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Class Notes for Aquatic Animal Diversity Practical

by: Crystle Wee

Class Notes for Aquatic Animal Diversity Practical LSM3254

Marketplace > National University of Singapore > Biology > LSM3254 > Class Notes for Aquatic Animal Diversity Practical
Crystle Wee
Ecology of Aquatic Environments
Dr. Peter Todd and Dr. Darren Yeo

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About this Document

Practical includes notes on: Species Interaction Invasive Species Defense and Protection Photosynthesis Plankton Dichotomous Key Construction Comparison between aquatic and terrestrial en...
Ecology of Aquatic Environments
Dr. Peter Todd and Dr. Darren Yeo
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Ecology of Aquatic Environments

Popular in Biology

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crystle Wee on Tuesday August 11, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LSM3254 at National University of Singapore taught by Dr. Peter Todd and Dr. Darren Yeo in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Ecology of Aquatic Environments in Biology at National University of Singapore.


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Date Created: 08/11/15
Aquatic Water Terrestrial Air Higher pressure Lower pressure Lower temperature range less variable and Higher temperature range more more unstable environment variable and less stable environment Plankton present No plankton Dissolved organic matter important for No organic matter that can be dissolved growth of bacteria especially can be found in air Type of environment determines the Most areas have similar concentration saturation level of 02 of 02 High electrical conductivity Low electrical conductivity 0 Important for defense eg Electric eels Sense perception eg Ampullae of Lorenzini in elasmobranchs Radially symmetrical animals found Most animals are bilaterally Multiple lter feeders found symmetrical Omnidirectionalfeeding Multiple microscopic primary producers eg More macroscopic primary producers phytoplankton fewer macroscopic primary eg trees shrubs grasses and less producers eg kelp seagrass macrophytes in microscopic producers freshwater Higher number of trophic levels in most food Lower number of trophic levels in most chains food chains 0 Some exceptions like baleen whales or whale sharks feed directly on zooplankton primary consumers Higher biological diversity especially at lower Lower biological diversity trophic levels 0 Possibly because life originated from water Reproduction More external fertilization and Reproduction Has no system that broadcast strategies multiple species relying releases female gametes and most on rstrategies broadcast strategies rely on pollinators for dispersal Station 2 Defence and Protection Interaction between prey and predators adaptations Poison Venom Structures Camou age Asian toad Stone sh with dorsal Flower crab s spines File sh Madagascar spines that are triggered hard carapace Stone sh by pressure File sh spines on top Sea snakes breathe of head and caudal through lungs and peduncle area restricted to shallower water Giant Clam Porcupine sh Octopus Scutes Puff Jet propulsions Aggregation of multiple Spines Flexible individuals but only at the Increased size up to 23 Ink with melanin larval stage times the original size Mimicry Waterjets Poisonous Venomous some but not Background matching all matches ocean oor colour for eshy interior of clams Station 5 Photosynthesis building Hermatypic Need light to survive as they have zooxanthellae living within them reef Ahermatypic Nonreef building corals Symbiont algae known as zooxanthellae live in the gastrodermis of the coral polyp and derive energy from photosynthesis Autotrophs Primary producers photosynthesis Around 255 coral species in Singapore approximately 30 of all global species Marine organisms Freshwater organisms Platygyra Brain coral Montipora Foliose coral Spoon seagrass important to diet of dugongs and are true plants unlike algae Halymenia red algae no true roots and only holdfasts Station 6 Plankton 1 Water provides a 3D environment for organisms to oat in 2 No analogous group for terrestrial species 3 Very important role in marine food webs Freshwater Marine Cyanobacterial blooms Low 02 Black light toxic Can x N2 which other phytoplankton usually can t lysed In order to get rid of algal blooms chemicals can be used to explode the cyanobacterial cellsbut the toxins remain Produces toxins especially when cells are Dino agellate 39red tide diatom blooms Toxic Eg Neurotoxins Zooplankton cladocerans Holoplankton Eg Copepods rotifers Meroplankton Eg Fish larvae Zooplankton Holoplankton Nauplii rotifers cladocerans Meroplankton Eg Zoea megalopa which develop into crustaceans echinoderms or sh Chaetograth Arrow worm Ghost shrimp Station 3 Species Interaction Organism 1 Organism 2 Type of Details relationship Snapping Goby Mutualism Blind snapping shrimp relies on shrimp goby for protection while the shrimp cleans out and maintains the burrow Sea cucumber Pearl sh Commensalism Pearl sh swims up the anus of some species of sea cucumber Angler sh Angler sh Parasitism Male angler sh latches onto female male female as a parasite receiving nutrients directly from her body Lamprey Host sh Parasitism Lamprey has teeth that allow it to latch onto sh problem for aquaculture Mudskipper Mudskipper Competition Very territorial sh that have their own burrows and will ght each other for space Shark Remora Commensalism Remora glides along under shark to ride on the current Interactions for commensalism 0 Why is it selected 0 Dif cult to tell exactly what relationships are because it isn t de nite Think about it Trophic cascades o What happens


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