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Biology 160 chapter 27 &28 notes

by: Khrystel Bernard

Biology 160 chapter 27 &28 notes BIL 160

Marketplace > University of Miami > Biology > BIL 160 > Biology 160 chapter 27 28 notes
Khrystel Bernard

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5 pages of essential concepts that will most likely be on the exam
Paul Groff
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Khrystel Bernard on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIL 160 at University of Miami taught by Paul Groff in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see EVOLUTION & BIODIVERSITY in Biology at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 02/27/16
Chapter 27 & 28 Prokaryotes (can be spherical, spiral, or rod­shaped)  Cell walls are made up of protein layer (capsule)  Bacteria: Gram staining is used to determine  Gram­positive bacteria: These bacteria have a thick wall made of peptidoglycan  (polymer composed of sugar and polypeptide bonds), are large, and show violet  color  Gram­negative bacteria: Contain a very thin layer of peptidoglycan; are  structurally more complex than gram (+) bacteria  Endospores enable bacteria to withstand harsh/difficult conditions (multilayered  structure covers copy of chromosome)                                                                                       For more comparisons of Bacteria vs Archaea hot_2015­06­17_at_60214_pm­14E043088E22A31124B.png Peptidoglyca Membrane RNA n Lipids Polymeras  Fimbriae: Appendages that  allow in cell walls e bacteria to stick to  surfaces Bacteri Yes Unbranched One a Hydrocarbon  Taxis is s when the bacteria  moves towards or away  from a   No Some  Many stimulus  Archae branched  Bacterial a Flagellum: Long  appendages that help the  bacteria move around  Three parts: Motor, hook, and filament  In order to make­up for the lack of complex organelles that are characteristic of  eukaryotes, prokaryotes have specialized membranes that perform metabolic functions.  Reproduction  By binary fission­Bacterial duplicates its genetic material and divides asexually  (existing alleles reform during meiosis)  Bacteria (and viruses) have short­life spans and reproduce at such a rapid rate that generations of them are produced in a few days.  This allows for great genetic  difference in which the variation of mutations in one gene expands (Example:  HIV rapidly mutates in the body)  Genetic Recombination (Bacteria do not undergo meiosis or fertilization) (Horizontal gene transfer…explained in notes 25 cont’d and COMPLETE 26)  Transformation:  Prokaryotes uptake foreign naked DNA which changes their  genotype and possibly phenotype  Transduction:  Bacteria attaches to host cell and injects its information into the  host cell, forcing the cell to replicate its DNA (bacteriophages do this).  Conjugation: Bacteria transfers its genetic code to another bacteria that is missing  the information (can enable this bacteria to transcribe information on proteins  needed to build resistance to a particular vaccine/antibiotic = antimicrobial  resistance).  The F factor allows bacteria to form pili (proteins used to exchange  information)  Bacteria can also have natural resistance to antibiotics (caused by their R  plasmids)­basis­for­antimicrobial­ resistance/acquired­resistance/acquisition­of­antimicrobial­resistance­via­ horizontal­gene­transfer   OXYGEN METABOLISM  Obligate aerobes (remember aero = aerobic = need oxygen) use oxygen for cellular  respiration (need it to grow and function)  Obligate anaerobes (anaerobic) are poisoned by oxygen (O2)  Anaerobic respiration: Inhaling another element to breathe, such as nitrate or  sulfate  Facultative anaerobes can function with or without oxygen  Nitrogen fixation:  Free­living or symbiotic bacteria can convert N2 into ammonia  Degrade organic matter to release fixed­nitrogen for other organisms to use. Heterotrophs (cannot make their own food) vs Autotrophs (make their own food)  Heterotrophs (consumers)  Photoheterotroph (photo = use light for energy): Carbon source is organic  compounds since they cannot make their own food using elements (example  carbon dioxide, CO2)  Heterotrophs = Only aquatic and salt­loving prokaryotes  Chemoheterotroph get energy and carbon sources from organic compounds  (meaning carbon is found in living creatures)  Chemoheterotrophs include prokaryotes, protists, fungi,  animals and  some mycotrophic plants (  Autotroph (producers)  Photoautotroph:  Use like to make energy and inhale carbon dioxide  Most plants, flowers, some protists, and photosynthetic prokaryotes   Chemoautotroph use inorganic chemicals (such as ammonia) as energy source and inhale  carbon dioxide  Only certain prokaryotes Metabolic Cooperation  Biofilms: Surface­coating colonies (Example: Plaque formation on teeth) MAJOR BACTERIA GROUPS  Proteobacteria= Gram­NEGATIVE (pink stain color)  Alpha= Mostly attack eukaryotic hosts (cause tumor in plants)  Beta= Soil bacteria and nitrogen recycling by oxidizing ammonium (produces  nitrite)  Gamma=Sulfur bacteria; oxidize H2S and produce sulfur (some are pathogens)  Delta = Secrete slime (myxobacteria); when food is scarce this releases spores and attacks other bacteria  Epsilon= Pathogenic to humans and other animals (blood poisoning, intestinal  inflammation, etc.)  Chlamydias  Parasites can only survive in animal cells  Spirochetes  Gram(­); spiral in rotations to move around  Cyanobacteria  Photoautotrophs; only prokaryotes to produce oxygen generated photosynthesis  Gram­Positive Bacteria  Very diverse; cause many diseases and are generally solitary Difference between gram negative and gram positive ­­between­gram­positive­and­gram­negative­ bacteria/ Prokaryotes can live in almost any acidic, cold, hot, salty conditions (example: Extreme  thermophiles live in temperatures over 121 degrees Celsius) and are great decomposers  (chemical recycling) 3 types of Symbiont bacteria: 1. Mutualism:  Host and bacteria both benefit (Example: E. coli found in intestinal tract  helps with digestion) 2. Commensalism: Only bacteria benefits but host is unharmed 3. Parasitism:  Bacteria eats the cells, tissue, and steals nutrients from the host, which  eventually kills the host Exotoxins (secreted by bacteria [example: secretions cause cholera]) vs Endotoxins (secreted  only after bacteria die and their cell walls dissolve) Chapter 28 Protists: Most are unicellular eukaryotes (considered the simplest) but are very complex at  the cellular level  Have organelles that aren’t found in the majority of eukaryotes  Mixotroph protists can combine photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrients  Protists are paraphyletic because animals, fungi, and plants are the main groups that evolved  from different lineages of protists (THEY ARE NOT monophyletic) 4 Super groups: 1. Excavata: Diplomonads, parabasalids, and euglenozoans         Excavate in Dangerous Paranormal Events 2. SAR Clade  Stramenopila (Diatoms, Golden algae, and Brown algae)…important  photosynthetic organisms                         Strange Diet of Golden Brown apples   Alveolates (Dinoflagellates [heterotrophic], Apricomplexans [parasitic; divides  asexually inside red blood cell], and Ciliates)  Apply Dino­sized Aloe to Cellulite  Rhizarians (forams [shells/”tests” contain organic material], cercozoans [inhabit  marine, freshwater and soil; heterotrophs/parasitic], radiolarians [made of silica])  – Most are amoebas and move/feed by pseudopodia  Carry the Radio under your Right Forearm 3. Archaeplastida  (monophyletic)  Red algae (reproduce sexually and have diverse life cycle)  Green algae and land plants    (Red and Green Arachnids)  4. Unikonta:   Ameobozoans (slime molds [unicellular], tubulinids, entamoebas [not free­living/  parasitic; responsible for many human deaths]) Aim bazookas at the Slimy Tubular Entity  Opisthokonts (Nucleariids, fungi, choanoflagellates, and animals) Nuclear Chaos caused Optimized animal and fungi deaths Endosymbiosis: Bacteria living in another cell  Secondary symbiosis: Ingested in the food vacuoles of heterotrophic eukaryotes to  become endosymbionts (basically getting eaten and then forming a symbiotic relationship with the host) Diplomonads: Lack electron transport chain and has reduced mitochondria Parabasalids: Release hydrogen as product; can be sexually transmitted; has reduced  mitochondria Kinetoplastids: Have on large mitochondria and eats prokaryotes  Diatoms: Cell wall made of silicon                      Some euglenids are mixotrophs Brown algae (performs meiosis; common in cold water…seaweed is a type of brown algae) vs  Golden algae (photosynthetic and some are mixotrophs)     Heteromorphic: Sporophytes and gametophytes are structurally different Protists have a key ecological role by  Providing food for other organisms (Example: Plankton is one the most basic  source of food to marine life)  Helping with diversity of life (Example: Mutualistic protists nourish corals and  enable them to form coral reef for a variety of see life)  Photosynthetic protists are producers and are food for other animals.


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