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This 1 page Reader was uploaded by Alec Sullivan on Sunday April 27, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Washington taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 101 views.
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Date Created: 04/27/14
The Hardy Weinberg principle Monplay Apri 21 Z 14 1121 PM Chapter 26 Evolutionary Processes Four processes shift allele frequencies in populations O 0000 Natural selection increase frequency of certain alleles Genetic drift causes allele frequencies to change randomly Gene flow individual leaves population and joins another changes allele frequencies Mutation modifies allele frequencies by continually introducing new alleles Hardy Weinberg principle is a mathematical null hypothesis to quantify evolution Chapter 261 Analyzing Change in Allele Frequencies The HardyWeinberg Principle Punnett squares focus on two parents mating Hardy and Weinberg focused on an entire population when all individuals bred Population same species that live in the same area at the same time The Gene Pool Concept 0 O O 0 All gametes enter the gene pool and combine at random to form offspring Allele frequencies p q 1 Genotype frequencies pquot2 2pq qquot2 1 When alleles are transmitted via meiosis and random combinations of gametes frequencies do not change The HardyWeinberg Model Makes Important Assumptions 0 O O O 0 Random mating No natural selection all parents survived and passed on genes No genetic drift no random change in allele frequency No gene flow no immigration or emigration No mutation How Does the HardyWeinberg Principle Serve as a Null Hypothesis 0 Functions as a null hypothesis when investigating geneallele frequencies in particular populations Case Study 1 Are MN Blood Types in Humans in HardyWeinberg Proportions I MN gene codes for a protein on red blood cell surface I Individuals are either MM MN or NN I Researchers compare the observed genotype frequencies with Hardy Weinberg expected frequencies I Steps to determining frequencies in Estimate genotype frequencies in Calculate observed allele frequencies 1 Calculate expected genotypes from the observed allele frequencies 1 Compare observed and expected values Case Study 2 Are HLA Genes in Humans in HardyWeinberg Equilibrium I Collected genotype data on Havasupai tribe native to Arizona I Codominant HLAA and HLAB alleles I Hypothesized that individuals who are heterozygous may have stronger fitness I To test the hypothesis they calculated the expected number of each genotype I Compare expected and observed values hypothesis supported I Mating is not random individuals can choose mate based on genotype I Heterozygous individuals have higher fitness Biology 180 Page 1
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