Notes from Lecture 13 - Age-Related Change in Personality and Emotion
Notes from Lecture 13 - Age-Related Change in Personality and Emotion Psych 115S
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emme Notetaker on Friday August 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 115S at Stanford University taught by Yun Zhang, Natalie Colich in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 150 views. For similar materials see Personality Psychology in Psychlogy at Stanford University.
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Date Created: 08/07/15
and Emotion measurind change across lifesoan most studies on aging are longitudinal or cross sectional cross sectional study gt measuring people of all different ages to try to find correlations between the ages pro very easy to collect the data con cohort differences that cannot be separated from age differences because of the varying years longitudinal study gt studying one group of people over a certain span of time pro able to focus on one group over time and observe changes within individuals con takes a lot of resources gt time and money attrition gt drop outs from the study due to deaths absolute change gt overall change in an individual or group relative change gt change in one individual relative to other individuals rank order change does adind matter Roberts and Mroczek research relating changes in the Big 5 to aging extraversion or social vitality is mostly stable up until we reach our mid 50 s and then begins to decrease as we age further maybe since older individuals are physically incapable of socializing more conscientiousness increases significantly as we age might be more mindful as we age openness seems to be pretty constant but has a slight decrease as we get older neuroticism or emotional stability increases pretty significantly as we age agreeableness also increases especially in later years Costa and McCrae found that changes seen across cultures appeared universal decline in extraversion with aging is mostly universal across cultures could be challenged because 1 those who are 50 years old are lumped into one whole group 2 also because the declines are steeper in some cultures than others and 3 because the initial levels of extraversion at young ages start higher in some cultures than they are in others can claim some universal tendencies but we must still take note of all the cultural differences CPA CrossCultural Personality Assessment Inventory measures a sixth personality trait known as interpersonal relatedness developed with both an emic and an etic approach used to compare multiple age groups in both Hong Kong and Canada found that older adults scored much higher in harmony in both cultures found that older adults scored much higher in ren qing in Hong Kong than in Canada though in Canadian culture adults still scored higher than younger individuals but not by much found that adults in both Hong Kong and Canada scored only barely higher than younger individuals in face found that younger individuals from Hong Kong scored much higher in flexibility than older individuals whereas younger individuals in Canada only scored slightly higher than older individuals in flexibility harmony gt how well people get along ren qing gt reciprocity face gt caring about reputation flexibility gt similar to openness high reliability coefficient infers stable results that are significantly similar across time spans appears that as we age personality trait consistency increases there is less change in our daily lives as we age gt more stability in our environments reactions to certain life events are less dramaticmore subdued we have experience and know how we will react to certain stimuli genetics as we age we have a better sense of who we are we know ourselves better less reactive emotional experience across lifespan longitudinal study that paged individuals five times a day for seven days once every so many years pros minimizes recall bias minimizes effect of beliefs about emotions captures contextual effects generally found that positive emotions increase until about the age of fifty or so then levels off found that negative emotions seem to decrease with age while calm increases and excitement decreases slightly and then levels off likelihood of experiencing mixed emotions increases significantly as the years go on effect of aging on emotional experience Life Span Theory of Control gt to adapt how you react to your environment as you get older you tend to shift towards internal changes instead of external changes eg moving neighborhoods gets more difficult as you age so when this is no longer possible we must simply change our mindset instead internal Dynamic Integration Theory DIT gt assumes cognitive decline gt we focus more on positive emotions as we age because we can no longer cognitively process the more complex negative emotions but we are unsure if negative emotions are actually more complex than positive emotions Socioemotional Selectivity Theory SST gt as you age you tend to shift your priorities to things that make you feel good while also focusing more on positive emotions older individuals respond more to positive stimuli than negative stimuli basically don t respond to negative stimuli at all lt supports both the DlT and the SST another study tried to put the DlT and the SST against each other when older individuals are distracted they end up focusing more on the negative than on the positive though while they were notdistracted older individuals focused more on the positive than the negative lt supports the SST very old age although negative affect decreases as we get older when moving into very old age 80 negative affect increases significantly which could be due to the idea that we are experiencing more negative emotions or other statistical reasons lots of variability in personality as we age similar to the variability found in physical appearance as we get older life satisfaction tends to decrease as distance to death decreases lt contributes to the variability in old age research limitations of old age research selection effects gt some may die during the study and mortality data is very relevant since it can be linked to lifespan eg neurotic people die sooner while conscientious tend to people live longer interindividual variability gt even though we can draw one line through data points the data points can be all over the graph gt makes it difficult to capture differences within a group or within an individual how to get around the downfalls of cohort effects nuns studies used since they have a stable environment and similar extraneous factors minimal differences between individuals crosssequential design gt combination of longitudinal and cross sectional studies most all studies use an emic approach