeeeii igg ljuiit for pure speecii to produce lift pectorals balance t0 and li limits manueverabilityw Wal lace lDarWl n Natu ral Selection Variation occurs in natural populations 0 Size speed metabolism etc Many more organisms are born in each population than can survive Some individuals have featurescharacters that make them better than other in the population a Moreless body fat camouflage coloration muscle fibers etc These organisms will have more success 0 Will live longer to produce more offspring Over geologic time organisms with the naturally selected features will come to dominate the population X V V V V V Speciation gt If natural selection operates long enough and gt If different populations of the same species have different natural selection pressures then gt Populations diverge to the point where they can no longer interbreed gt Speciation origination has occurred X importance of barriers 11302014 Other Speciation pathways Albpetrk mripetr39x Pompatria Sympetric riginal v v V 1 population Q I Initial step of v 39 i 39 speciation p I Barrier New n39Ehe New nbhe Gene1i formation enteecl entered polymo rp hiern Evolution of V V 39 39 v reproductive i isolation 39 In Emulation In Belated In adjacent Within the riche the pop u Iatio n New distinct v species after I 39 39 I equilibration I ranges Ecophenotypic Variation gt Same species will have different morphologies in different environments gt If any barrier exists then NS could force speciation X continental slope continental shelf What is Extinction gt Extinction occurs when the last existing member of a given species dies 0 In other wordsthere aren t any more left gt It is a scientific certainty when there are not any surviving individuals left to reproduce gt Functional Extinction 0 Only a handful of individuals are left 0 Odds of reproduction are slim X 11302014 Cause of Background extinction gt the result of biotic interactions ecological and evolutionary gradually changing climates and landscapes and in the case of small populations chance gt Like the death of individuals extinction is a natural part of life39s ebb and flow Population Maximum population levels I conditions change I 1 mean population size under these conditions I Population crashes as conditions change Population booms as Population size Extinction amplitude of continual population variation Time gt Extinction within a region like an island gt following a perturbation rate at which species form increases then levels off or even decreases as all of the ecological niches become filled gt At the same time extinction rates continue to rise as species are forced into ever more narrow ways of life gt system reaches equilibrium number of i Eecies 11302014 11302014 Magnitude of Background Extinction gt 99 of all species that have ever existed on the Earth are now gone gt Scientists have found that the normal species extinction rate on a geological time scale is one species every 10000 years gt Based on the fossil record most species exist for 4 22 million years Climatic changes extinction 0 glaoiauou Changes in Sea Level or Currents A DiseaseEpidemics gt Can wipe out entire species 0 Local or global V gt Eg starfish wasting 39 disease Spread of Invasive Species gt Lionfish gt Native to Indo Pacific gt Now present in AtlanticGulf of Mexico gt No native predators gt Devours snapper grouper etc rvaefry Human Causes oii extinction gt Habitat destruction gt Overexploitation Cod fishingll gt Introduction of pests predators and competitors Like Lionfish aquaria trade unwanteds etc Ecosystem Dverflshlng ALTEIIED E DSVETEM ETRUGTUHE AND FUNETIDN 11302014 Generalists gt large geographic range gt usually rare or patchy in abundance gt tolerant to a wide range of environmental conditions gt do well in disturbed habitats Specialists limited geographic range specialized adaptations to one habitat usually better competitors than generalists in the environment they are adapted to not as resilient to disturbance v v v v 11302014 Where and what are hotspots gt The concept of biodiversity hotspots was penned by British ecologist Norman Myers in 1988 as a means to address the dilemma of identifying the areas most important for preserving species National Geographic gt The region must support at least 1500 species found nowhere else in the world and it must have lost at least 70 percent of its original habitat X Hypotheses for the effect of extinction gt quotRivet popperquot 0 Each species is important in its own small way lose one like a rivet in a plane and little happens but the ecosystem weakens Lose several species and at some point the whole system fails gt quotRedundancyquot 0 Most species are superfluous as only a few are critical to the survival of the ecosystem Species are like passengers on the plane even with only a few the plane can still fly X How many can go extinct 3 i i V gt the more complex the food web the more likely we can withstand the extinction of any one member 11302014 10 Exa mp e of a Rivet Popperquot system gt Sea otters eat sea urchins which eat algae such as kelp s With Sea Otters lt Myyjkbm a U 15 11302014 11 11302014 13 AL 0Q mm wMH 110 WW4 364 Mm g u swarm of x0106 AM Slc rb Cor mated3 Islands gt Well defined geographically Simple ecosystems gt Isolated gt Numerous gt Several important patterns 0 works for both land surfaces and surrounding marine waters Pattern iSpeciest Re llationship M 0 NA 45 00 male gt Species richness VV S increases with increasing geographic area gt Irrespective of taxonomic group or type of ecosystem gt NOT linear 80cm worm Qolt AQUA o S increases less for larger 1 n In An d ml nkmg mom 1mm I islands In other words gt As larger areas are sampled one observes more individuals and more species gt Approximates a normal distribution X Species Area and Islands gt Small islands have fewer spp per unit of area than sample areas of the same size from continuous habitat onaround large landmasses If a species becomes rare onaround a small island it is likely to become locally extinct V Pattern 2 Species Isolation Relationship gt Single isolated islands far M from mainland or other islands support fewer spp than islands near gt Assumegtgt decline in S results from decline in dispersal rates as isolation increases 50 mltumhun quotHi gt Fits most taxa and ecosystems L 1 3C gt Notas clear as specues area a relationship gt Declines with negative 6 lOll I Q O I C expo ne ntial l l l l i ll Zl l 41le thll Mil llj lki Distance from Nt39w lumen munnquotMy 11302014 36L btga M3Agvv5 J C gnaw a or Nch Tamas ONLY rudemax m 8mm kSlAmA L9 MDSl Hm 0 50 CXlNH m quotI 316 pdMb jgbltb 39uemtv W10 o 58 Wm N stm s 96 jbwc mam anr PH MorC SQCU L5 W c3 have Whom sdaemo Maw 5 0M W 6126065 903 MB Mum 546st m Us oc 11302014 Why not as clear Isolation I measure as Slmple distance may not be bIologIcally relevant Area A IS easy to measure but DIfferng Immigration routes and sources of spp propagues rnakes smple straIght line I measures more suspect X V V V Pattern 3 1 Species Turnover gt Replacement of species in an area as some taxa become locally extinct and are replaced by immigrants from another area S may remain relatively constant but the species composition can l Ibe very different 4quot smunm 7 I V MacArthur and Wilson Xv Qb c W 0311ch gt Equilibrium Theorv of Island gt 1963 1967 Robert MacArthur gt Incorporated all 3 observed patte rn S Edward O Wilson gt Replaced static theory of islands 1 0 Community structure fixed in ecologic time X 11302014 MacArthuerilson Island Biogeography gt Ecological not historical biogeography gt Search for general patterns with general ecological explanation evolution or historical geology DG F NOTEDH For next time gt Understanding the simple model 0 Le understand this figure gt Changing parameters gt Discuss strengths and weaknesses Immigratiun Fthntkion Ha I n lt s39 squot P Numlwr uf Term WMMIFHI nun