New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

2/23 and 2/25 Notes

by: Alyssa Shriver

2/23 and 2/25 Notes Bio 102

Alyssa Shriver
GPA 2.7

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Notes that will be on Exam 2
Introduction to Biology
Dr. Jeremy Chandler
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Introduction to Biology

Popular in Biology

This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Shriver on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 102 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Jeremy Chandler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.


Reviews for 2/23 and 2/25 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/27/16
Lecture 2/23/16 More on plants and the eukaryotic explosion continued  Sun Dew Plants o Darwin studied them and their reactions to milk, urine, stone, paper and  meat when he placed them on their leaves o The leaves reacted to milk, urine and meat but did NOT react to the stone  and paper o It did NOT react to the stone and paper because they have no nutrients for the plant  o He found that the plant would absorb anything with Nitrogen through its  leaves o They live in bogs and turned carnivorous because they can’t get Nitrogen  from the soil, so they have to find another place to get it  Venus Fly Trap o Darwin studied this plant and found that there are three hairs on the plant o He touched the first hair and nothing happened, but when he touched the  second hair it always closed the trap o The second hair is triggered because the plant knows that there is  definitely food nearby o The gate is not tightly closed because it keeps big bug in and lets little  bugs out so it doesn’t waste its energy breaking down a small bug  Classify carnivorous plants based on their source of carbon  o Autotrophs  Vertebrates make up about 5% of the animal population and the rest are  invertebrates   What is an animal? o Multicellular; collection of cells that have a common goal o Heterotrophs  o Get nutrients from ingestion  o Animal cells lack the cell walls that provide strong support in the bodies of  plants and fungi o Most animals have  Muscle cells  Nerve cells that control the muscles o Most animals are  Are diploid  Reproduce sexually and   Proceed through a series of typically similar developmental stages   Early Animals and The Cambrian Explosion  o Animal diversification appears to have accelerated rapidly from 525­535  million years ago, during the Cambrian period o Because so many animal body plans  o The Cambrian explosion may have been ignited by  Increasingly complex predator­prey relationships and//or  An increase in atmospheric oxygen  The genetic framework for complex organisms, was already in  place   Animal Phylogeny o Biologists categorize animals by  “body plan” general features of body structure and   genetic data o One major branch point distinguishes sponges from all other animals  because, unlike more complex animals, sponges lack true tissue  Eukaryotic diversity: animals  o Three main lineages o See three distinct body plans  No definite shape, asymmetrical  Radial symmetry  Bilateral symmetry   Animal Phylogeny o A second major evolutionary split is based on body symmetry  Radial symmetry refers to animals that are identical   Bilateral symmetry exists where there is only one way to split the  animal into equal halves   Major Invertebrates phyla o Invertebrates  Are animals without backbones and   Represent 95% of the animal kingdom   Eukaryotic Diversity: animals  o Asymmetrical   Simplest living animals  Lack defined tissues or organs (such as sponges)   Sponges o Sponges represent multiple phyla  o Sponges  Are stationary animals   Lack true tissue, and   Probably evolved very early from colonial protists  o The body of a sponge resembles a sac perforated with holes o Choanocyte cells draw water through the walls of the sponge where food  is collected   Today’s Objectives  o Explain why carnivore plants evolved o Explain two features the Venus fly trap uses to save energy o Understand and be able to explain the variation amongst the 4 main  phylotypes of plants we discussed  o Explain classification schemes we use for animals and how we would  classify them based on source of carbon  o Explain some common features and shared developmental stages in  animals  o Explain some defining characteristics of sponges February 25, 2016 Invasion of the Eukaryotes   Eukaryotic diversity: animals  o Radial symmetry  Body plan that is circular  No clear left or right sides  Cnidarians o Characterized by  The presence of body tissues  Radial symmetry, and  Tentacles with stinging cells  The basic body plan is a sac with a gastrovascular cavity, a central  digestive compartment with one opening  Two main body compartments   The stationary polyp  The floating medusa  Bilateral Symmetry o Clear right and left halves o Mirror images of each other o Adaptations for seeking food, stalking prey, and avoiding predators   Mollusks o Soft bodied invertebrate o Generally, with a hard shell o Slugs, snails, and clams   Flatworms o Simplest bilateral animals o Flatworms include forms that are   Parasites or  Free living in marine, freshwater, or damp habitats o The gastrovascular cavity of flatworms  Is highly branched   Increases the surface area of oxygen flow in their body  Provides an extensive surface area for absorption of nutrients    Annelids  o Three main groups  Earthworms, which eat their way through soil  Polychaetes, marine worms with segmental appendages for  movement and gas exchange  Leeches, typically free­living carnivores but with some  bloodsucking forms   Leeches o Promote blood flow and relieve clots in wounded tissue with poor blood  flow. Anticlotting compounds in saliva keep blood flowing. o Some use to remove toxins from the blood  Roundworms o Cylindrical in shape, tapered at both ends o The most numerous and widespread of all animals o Important decomposers and  o Dangerous parasites in plants, humans, and other animals   Arthropods o Most abundant invertebrates o Segmented body, jointed appendages, hard exoskeleton  Protects organism from predators, keeps it from drying out,  structure and support for movement   Made of chitin  Insects o There are over 1 million arthropods species identified, mostly insects o Very diverse and successful group, occurring in nearly all habitats in the  biosphere   o Four main groups  Arachnids  Crustaceans  Millipedes and centipedes  Insects   Arachnids o Catch prey in webs made of silk (strongest natural fibers) o Inject prey with proteolytic enzymes that digest tissues o Drink digested parts from inside out  o Includes  Dust mites  Scorpions   Ticks   Crustaceans o Nearly all aquatic  o Have multiple pairs of specialized appendages  o Examples include lobsters, crabs, crayfish, shrimp, barnacles, pill bug  Millipedes and Centipedes o Similar segments over most the body o Millipedes  Eat decaying plant matter  Have two pairs of short legs per body segments o Centipedes  Are terrestrial carnivores with poison claws and   Have one pair of short legs per body segments  Math and Muscle and Nature o Evolution of muscle performance determines animal behavior and ecology  Amplification of force production   The Mantis Shrimp o Eyes can detect 5,000 wavelengths of light o Punch generates 350lbs force from cavitation bubble o Force actually generates heat and light   Insect Anatomy o Three­part body plan  Head  Thorax  Abdomen o The insect head usually bears  A pair of sensory antennae and  A pair of eyes o He mouthparts are adapted for particular kinds of eating o Flight is one key to the great success of insects   Insect Diversity o Outnumber all other forms of life combined o Insects live in  Almost every terrestrial habitat  Fresh water and   The air  o Many insects undergo metamorphosis in their development o Young insects may  Appear to be smaller forms of the adult or   Change from a larval form to something much different as an adult   Echinoderms o Lack body segments o Typically show radial symmetry as adults but bilateral symmetry as larvae, o Have an endoskeleton, usually carbonate based o Have a water vascular system that facilitates movement and gas  exchange  o Ex. Sea star, sand dollars, sea cucumber and sea urchin   Echinoderms (star fish) o In some, every limb contains vital organs needed to reproduce itself o No brain o Eyespots on arms help sense environment around them o Eats by inverting stomach outside the body cavity and digesting prey   Eukaryotic diversity: animals  o Invertebrates­ lack of backbone  95% of animals   mollusks  annelids  nematodes  arthropods  echinoderms o Vertebrate­ bony or cartilaginous back bone (chordates)  Vertebrate Evolution and Diversity o Have a unique endoskeleton composed of   A cranium  A backbone made of a series of bones called vertebrae. (or just a  possessing a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord)  The current consensus is that chordates are monophyletic­ 1  common ancestor   Fishes o The first vertebrates were aquatic and probably evolved during the early  Cambrian period, about 542 million years ago. They  Lacked jaws and   Are represented today by lampreys  o The two major groups of living fishes are the   Cartilaginous fishes (sharks and rays), with a flexible skeleton  made of cartilage, and   Bony fishes, with a skeleton reinforced by hard calcium salts.  Bony fishes include   Ray­finned fishes and   Lobe­finned fishes  o Cartilaginous and bony fishes have a lateral line system that detects  minor vibrations in the water  o To provide lift off the bottom   Cartilaginous fish must swim but  Bony fish have swim bladders, gas­filled sacs that help them be  buoyant    Amphibians  o Exhibit a mixture of aquatic and terrestrial adaptations,  o Usually need water to reproduce, and  o Typically undergo metamorphosis from an aquatic larva to a terrestrial  adult  o Were the first vertebrates to colonize land and  o Descended from fishes that had   Lungs,  Fins with muscles, and   Skeletal supports strong enough to enable some movement on land o Terrestrial vertebrates are collectively called tetrapods, which means  “four feet” o Tetrapods include  Amphibians,   Reptiles, and   Mammals   Reptiles o Reptiles (including birds) and mammals are amniotes, which produce  amniotic eggs, which   Are fluid­filled,  Have waterproof shells, and   Enclose the developing embryo   Nonbird Reptiles  o Nonbird reptiles are ectotherms, sometimes referred to as “cold­blooded,” which means that they obtain body heat from the environment  o A nonbird reptile can survive on less than 10% of the calories required by  a bird or mammal (endotherms­warm blooded) of equivalent size  Eukaryotic Diversity: Animals  o Vertebrates o Chordates  Mammals  Mammary glands  Body covered with fur  For example, the fisher   Mammals  o The first mammals  Arose about 200 million years ago and   Were probably small, nocturnal insect­eaters o Most mammals are terrestrial, although dolphins, porpoises, and whales  are totally aquatic  o Mammals have two unique characteristics:  Hair and  Mammary glands that produce milk, which nourishes the young  o There are three­major groups of mammals:  Monotremes, egg­laying mammals  Marsupials, pouched mammals with a placenta  Eutherians, also called placental mammals  Today’s Objectives o Explain existence of ancestral organisms that are still alive today in the  context of evolution o Explain an energetic advantage ectotherms have over organisms that are  “warm­blooded” or endotherms of equivalent size o Explain how the progression from water to land amniotes still retains a  “little piece” of ancestral aquatic environments o Explain defining characteristics of each of the 9 groups we have discussed over the past few days and be able to name an example species from  each group   Sponges  Cnidarians  Presence of body tissues, radial symmetry and tentacles  with stinging cells   Ex. Jelly fish   Molluscs  Soft­bodied invertebrate and generally with a hard shell  Ex. slugs, snails, clams   Flatworms  Bilateral animals, gastrovascular cavity is highly branched  Ex. Parasites or free living in marine, freshwater or damp  habitats    Annelids  Long, segmented body   Ex. Earthworms, polychaetes, leeches   Roundworms  Cylindrical in shaped, tapered at both ends, the most  numerous and widespread of all animals, and are  decomposers   Ex. Hookworm   Arthropods  Most abundant invertebrates, segmented body, jointed  appendages, hard exoskeleton  Ex. Millipedes and centipedes   Echinoderms  Lack body segments, typically show radial symmetry as  adults but bilateral symmetry as larvae, have an  endoskeleton, and have a water vascular system that  facilitates movement and gas exchange   Ex. Star fish   Chordates  


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.