Week 1 - Paleontology
Week 1 - Paleontology GEOLGY 317
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by GreenOwl713 on Thursday August 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOLGY 317 at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater taught by Rex Hanger in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see Paleontology in Geology at University of Wisconsin - Whitewater.
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Date Created: 08/06/15
Fossil definition and requirements something dug upquot originally Today any evidence of onceliving organism preserved in rocks NEED I Hard parts skeleton I Buried rapidly deposition same as seds I Sealed from destructive agents bacteria groundwater etc Unaltered hard soft parts Eg mammoths in Siberia insects in amber Data rich but RARE Future DNA source Altered hard parts recrystallization Very common Original skeletal composition is altered to another more stable composition Usually soon after burial Eg clams with skeletons of aragonite recrystallize to calcite Fine externalinternal features usually preserved 942014 942014 Altered hard parts replacement riginal skeleton dissolves mpletely after burial leaving a le or void in the exact shape the skeleton id is then filled over time with n rich groundwater which ecipitates inside to fill the void g crinoids calcite buried ssolved replaced with pyrite Usually silica replacement Altered hard parts carbonization ost matter dissolved away ter burial leaving only a thin dimensional film of carbon r phosphate called osphatization mmon ually for flat already 2 d eletons already g leaves graptolites Altered Hard Parts permineralization ollow holes canals voids skeleton are filled with ion h groundwater after burial ew minerals sometimes otic like opal precipitate side the voids g hollow spaces inside nes are filled with silica ommon for bones and as petrified wood Altered Hard Parts casts and molds Most common Skeleton pressed into sediment leaves an external mold of its external surface Cast is the fossil that can be pulled out of the mold Analogy with cake cast pulled out of a baking mold external mold Altered hard parts internal molds gastropods braincases Sediment fills the hollow part of skeleton and lithifies Skeleton dissolves away leaving a record of the inside of the skeleton Eg steinkerns of of dinosaurs Trace Fossils Very common ny track trail boring dwelling I etc left by an organism I f Evidence for feeding dwelling I V ccomotion other bahavior rquot udy of these is Ichnology E g worm burrows dinosaur v I footprints gt m quot 39 quotWW 391 391quotquot7 quot quot 7 12quot 39 t 942014 Taphonomy study of how living organisms become fossilized 9 From Greek laws of burial 0 Many processes 0 Life on Earth 0 Invertebrates Esp insects SEHIG 350 l Kymnnnmera I 100 i quotI I A RTH ROPODS I f 0 Fossil Records 9 Also invertebrates but Worms 39 l Corals quotquot Sponges Protozoa Other arthropods Chordates We 8 mm Other animals I 39 yozoam Brachiopods 942014 942014 Postmortem transport 9 luVial EOD 1 Cut bank Asimgalus suwuusionca Huv39ne39 v Ivaclion BodiesBones moving downstream Loss of Data Y 0 Life Assemblage 0 Death Assemblage All potentially Bios a nomy E preservable O Hard parts AGE 3 0 Fossil Assemblage E Maximize through Iagencsis lI sampling f OLLECTION 942014 I wwy xwh 39 Decay Progressive loss of allmost soft parts shelly fossils x lignlfled cellulose decay chitln tissue Imprints minimum mineralized muscle I ea y late mineralization r u 4 0 After 1 month 9 Burial 9 Transport 9 Preservation potential Transport 2 Increasing allochthony r gt Autochthonous N ka Allochthonous in place 1T ALLOCHTHONY out of place no reworking reworked AUTOCHTHONY x gt A r Increasing autochthony y 1 D54 6 Lu 1 Transport 4Ti L gt B rial Rates I ugh I l ReSIdence I Rnwd burial I 39 good putwvaliun I I polennal how long on quot BURtAL RATE r 1p 1 Moderate burs rate n noderale preservrmon 39 potential I x l I gt I aura 7 quot r Low W a amn paw12x J Low quot399quot mesanvmoN POTENTIAL Transportation and fragmentation Pre butial Death Exceptionat V Norma Post burial 0 quotd5 i0n5 Conditions F Hard and soft I 1 Only hard bod body parts parts preserved preserved 942014 Cmrnkdu d mml nn 0 Mncfmmalneumhml moanm Soulth 39 quot339 0 OD duuuudkm by g D Ymidonshm by a 39 39 tulip and wave Emmy shut t mm m l V W listen location quot Mamba bacteria 39 39 I dummy 50 05mm 39 t gt leng mHmI wax 39 Burial in game V V I gt a F7 quotx I 39 Prmll I quot 339 xi Humming lmlp MuN mu prsz mutually cause mman omhlc auntie n the whining rock and the mu m dulmyed l 0 Types of Preservation See suppl pdf 0 Represent different pathways to different assemblages m V l undervath 539 5 39 I 39 A V naming scamminry gt V Cucudhnnvm lcraw39aolyusmb v mkmlgmmmmr n V 39 u mcdrmsu V Cmtmmonvy 39 mollusk mum mm V contemporary u ljxvrsrllu JModes of study 0 Work backwards from collected data to organisms alive 3 lOS ahnomy 0 Not always possible EE tfo39rAL fQSSlL Ass FMR am tagcncsis or I FPTION TAPHONOMY 942014
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