J201 Media and Society
J201 Media and Society
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This 43 page Reader was uploaded by Morgan Miller on Sunday April 27, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Oregon taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 62 views.
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Date Created: 04/27/14
CKAMM7 Movies and the Impact of Images Celluloid pliable material that could hold a coating of chemicals sensitive to light Kinetograph early movie camera Kinetoscope a single person viewing system Vitascope large screen system where longer lmstrips could be projected without interruption Narrative lms movies that tell stories through the series of actions depicted and later matched with sound Nicelodeans a type of movie theater whose name combines the admission price ve cents with the Greek word for theater Vertical integration controlling the three parts of an industry such as production making movies distribution getting lms into theaters and exhibition playing lms in theaters Studio system allowed creative talent to be rmly controlled by certain powerful studios Oligopoly ve vertically integrated movie studios Paramount MGM Warner Brothers Twentieth Century Fox and RKO Block booking a system under which movie exhibitors who wanted access to popular lms with big stars ha to also rent new or marginal lms featuring no stars Movie palaces full time single screen theaters that provided a more enjoyable and comfortable movie viewing environment Multiplexes and Megaplexes featured many screens often more than 14 upscale concessions stadium style seating digital projection and sound 3D capabilities and giant IMAX screens Appealed to middle class crowds Talkies sound pictures Newsreels weekly 10 minute compilations of news events from around the world Genres movie categories in which conventions regarding characters scenes and themes recur in combination Examples are comedy drama romance action mystery horror fantasy musicals Documentaries directors interpret reality by recording real people and settings Cinema verit truth lm that was accomplished by portable cameras that enabled documentarians to go where cameras could not and record fragments of everyday life Indies alternative lms Paramount decision a 1948 court ruling that was fueled by the overnment s discomfort with the movie industry39s power that force the vertically integrate studios to break up their ownership of movie production distribution and exhibition Big Six Warner Brothers Paramount Twentieth Century Fox Universal Columbia Pictures Disney Box of ce sales theater income DVDvideo sales and rentals Cable and television outlets pay per view on demand premium cable such as HBO network and basic cable Foreign distribution distributing lms in foreign markets lndependent lm distribution studios make money by distributing the work of independent producers and lmmakers Licensing and product placement studios earn revenues from merchandise licensing example action gures and product placement where products pay studios to place them in movies Synergy promotion and sale of a product through an array of sources Production in regards to cost fees paid to actors directors and other personnel and costs associated with technology set design and musical score composition Marketing advertising and print in regards to cost promotion Postproduction in regards to cost activities such as lm editing and sound recording Distribution in regards to cost example screening a movie for prospective buyers representing theaters Exhibition in regards to cost the expenses involved in constructing theaters and purchasing projection equipment Acquisitions in regards to cost many big studios buy up other mediarelated companies to gain the technologies and competencies needed to stay in business Digital video has become a major alternative to celluloid lm allows lmmakers to replace extensive and bulky lm cameras with more lighter cheaper models Also lmmakers can see the results of their camera work immediately and can capture additional footage cheaply Consensus narratives popular cultural products that provide us with shared expenences The Early History of Radio Development when inventors rst made pictures move Entrepreneurship when experimenters conducted movie demonstrations for a small number of paid viewers Mass media when movies began telling coherent stories with speci c meanings for viewers and became widely accessible Advances in lm technology concept of lm goes back to Leonardo da Vinci who theorized in the late 1400s that a device could be created to reproduce reality magic lantern projected images painted on glass plates using an oil lamp as a light source thaumatrope consisted of a two sided card with different images on each side that appeared to combine the images when twirled zoetrope cylindrical device that rapidly twirled images inside appeared to make images move Muybridge and Goodwin make pictures move Muybridge credited with being the rst person to make images move he studied motion by using multiple cameras to take successive photographs of humans and animals in motion and projected these photographic images on a wall for public viewing Eastman developed rst roll of lm Goodwin improved on Eastman s lm by using thin strips of transparent pliable material called celluloid that enabled a strip of lm to move through a camera and be photographed in rapid succession producing a series of pictures Edison and the Brothers Lumiere create motion pictures kinetograph combination of Edison39s incandescent light bulb Goodwin39s celluloid and Le Prince39s camera kinetoscope single person viewing system both the kineto raph and kinetoscope allows a person to look through a small hole and see images moving on p ate cinematograph a combined camera lm development and projection system that allowed more than one person to view screen vitascope large screen system patented by Edison through which longer lmstrips could be projected without interruption movies consisted of movement recorded by a single continuous camera shot Filmmakers had not gured out how to move the camera itself or how to edit lm shots together Movies content consisted of simply people or objects in motion without a story Telling stories the introduction of narrative with the introduction of narrative lms the industry advanced from the entrepreneurial stage to mass medium status French magician and inventor Georges M lies rst opened public movie theater in France in 1896 He made short fantasy and fairy tale lms such as Cinderella The Vanishing Lady Edwin S Porter rst American lmmaker The Life ofAn American Fireman The arrival of Nickelodeonsz makeshift silent lms that transcended language barriers that provided workers and immigrants with an inexpensive escape from challenges of everyday life Evolution of the Hollywood Studio System By 19105 movies had become a major industry Entrepreneurs developed many tactics for controlling itincluding monopolizing patents on lm related technologies and dominating the three pillars of the movie business production making movies distribution getting lms into theaters and exhibition playing lms in theaters VERTlCAL INTEGRATION Studio system Oligopoly Edison s attempt to control the industry formed the motion picture patents company cartel of major US and French lm producers the company pooled lm technology patents acquired most major lm distributorships George Eastman would only stock lm with them Adolph Zukor Paramount Pictures and William Fox Century Fox gured out ways to bypass the trust A Closer Look at the Three Pillars rst movies are produced second copies are distributed to people or companies who get them out to theaters third movies are exhibited in theaters production Choice of actors for a particular lm Come companies signed exclusive contracts with big name actors Triangle pioneered by director Thomas lnce Was a system that constituted a kind of assembly line for moviemaking talent such as actors directors editors writers and others that all worked under exclusive contracts for the major studios He designated himself as the rst studio head he appointed producers to handle hiring logistics and nances Two main strategies Pooling patents or pooling talent distribution lm exchange system in return for their short lms shown between live acts in the theaters movie producers received a small percentage of the vaudeville ticket gate receipts block booking enabled studios to testmarket possible up and coming stars at little Hollywood dominates the world market for movies Exhibition First run theaters premiered new lms in major downtown areas in front of the largest audiences that generated 8595 of all lm revenue movie palaces midcity movie theaters built in convenient locations near urban masstransit stations Attracted city dwellers and initial wave of people who had moved to city outskirts multiplexesmegaplexes Hollywood s Golden Age The development of style Characterized by the use of new narrative techniques such as close up camera shots and multiple story lines in the silent era Introduction of sound Rise of movie genres Moviemaking models foreign lms documentaries independent lms Narrative techniques in the silent era varied use of camera distances close up shots multiple story lines Fcl narnrl nrliIinc symbolic imagery feature length lm more than an hour long social dramas mysteries comedies horror lms science ction movies war lms crime dramas westerns Augmenting images with sound talkies sound pictures newsreels weekly ten minute compilations of news events from around the world Inside the Hollywood system setting the standard for narrative style narrative style the recognizable way in which directors told stories through the movies they made distinctive Hollywood qualities Narrative story Genre type of story Hollywood narratives always includes a story what happens to whom and discourse how the story is told most movies feature a number of stories that play out within the lm s larger overarching narrative recognizable character types protagonist antagonist romantic interest sidekick have clear beginning middle end today computergenerate imagery CGI or digital re mastering augment narratives with special effects satis es most audiences appetite for both the familiar and the distinctive Hollywood genres product standardization a set of formulas for producing genres product differentiation a diverse set of movie watching experience for viewers to choose from Hollywood authors Director serves as the main author of a lm Successful ones develop a particular cinematic style or an interest in speci c topics Outside the Hollywood System providing alternatives Foreign lms today largest foreign lm industry is in India not quite as popular today due to the expanding independent America lm market Global Film Initiative selects and distributes an annual lm series to more than 35 locations in the US Documentaries evolved from interest films contained compiled footage of regional wars political leaders industrial workers and agricultural scenes travelogues depictions of daily life in various communities around the world cinema verit originally as educational non commercial presentations they usually required the backing of the industry government or philanthropy to cover production and other costs tackle controversial matter Independent Films Indies operate on shoestring budget and show their movies in campus auditoriums small lm festivals independent theaters The Transformation of the Hollywood Studio System Social developments migrations of city dwellers to the suburbs Competing mass media increasing popularity of TV Paramount decision failed to weaken the industry s control over movie distribution opened up opportunities in the exhibition pillar of the industry for new players outside Hollywood Example art houses began showing more documentaries or foreign lms and drive in theaters Flight to the suburbs hurt Hollywood studio system suburbs were far from downtown movie theaters fewer younger couples going to movies on dates due to average age of couples decreasing from 24 to 10 entering marriage Television shifted movie content towards more serious themes such as alcoholism racism sexuality and other topics TV steered clear of Motion Picture Production Code had been adopted in 19305 to restrict lm depictions of violence crime drug use sex was chaHenged 1967 Motion Picture Association of America initiated current rating system which rates lms for age appropriateness introduced a host of technological improvements designed to lure Americans away from TV set Technicolor color lm processes Wide screens Stereophonic sound Extra clear lm Home entertainment 197os intro of cable television and videocassette gave rise to the home entertainment movement any preferred convenience of watching movies at home Hoywood adopted and developed a new market for renting selling movies rst on VHS and then on DVD currently 50 of domestic revenue for Hollywood studios comes from videoDVD rental and sales 20 box of ce receipts DVD sales began to decline due to Internet and delivery and Hollywood endorsed high de nition format of Blu Ray Net icks video streaming The Economics of the Movie Business Money In Big Six lm industry players Warner Brothers Paramount Twentieth Century Fox Universal Columbia Pictures Disney Account for more than 90 of revenue generated by commercial lms Six major revenue sources Box of ce sales 40 DVDvideo sales and rentals 50 Cable and Television Outlets pay per view on demand premium cable HBO network basic cable Foreign distribution Independent lm distribution Licensing and product placement merchandise licensing action gure toys and product placement like Pepsi Cola in Back to the Synergy promotion and sale of a product throughout the various subsidiaries of a media conglomerate Further driven revenues in lm industry Disney Money Out production fees for stars directors and other personnel costs of technology set design musical score composition marketing advertising print postproduction lm editing and sound recording distribution screening a movie for prospective buyers representing theaters exhibition costs such as constructing theaters and purchasing projection equipment ac uisitions many big studios buy up other media related companies gsuch as rms making media equipment that consumers use in their homes or enterprises providing animation services to gain the technologies and competencies needed to stay in business Example I39 I r A A v39rr l 39I r39rvIrr39 r39vIr39rv D I I v r39r lrxrr Irxvrv rrIv 39Irr Digital video has become a major alternative to celluloid lm allowing lmmakers to replace expensive and bulky 16mm and 35mm lm cameras with cheaper lightweight digitalvideo cameras lets lmmakers see results of camera work immediately capture additional footage cheaply With digital video equipment and computer based desktop editors people can now make movies for a few thousand dollars WhoWhat do we think of when we think of lm production Unions writers guild directors guild musicians Studios 2oquot century fox Warner Brothers Disney Paramount Sony Universal all are vertically integrated they provide diversi cation and incorporate synergy Documentarians Movie theaters Networks A Amazon iTunes Redbox epen en m All over Religious children shortstory 0 6 main studios Smaller studios Weinstein Silver Linings Playbook 1 Development 2 Financing biggest budget computer generated franchises 3 Production Preproduction Production Postproduction 4 Distribution 5 Exhibition MARKETNG Average Costs for Major Studio Films Negative costs development preproduction production postproduction studio overhead interest Average was 65 million in 2oo9 PampA Prints and Advertising advertising promotions prints distributed to theaters Average was 37 million in 2oo9 Average Film Cost 1o2 million in 2oo9 up from 87 million in 2oo8 What kinds of lms are made and why Inspiration Supernatural Comedy Historical Remakes original movies you need to advertise the idea the storyit s about convincing people it s worth seeing remakes are easiersome original stories include Up and Walle Types of Independent Filmmaking All kinds live action animated experimental industrial commercials Most are straight to home video andor internet Acknowledge the dynamic contribution of independent and regional lmmakers Segments of American lm industry are under credited Film Marketing Product placementCoke Reese39s Example lam Legend Ford Mustang the color noise cleanliness and new car tags add to the appeaD The Great GatsbyTiffany Crosspromotions two brands mutually bene t Ads for movie and product such as James Bond Tieinsmerchandise happy meals McDonalcls New Uncertainties of Digital Age Broadband Internet service connects households and movie fans are more likely to download movies from the web than drive to a theater or rent a DVD Hollywood began making more 3D lms latest form of product differentiation Movies in a democratic society consensus narratives popular cultural products that provide us with shared experiences communicate values hopes and dreams through accessible language and imagery that often bridge cultural differences are Americanmade lms helping create a kind of global village where people around the world share a universal culturedoes it sti e local cultures worldwide must recognize part of the cultural power of broad entertainments packaging potentially questionable messages about gender race and class expanded viewing options like increasing access to independent foreign and otherwise nonmainstream lms allow alternatives to mass marketed Hollywood lms US lm industry produces compelling messages about what we should value how we should live and how we should act we need to view this with a critical eye Example DISNEY Snow White beauty Barbielike ideal Lion KingPocahontas racial stereo typing Aladdin heroes look less middle eastern than villains 1 Who was one of the rst people to be credited with making images move person to make images move he studied motion by using multiple cameras to take successive photographs of humans and animals in motion and projected these photographic images on a wall for public viewing Z V Ni ii l t 39l L 5 w w 7 39 l l l l l l ll ll l ill l l u l single continuous camera shot Filmmakers had not gured out how to move the camera itself or how to edit lm shots together Movies content consisted of simply people or objects in motion without a story industry advanced from the entrepreneurial stage to mass medium status Answer 4 Entrepreneurs developed many tactics for controlling it the lm industry including monopolizing patents on lm related technologies and dominating the three pillars of the movie business production making movies distribution getting lms into theaters and exhibition playing lms in theatersVERTICAL INTEGRATION always includes a story what happens to whom and discourse how the story is told most movies feature a number of stories that play out within the lm s larger overarching narrative recognizable character types protagonist antagonist romantic interest sidekick have clear beginning middle end 0 today computergenerate imagery CGI or digital remastering augment narratives with special effectssatis es most audiences appetite for both the familiar and the distinctive Hollywood genres product standardization a set of formulas for producing genres product differentiation a diverse set of moviewatching experience for viewers to choose from
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