Lecture 1 - Introduction to MIS, Collaboration
Lecture 1 - Introduction to MIS, Collaboration ACC1006
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Wai Chuan on Sunday August 16, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ACC1006 at National University of Singapore taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Accounting Information Systems in Accounting at National University of Singapore.
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Date Created: 08/16/15
Chapter 1 Intro to MIS Lecture 1 11 Importance of IS Efficient Business processes need to be streamlined to run more efficiently Need to look at the processes But because most business processes are not completely structured we have to decide what IS can make them more efficient Marketable skills IS skills systems development programming and so on are marketable because all organizations have undesirable efficiency of business processes Accounting professionals may help clients make decisions to purchase IS In auditing processes accounting professionals need to evaluate o efficiency eg costliness and timeliness and o effectiveness usually strategic value of existing systems Should they be replaced or what not Gives you Abstract reasoning systems thinking a deep knowledge of business processes and their fit with IT 0 Systems thinking Need to model systems components and connect inputs and outputs among components into a whole to explain observation a deep connect between technologies and business process 12 Advance of Hardware technology Hardware technology has been improving very quickly make computer work faster cheaper and store more data Esp through Miniaturized technology Two inhibiting factors 0 One zero bandwidth is not possible 0 Speed of light cannot be exceeded despite miniaturization Moore s Law 1965 o quotThe number of transistors per square inch on an integrated chip doubles every 18 months 0 Obstacles of Moore s law I Bottlenecks in disc access and memory access speed I Software paradigm shift Speed of Parallel computing cannot rival that of hardware I Negative implication of Moore39s Law Obsolescence 0 New connectivity in youtube FB twitter etc New paradigm 0 But marginal cost is still not zero due to storage space and cooling capacity 13 What is MIS Development and use of information systems that help businesses achieve their goals and objectives 31 Components of IS 0 IS defined Group of components that interact to produce information I Hardware desktops laptops PDAs I Software operating systems application programs I Data facts and figures entered into computers I Procedures how the other four components are used I People users technologists IS support 0 Components Ordered by Difficulty of installationchangingDisruption I Hardware simplest Programs Databases Procedures Personnel responsibilities Hardest 32 Development and use Development Need to take an active role in system development specifying system requirements and in managing development projects to ensure that the system meets your needs and the organization s needs Needs System users must tell the IT people about their needs How to use to accomplish your goals Responsibilities for protecting security of system and data Responsibilities for backing up and recovering system and data 33 Achieving business goals and obiectives 0 IS shouldn t be created just to follow modern tech trends 0 Must achieve biz goals and objectives 14 Information Defined O O 0 Knowledge derived from data most common Data presented in a meaningful context Data processed by summing ordering averaging grouping comparing or other similar operations Characteristics of good info O 0000 Accurate correct and complete data and processed correctly Accuracy is crucial managers must be able to rely on results of their information systems Timely produced in time for its intended use Relevant both to the context and to the subject Just barely sufficient for purpose for which it is generated Avoid information overload Worth its cost appropriate relationship between cost of information and its value Difference Between Information Technology and Information Systems 0 O O 0 IS Assembly of hardware software data procedures and people that interact to produce information IT Hardware software and data components Information technology drives the development of new information systems You can buy IT you cannot buy IS need to overcome employees resistance to change and manage them as they use new system Chapter 2 Collaboration Lecture 1 21 What is Collaboration I Collaboration occurs when two or more people work together to achieve a common Goal Result or Work product I Greater than individuals working alone I Involves more than coordination and communication alone I Effectiveness of a collaborative effort is driven by three critical factors 0 Communication Feedback and iteration make a better product in the end 0 Content management each must be able to manage what they are doing without conflict Important to define rights some members have full permission to create edit and delete 0 Workflow control coordination and ordering of tasks 22 Components of collaboration IS 0 Hardware I Client hardware Computers and other communication devices iPhones Blackberries I Server hardware Computers installed and operated by IT professionals that support the collaboration system 0 Software I Google Docs amp Spreadsheets Microsoft Groove Microsoft SharePoint m I Documents task lists discussions 0 Procedures and People 1 Working in close collaboration is a key success factor in IT projects 2 Bring and close the gap between 2 drastically different directions 23 Using collaboration to improve team communication 0 Synchronouscommunication I Team members meet at the same time but not necessarily at the same geographic location I Conference calls facetofacemeetings or online meetings 0 Asynchronouscommunication I Team members do not meet at the same time or in the same geographic location I Discussion forums or email exchanges 0 Virtual Meetings I Participantsjoin in from multiple locations in real time I Don t require everyone to be in same place at same time I Virtual meeting tools 0 Conference calls can be difficult to arrange the right time Multiparty text chat easier to arrange if everyone has mobile texting Videoconferencing requires everyone to have the proper equipment Email most familiar but has serious drawbacks in content management Discussion forums content is more organized than email Team surveys easy to manage but don t provide very much interactive discussion 24 Using collaboration svstems to control workflow 0 Sequential workflow I When a document is reviewed by one group member then another 0 Parallel workflow where task can be decomposed I When documents are reviewed simultaneously by multiple members 0 SharePoint site I Define Workflow I Ensures team members perform required tasks collaboration file sharing and web publishing share documents manage project with partners and publish information to customer 25 Using Collaboration Svstems for Problem Solving How can we pool our knowledge to improve results How can we make processes more efficient How can we manage the information overload Empowering information workers people who create analyze distribute or consume information Growing need in Global economy 0 Global permanentlyconnected customers partners and suppliers 0 Increasingly mobile global project teams 0 Products have short life cycles We need 0 Collaborative demandpromotion planning 0 Collaborative supply chain 0 RFID 0 Collaborative new product development Pressures to become more transparent to government to customers suppliers and partners yet at the same time reducing information risk 26 Using Collaboration Svstems for Decision Making Decision Level OMS Operational decisions I Concern daytoday activities I Obtain data from transaction processing systems I Require very little collaboration Managerial decisions I Focus on the allocation and utilization of resources I Require some collaboration Strategic decisions I Are broader in their scope and center around organizational issues I Are almost always collaborative Decision Process Structured versus Unstructured Structured Decisions I Have an understood and accepted method for making decisions I Have optimal solution I Require very little collaboration Unstructured Decisions I No agreedon decisionmaking method I No proven optimal solution I Are often a collaborative process Relationship Between Decision Type and Decision Process Operational decisions tend to be structured Strategic decisions tend to be unstructured Managerial decisions tend to be both structured and unstructured 27 Decision Making and Collaboration Systems Structured decisions I Few need collaboration as it is expensive wasteful and frustrating I No feedback or iteration are necessary Unstructured decisions I Feedback and iteration are crucial I Different perspectives required I Communications systems are very important to the process Herbert Simons I Tasksdecisions lie between the illstructuredunstructured to the structured I III structured tasks challenge the decision maker I Humans are subjected to bounded rationality a decision maker receives imperfect information about objectivesgoals and courses of action to take Therefore the solution space is unbounded 28 How Will Collaboration Change By 2020 Facetoface meetings F2F become rare Employees not needed to be present on site will work at home either full time or at least several days a week Nearly all corporate training will be online mostly asynchronous Business travel will be a shadow of its former self Travel industry will reorganize for nearly exclusively for recreational travel Conventions will become virtual 29 The basic of Tovotg39s Production Svstem TPS supplier association effect of quotknowledge sharing on supply chain coordination upstream and downstream entities The key to Toyota s success 0 highly effective supplier integration process TPS shared by departments and outside suppliers Short lead time high quality low inventory large variety of products low cost Need a lot of collaboration Focus on building the whole supply chain building a winwin relation Ability to exchange datainformation between internally integrated systems Also need to embrace several cooperating partners CRM SCM and ERP systems and so on shared internally and externally 210 CISC v RISC CISC Complex Instruction Set Computer Most PCs use CPU based on this architecture Large complex and slower The philosophy behind it is that hardware is always faster than software therefore one should make a powerful instruction set which provides programmers with assembly instructions to do a lot with short programs Relatively slower than RISC per instruction but use little less than RISC in instructions RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computer Eg used by apple Fewer simpler and faster But more instructions are needed to accomplish a task The philosophy behind it is that almost no one uses complex assembly language instructions as used by CISC and people mostly use compilers which never use complex instructions Another advantage Require fewer transistors Easier to design and cheaper to produce Finally it39s easier to write powerful optimized compilers since fewer instructions exist
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