Psychology 202: Evolutionary Psychology
Psychology 202: Evolutionary Psychology
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This 4 page Reader was uploaded by Bryce Buser on Sunday April 27, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Oregon taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 139 views.
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Date Created: 04/27/14
Psychology 202 CRN 37657 T R 4 550pm Updates The 13 Midterm is next Thursday The midterm material goes though Tuesday39s lecture although please note that all midterms are cumulative and even after the midterm you should continue to review this material What You Need to Know Notes that you need to know are in black Any notes that I have added for clarity on the topic will be in green Hopefully this makes things a more clear for you all and if you have any ideas in how I can format these notes to make things even easier send me an email at buseruoregonedu Study Tip Turn these notes into ashcards Use bolded words for the front and the definitions for the back Learn how to skim the long readings If you have time read the whole thing If you have to be quick at least go through and read the bolded words and their definitions Recognize what has been talked about in class and see how the book expands on any relevant material Make sure you understand any experiments that took place and key figures in psychology Reading is important but understanding is more important It39s better to read part of a reading and understand than to just go through the entire thing and have no idea what you just read by the end of it if you can break large readings into small readings so you have time to think about what you just learned Thursday April 10 2014 Corresponding Readings Video on Blackboard Vocabulary Evolution History all species must adapt over time through reproduction and mutation to fit into the environment in which they live If the mutations are fitness positive the species will survive and continue to reproduce If the mutations are unhelpful the species is less likely to continue to reproduce and continue on The newest generations always carry the most copies of helpful mutations Speciation when one species splits into two to fit different environments This is now new species are created Facts to Know there is no external purpose for human nature that has been naturally selected Adaptions do not need to be good only adaptive The Naturalistic Fallacy associated with the Is Ought Problem which was developed by David Hume 17111776 OughtIs Problem moral position determines factual claim IsOught Problem factual claim determines moral position Factual Claim when something is natural or unnatural Moral Position when something is good or bad this is your own personal decisions and can be determined based on values how you were raised etc Adaptive Evolution there are three components in order for adaptive evolution to take place The first is that there has to be come way for the trait to be inherited The second is that not all creatures in the same population can be the same there has to be some sort of variation The third is that within this variation there has to be selection or traits that are better than others Adaptation everyone has mutations but adaptions are mutations that are considered fitness positive we are constantly evolving and it is clear that none of us are the same Remember that mutations are not always bad and that while many are not very good deleterious most are neutral mutations in terms of affecting us The smallest group are mutations that actually benefit us which are considered adaptive Exaptation a trait that was originally developed to serve on particular purpose but ultimately came to serve another Feathers are an example of an exaptation they were originally meant for warmth and ultimately are used for sexual attraction as well as for ying Atavism Latin for great grandfather s grandfather Atavism is when one trait skips a generation only to appear in another Examples of atavism are whale legs and human tails Vestigial Traits vestigial traits are traits that stick around even through they no longer serve any function Examples of vestigial trails are wisdom teeth in humans and the appendix Spandrel a spandrel is an evolutional byproduct Belly buttons are evolutionary byproducts of the umbilical cord which is essential for survival In the Intelligence lecture we will discuss how knowledge of mathematics etc is an evolutionary byproduct the theories to why we have intelligence and what that means for our species GenesEye View the gene not the individual is the most important part of reproduction Genes will continue to be passed down through generations only if it helps the survival of the gene and even if it is at the cost of the individual the gene will be passed down even if the parents die in the process Genetic Inclusive Fitness the success of the genes that have been passed down to offspring The best determination of whether the spread of your genes has been successful is to observe grandchildren Recent Human Evolution in the past 6 million years the brain has tripled in size EEA The Environment of Evolutionary Adaptiveness EEA is the environment that forced different adaptions and mutations to occur Parental Investment Theory women want good genes and parental investment help taking care of the children within their mates The fact that human children require so much care and attention for the first part of their lives has made parental investment theory more prominent in our species Female Strategies concealed ovulation In primates fertility was advertised while in modern humans it is concealed One theory is that it forces the med to be around the entire month with one particular girl The second theory is that it prevents women from using timing based birth control Women39s Dual Motivations throughout a woman39s fertility cycle women tend to prefer more trustworthy and feminine male faces when not ovulating and more dominate and masculine when they are Male Strategies the more women a man is with polygyny the larger the body size difference Men39s Top Five these are the top five most important things for a man to have in a mate 1 Intelligence 2 Good Looks 3 Humor 4 Honesty 5 Facial Attractiveness Women39s Top Five these are the top five most important things for a woman to have in a mate 1 Humor 2 Intelligence 3 Honesty 4 Kindness 5 Values What Determines Female Attractiveness youth beauty as well as a girl39s baby likeness This baby likeness is defined with big eyes small chins small noses blond hair and full lips Timelines 6 million years ago our last common ancestor with chimps 2515 mya homo line evolves 600300 kya our line separates form the Neanderthals 240 kya the first of the most modern humans anatomically 30000 kya the Neanderthals died out All but Africans have Neanderthal DNA 1740 Common Descent 1809 Transmutation of species 1859 Natural Selection is developed and Origin of Species by Darwin is published 1871 Sexual Selection Theory is developed 1971 Sociobiology is developed 1970s Evolutional Psychology and the Cognitive Module are developed Experiments The TShirt Study Gangestad amp Thornhill 1998 80 men were given t shirts to wear to bed for two nights without washing them 82 women then came and were able to smell them and rate them on wether they thought the t shirts smelled pleasant or sexy It was found that the women preferred the more anatomically symmetrical men without realizing it although this was only true when they were ovulating People You Need to Know Theodosious Dobzhansky 19001975 famous for saying Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution This is more of an interesting fact and you do not need to remember Theodosious Charles Darwin 18091882 said in 1838 He who understands baboon would do more toward metaphysics than Locke In response to Wallace39s spiritual force belief Darwin argued that every piece of evolution that seemed to be unexplainable could in fact be explained by sexual selection or natural process and that there is no need for any spiritual forces or metaphysics Finally he differed with Wallace in believing that evolution does not have a specific purpose or direction Wallace decided that he would not accept everything that the theory of evolution implied Wallace argued that mathematics art music wit and other human faculties could not be accounted for in natural selection and that spiritual force had to be a part of the theory He argued that spiritual forces were a part of the fact that 1 Inorganic matter was what life had been created from 2 Consciousness had developed with the help of spiritual forces and 3 Mathematics and other human faculties were the result of spiritual intervention in evolution Wallace also believed that that ultimate direction of evolution was for the human spirit and its development Wallace was mentioned in previous notes as the co founder of evolution This is where we learn that most people don39t even know that Wallace worked on the development of evolution because of his belief in the spiritual forces Darwin had even commented that he would go further than Wallace because of this belief however Wallace refused to believe that evolution could occur the way it has on its own
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