MQM 221 Week 7 Class Notes
MQM 221 Week 7 Class Notes MQM 221
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessie Frank on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MQM 221 at Illinois State University taught by Yongmei Lie in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior and Administration Resources in Business, management at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
MQM 221 Liu Tuesday, February 23, 2016 Chapter 5 – Foundations of Employee Motivation Motivation – the process of arousing and sustaining goaldirected behavior. On a scale of 110, how motivated are you? What moves YOU? o True passion? Responsibility? Joy? Employee Engagement Individual’s emotional and cognitive (rational) motivation, particularly a focused, intense, persistent, and purposive effort toward workrelated goals. High absorption in the work. o Time either moves extremely fast for you… or extremely slow. High selfefficacy – believe you have the ability, role clarity, and resources to get the job done o Sense of confidence of roles If the majority of your employees are engaged, you will have a higher rate of productivity. The Engagement Difference Worker at Home Depot helped professor figure out how to complete the project she needed. She was super satisfied that he found what she needed in a timely manner, as well as a cost that was within reason. Worldwide, 13% of employees are engaged at work. Drives and Needs Drives influence behaviors through needs. Drives • Innate, universal • Hardwired brain characteristics • “Prime movers" of behavior • Drives produce emotions Needs • Goal directed • Influenced by selfconcept, social norms, and past experience Four Drive Theory of Motivation 1. Drive to acquire MQM 221 Liu o Drive to take/keep objects and experiences o Basis of hierarchy and status o A desire to be different from those in the world. 2. Drive to bond o Drive to form relationships and social commitments o Basis of social identity o Have a sense of social belonging. o A desire to be the same as those in the world. 3. Drive to learn o Desire to create, to learn to master, to better ourselves and learn new skills. 4. Drive to defend o Desire to protect the things we consider to be valuable. The first 3 are about getting something, where the final is about losing something. Clip from Office Space o Man admits that he comes in late. Spaces out. Does not work hard. o “It’s not that I’m lazy, it’s that I just don’t care.” o Only real motivation is not to be hassled by his 8 bosses… and also the fear of not losing his job. However, he works JUST hard enough to keep his job. How do we rate his motivation level? Pretty low. His motivation is keeping his job…therefore Drive to Defend His work does not allow him to fulfil his Drive to Acquire Offering stock options? Drive to Acquire o What will happen if employers constantly try to bring about practices that fulfil the Drive to Acquire? Implications of the Four Drive Theory Provide a balanced opportunity for employees to fulfill all four drives • employees continually seek fulfilment of ALL drives • avoid having conditions support one drive more than others Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory TOP Selfactualization o You desire to be your true self. o Ultimate motivator for person’s behaviors Esteem o SelfEsteem – ability to have a sense of respect and growth o Esteem (from others) – other’s respect FOR you Belongingness/Social/Love o Desire for love and a sense of collection with others Safety MQM 221 Liu o Desire to be protected from physical harm; shelter, safe environment, want to be free from psychological harassment in the workplace, treat all coworkers equally. Physiological o Necessities; food and water. BOTTOM Seven categories – five in a hierarchy capture most needs Lowest unmet need is strongest. When satisfied, next higher need becomes primary motivator Selfactualization a growth need because people desire more rather than less of it when satisfied What’s wrong with needs hierarchy models? People have different hierarchies • Unique to each person and can possibly change over time People do not progress through the hierarchy as the theory predicts Needs hierarchies are shaped by the individual’s values and selfconcept What Maslow Contributed to Motivation Theory Holistic perspective • Integrative view of needs Humanistic perspective • Influence of social dynamics, not just instinct Positive perspective • Pay attention to strengths (growth needs), not just deficiencies Video on Cave Digging Man loves digging. Digs beautiful designs into caves. Spent 2 years digging and creating a place for someone, and made $12 an hour. He doesn’t do it for the money, he does it because he loves it. What need from Maslow’s Hierarchy motivates him? SelfActualization (he is having the time of life and loves to do it), Need for Beauty What need(s) from Maslow’s Hierarch does not motivate him? Esteem (there is no evidence), Belongingness (there is no evidence), Safety, Physiological Should Need to Play be a part of the Hierarchy? Or is it already added? Experiment where someone made each stair a part of a piano key. As a result, more people took the stairs than the elevator. MQM 221 Liu In video, Polar Bear encountered dog for the first time. The polar bear did not attack, but rather he played, and continued to come back at the same time each year. Alderfer’s ERG Theory Three groups of core needs: Existence Providing our basic material existence requirements Relatedness The desire we have for maintaining important interpersonal relationships Growth needs An intrinsic desire for personal development Maslow’s Hierarchy vs. Alderfer’s ERG Theory A Story of Motivation (Article) The article talks about how they are willing to offer their service for FREE rather than a DISCOUNTED rate. When you are forced to offer your product or service at half price, you are considering your esteem. When you offer for free, you have the opportunity to make a statement on what kind of a person you are, leading to selfactualization. Why didn’t the driver help initially? He was primarily concerned with his safety and security need. Part of his job is that he ALWAYS sees people struggling, and going to help each and every one is beyond his job description. Tells us to understand people’s behaviors, you must understand the motivation behind them. You have to move people from the lower level needs, and raise them to the upper level needs to increase motivation. Learned Needs Theory Needs are amplified or suppressed through selfconcept, social norms, and past experience Therefore, needs can be “learned” • strengthened through reinforcement, learning, and social conditions serve as indicatiors for individual differences. Three Learned Needs 1. Need for achievement • Need to reach goals, take responsibility MQM 221 Liu • Want reasonably challenging goals • Let them handle the process on their own; they do not want constant monitoring when working on achieving a goal. 2. Need for affiliation • Desire to seek approval, conform to others wishes, avoid conflict • Effective executives have lower need for social approval • Often do not emerge as strong leaders since they thrive on being accepted by others. 3. Need for power • Desire to control one’s environment • Personalized versus socialized power • They are more likely to become a leader • They want to have power, so they can use that power to benefit themselves. Thursday, February 25, 2016 Expectancy Theory Assumes that human beings act rationally Will ask 3 questions: 1. EtoP: If we put effort into this, will my performance show? 2. PtoO: If I perform well, will I be rewarded? 3. How much value does the outcomes you achieve have? Limitation of Expectancy Theory We allow our emotions to come into play. Ultimatum Game (each student gets a sticky note) Make a proposal on what to do with $1. How much will you give to your partner? Majority got $0.50 5 got less than $0.50 o Those who accept the offer do so because some money is better than none. o Those who did not accept the offer did not because they do not think it is fair. Equity Theory Not only do individuals get how much they are getting, but how much they are getting in comparison to others. MQM 221 Liu Motivational Theories X & Y Theory X – A set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by lower order needs Theory Y – A set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by higher order needs. Theory X Workers Little ambition Dislike work Avoid responsibility Theory Y Workers SelfDirected Enjoy Work Accept Responsibility
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