Biology 160 chapter 27 &28 notes
Biology 160 chapter 27 &28 notes BIL 160
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Khrystel Bernard on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIL 160 at University of Miami taught by Paul Groff in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see EVOLUTION & BIODIVERSITY in Biology at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
Chapter 27 & 28 Prokaryotes (can be spherical, spiral, or rodshaped) Cell walls are made up of protein layer (capsule) Bacteria: Gram staining is used to determine Grampositive bacteria: These bacteria have a thick wall made of peptidoglycan (polymer composed of sugar and polypeptide bonds), are large, and show violet color Gramnegative bacteria: Contain a very thin layer of peptidoglycan; are structurally more complex than gram (+) bacteria Endospores enable bacteria to withstand harsh/difficult conditions (multilayered structure covers copy of chromosome) For more comparisons of Bacteria vs Archaea https://s3.amazonaws.com/classconnection/497/flashcards/5600497/png/screen_s hot_20150617_at_60214_pm14E043088E22A31124B.png Peptidoglyca Membrane RNA n Lipids Polymeras Fimbriae: Appendages that allow in cell walls e bacteria to stick to surfaces Bacteri Yes Unbranched One a Hydrocarbon Taxis is s when the bacteria moves towards or away from a No Some Many stimulus Archae branched Bacterial a Flagellum: Long appendages that help the bacteria move around Three parts: Motor, hook, and filament In order to makeup for the lack of complex organelles that are characteristic of eukaryotes, prokaryotes have specialized membranes that perform metabolic functions. Reproduction By binary fissionBacterial duplicates its genetic material and divides asexually (existing alleles reform during meiosis) Bacteria (and viruses) have shortlife spans and reproduce at such a rapid rate that generations of them are produced in a few days. This allows for great genetic difference in which the variation of mutations in one gene expands (Example: HIV rapidly mutates in the body) Genetic Recombination (Bacteria do not undergo meiosis or fertilization) (Horizontal gene transfer…explained in notes 25 cont’d and COMPLETE 26) Transformation: Prokaryotes uptake foreign naked DNA which changes their genotype and possibly phenotype Transduction: Bacteria attaches to host cell and injects its information into the host cell, forcing the cell to replicate its DNA (bacteriophages do this). Conjugation: Bacteria transfers its genetic code to another bacteria that is missing the information (can enable this bacteria to transcribe information on proteins needed to build resistance to a particular vaccine/antibiotic = antimicrobial resistance). The F factor allows bacteria to form pili (proteins used to exchange information) Bacteria can also have natural resistance to antibiotics (caused by their R plasmids) http://amrls.cvm.msu.edu/microbiology/molecularbasisforantimicrobial resistance/acquiredresistance/acquisitionofantimicrobialresistancevia horizontalgenetransfer OXYGEN METABOLISM Obligate aerobes (remember aero = aerobic = need oxygen) use oxygen for cellular respiration (need it to grow and function) Obligate anaerobes (anaerobic) are poisoned by oxygen (O2) Anaerobic respiration: Inhaling another element to breathe, such as nitrate or sulfate Facultative anaerobes can function with or without oxygen Nitrogen fixation: Freeliving or symbiotic bacteria can convert N2 into ammonia Degrade organic matter to release fixednitrogen for other organisms to use. Heterotrophs (cannot make their own food) vs Autotrophs (make their own food) Heterotrophs (consumers) Photoheterotroph (photo = use light for energy): Carbon source is organic compounds since they cannot make their own food using elements (example carbon dioxide, CO2) Heterotrophs = Only aquatic and saltloving prokaryotes Chemoheterotroph get energy and carbon sources from organic compounds (meaning carbon is found in living creatures) Chemoheterotrophs include prokaryotes, protists, fungi, animals and some mycotrophic plants (http://www.sarracenia.com/faq/faq1100.html) Autotroph (producers) Photoautotroph: Use like to make energy and inhale carbon dioxide Most plants, flowers, some protists, and photosynthetic prokaryotes Chemoautotroph use inorganic chemicals (such as ammonia) as energy source and inhale carbon dioxide Only certain prokaryotes Metabolic Cooperation Biofilms: Surfacecoating colonies (Example: Plaque formation on teeth) MAJOR BACTERIA GROUPS Proteobacteria= GramNEGATIVE (pink stain color) Alpha= Mostly attack eukaryotic hosts (cause tumor in plants) Beta= Soil bacteria and nitrogen recycling by oxidizing ammonium (produces nitrite) Gamma=Sulfur bacteria; oxidize H2S and produce sulfur (some are pathogens) Delta = Secrete slime (myxobacteria); when food is scarce this releases spores and attacks other bacteria Epsilon= Pathogenic to humans and other animals (blood poisoning, intestinal inflammation, etc.) Chlamydias Parasites can only survive in animal cells Spirochetes Gram(); spiral in rotations to move around Cyanobacteria Photoautotrophs; only prokaryotes to produce oxygen generated photosynthesis GramPositive Bacteria Very diverse; cause many diseases and are generally solitary Difference between gram negative and gram positive http://www.microbiologyinfo.com/differencesbetweengrampositiveandgramnegative bacteria/ Prokaryotes can live in almost any acidic, cold, hot, salty conditions (example: Extreme thermophiles live in temperatures over 121 degrees Celsius) and are great decomposers (chemical recycling) 3 types of Symbiont bacteria: 1. Mutualism: Host and bacteria both benefit (Example: E. coli found in intestinal tract helps with digestion) 2. Commensalism: Only bacteria benefits but host is unharmed 3. Parasitism: Bacteria eats the cells, tissue, and steals nutrients from the host, which eventually kills the host Exotoxins (secreted by bacteria [example: secretions cause cholera]) vs Endotoxins (secreted only after bacteria die and their cell walls dissolve) Chapter 28 Protists: Most are unicellular eukaryotes (considered the simplest) but are very complex at the cellular level Have organelles that aren’t found in the majority of eukaryotes Mixotroph protists can combine photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrients Protists are paraphyletic because animals, fungi, and plants are the main groups that evolved from different lineages of protists (THEY ARE NOT monophyletic) 4 Super groups: 1. Excavata: Diplomonads, parabasalids, and euglenozoans Excavate in Dangerous Paranormal Events 2. SAR Clade Stramenopila (Diatoms, Golden algae, and Brown algae)…important photosynthetic organisms Strange Diet of Golden Brown apples Alveolates (Dinoflagellates [heterotrophic], Apricomplexans [parasitic; divides asexually inside red blood cell], and Ciliates) Apply Dinosized Aloe to Cellulite Rhizarians (forams [shells/”tests” contain organic material], cercozoans [inhabit marine, freshwater and soil; heterotrophs/parasitic], radiolarians [made of silica]) – Most are amoebas and move/feed by pseudopodia Carry the Radio under your Right Forearm 3. Archaeplastida (monophyletic) Red algae (reproduce sexually and have diverse life cycle) Green algae and land plants (Red and Green Arachnids) 4. Unikonta: Ameobozoans (slime molds [unicellular], tubulinids, entamoebas [not freeliving/ parasitic; responsible for many human deaths]) Aim bazookas at the Slimy Tubular Entity Opisthokonts (Nucleariids, fungi, choanoflagellates, and animals) Nuclear Chaos caused Optimized animal and fungi deaths Endosymbiosis: Bacteria living in another cell Secondary symbiosis: Ingested in the food vacuoles of heterotrophic eukaryotes to become endosymbionts (basically getting eaten and then forming a symbiotic relationship with the host) Diplomonads: Lack electron transport chain and has reduced mitochondria Parabasalids: Release hydrogen as product; can be sexually transmitted; has reduced mitochondria Kinetoplastids: Have on large mitochondria and eats prokaryotes Diatoms: Cell wall made of silicon Some euglenids are mixotrophs Brown algae (performs meiosis; common in cold water…seaweed is a type of brown algae) vs Golden algae (photosynthetic and some are mixotrophs) Heteromorphic: Sporophytes and gametophytes are structurally different Protists have a key ecological role by Providing food for other organisms (Example: Plankton is one the most basic source of food to marine life) Helping with diversity of life (Example: Mutualistic protists nourish corals and enable them to form coral reef for a variety of see life) Photosynthetic protists are producers and are food for other animals.
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