Porifera - Paleontology
Porifera - Paleontology GEOLGY 317
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by GreenOwl713 on Thursday August 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOLGY 317 at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater taught by Rex Hanger in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 127 views. For similar materials see Paleontology in Geology at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater.
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Date Created: 08/06/15
9102014 1 Geology 317 Porifera 9 Read Chapter 12 in text suppl paper l Phylum Archaeocyatha 9 Early to Mid Cambrian I Extinct phylum 9 Open cup shape with double walls 9 Calcite skeleton l Archaeocyathid Classes 9 Regulares Clear double walls with straight septae 9 Irregulares Mat of septae throughout cone 9102014 Archaeocyathid Paleoecology enhance passive suspension feeding 9 Exclusively marine within photic zone 2030m depth 9 Algae symbiosis ourva V III quot1 AR CIHECI V Anlil reproduction by clonal budding 9 First reefs on Earth 9 Extinction correlated timewise with rise of true sponges Porifera Archaeocyathid Extinction Rest Bulldam Cultrun Dermapongl Humlnelllan 9 Extinction correlated timewise with rise of true sponges Porifera l Phylum Porifera 9 Simple organisms consisting of body wal with 3 layers of cells 9 CambrianRecent V l Poriferan Paleoecology 9 Fresh to marine water sculum 9 All latitudes amp water Spifu39ef r r depths Incurrent pores Porocytes 9 Benthic epifaunal o Immob e hoanocytes 9 Suspension feeding thoano ageuida protist Poriferan Skeleton Free spicules or spicules fused into walls multiple mineralogies 3 Grades of organization Ascon Sycon Leucon 9102014 Class Hexactinellida 9 CambrianRecent 9 Silica spiculeswalls 9 Eg Hydnoceras Devonian NY 9 All marine All water depths Pz Deep marine only Mz CZ Class Calcarea o CambrianRecent 9 calcareous spicules calcite walls 9 All marine Reefs in Permian Class Demospongea 9 CambrianRecent 9 Spicules of organic molecule spongin 9 Marine and fresh 9 Dominant Class today 9102014 9102014 l Class Sclerospongea 9 OrdovicianRecent 9 Skeletons of calcite silica A F 9 Reefs in Devonian 9 Extinct in Mz until living ones found in cryptic habitats in Bahamas 1 Ox mammch a thE c Stromatoporoid skeleton 9 2part skeleton 9 Basal skeleton laminae of calcite 9 M onticules Mama 39 Pilar Astrorhizae on montjcule astrorhizae W L p 9 Isolated silica spicules mamquotJ growing of surface soft STROMATOPOROID tissue xsqosmm a QAamp6mmee3 Stromatoporoid skeleton n W A041 NWM 5390633 9 Basal calcite skeleton preserved 9 horizontal laminae of W calcite IEFI39II 3 1InEIli39lrrl quotI 39 Jquot quotHaunt 1 Tquot 39Im I 1 I 9 Vertical pillars 9102014 1 Sands gt swim new 1 Plastic Colony Growth Abe45 a worms R 9 Due to environmental variability 9 Varies from encrusting laminar rough water to bulbous domes quiet water UwV C gt NBSv Colony Shape description 9 Measure vault V and Base B then VB 9 Laminar VB lt01 9 Low domical VB 0105 9 High domical VB 051 9 Extended domical gt1 V Mac L5H awaits 1ampng VB relation to EOD 9 High water energy I Laminar VB lt01 Low domical VB 0105 9 Low water energy High domical VB 051 Extended domical gt1 9 Can be used for other V colonial skeletons bryozoa corals sponges Sponges Q mm 9 Sponges are the simplest multicellular animals They a 0 lack definite tissues and organs eg they have no E nervous system 2 g pores for 1 8 taking in 39 water 2 s 8 Z 23 Siphania g 51939quot 7 Cretaceous 65 l g 1 roots g u 10 cm 5 146 2 g Cambrian Period to present day 5 quot m Envnronment 2 Mainly marine on the seafloor some live in freshwater 3quot Description 251 Sponges have a skeleton of calcium carbonate silica or as in some modern bath sponges horny organic material Water passes in through the sponge39s many surface pores often to the central cavity of a sacklike body and out through a large hole at the top Sponges vary greatly 299 in shape Some have a stalk others are encrusting and irregular Sponges feed by ltering off minute organic particles from the water 359 Interesting fact Sponges are the most common fossils in pieces of int from the Chalk You can often nd them by looking in int gravel drives and paths in central and southeast England 416 443 488 Sponges from the Chalk preserved in flint The largest round specimen is nearly 4 cm in diameter Stromatoporoid Diagnostic Taxonomic Characters 1 Encrusting or bulbous masses with thin concentric laminae parallel to the sunace 2 Presence of pillars plus astrorhizae on monticules monticule Stromatoporoids Similar Groups and ways to Distinguish Them 1 STROMATOLITES are similar in both name and appearance Stromatolites however are formed by bluegreen algae They are bulbous masses showing fine to coarse concentric laminations of carbonate mud or fine sand Stromatoporoid laminations are typically much thinner lt1 mm and number more than in stromatolites Pillars astrorhizae and monticules are never present in stromatolites 2 COLONIAL CORALS with tabulae andor dissepiments may be confused with stromatoporoids Typically however the tabulaedissepiments are larger and farther apart in corals than in stromatoporoids Also well developed septa or a colonial hexagonal packing pattern like a honeycomb is restricted to corals 3 BRYOZOA colonies often possess monticules as do stromatoporoids and may be confused with them The presence of small apertures approximately 1mm across covering the bryozoa skeletal surface will separate them from stromatoporoids
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