Chapter Zero & Part of Chapter One
Chapter Zero & Part of Chapter One CHEM 110
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Knapp on Wednesday August 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 110 at Tri-County Technical College taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see College Chemistry 1 in Science at Tri-County Technical College.
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Date Created: 08/19/15
Chemistry 110 Week One Metric Units SI units Mass length volume and temperature Kilogram kg meter m Mole mol meters cubed m3 Kelvin K Convert Temperature Scales To convert temperatures you have to go through a certain path Fahrenheit has to become Celsius before it can convert to Kelvin Kelvin has to be converted to Celsius before it can be converted to Fahrenheit 1 C 2732 K 32 F 0 C 68 F 32 36 x 59 20 C gt 20 C 2732 K 2932 K gt 68 F 2932 K Scientific Notation Make large or extremely small numbers easy to handle 0000000789 789 x 10 7 7890000000 789 x 109 Decimal Notation Regular Notation A real number using base 10 amp including the digits 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Denshy kgm3 Represented with the Greek letter Rho p divide the mass by the volume k g pH pn l3kg gt 27713 Accuracy vs Precision Accuracy is hitting the target Precision is hitting the same spot more than once in a row NOt accurate or Not accurate but Accurate but not Accurate and precise precise Significant Figures lOYOOj5007Y800 NotSignificant Significant The zero before the decimal is insignificant because it is just there so it quotlooks like a decimal The zeros immediately after the decimal are insignificant because only there to help find the decimal all nonzero digits are always significant zeros between nonzero digits are always significant zeros to the right of the decimal and at the end of the number are always significant Significant Figures in Math Addition amp Subtraction Count the number of significant figures in the decimal part of each number in the problem XXXVva 4 quotthe decimal part Add or subtract just like normal Round the answer to the LEAST amount of significant figures in the decimal part of all the number in the problem 875 438 8328 gt 833 Multiplication amp Division Count sig figs in each number in the problem Multiply or divide just like normal Round to the amount of significant figures that the number with least amount significant figures had 24 X 201 4824 gt 48 It s important to remember to round for significant figures for every problem involving numbers from this point on Dimensional Analysis Metric 9 English 100 cm 100 in 4 X X 00m 100m 254cm 15748 in z 157 in Metric 9 Metric 100 cm 4 x 394 z4 00m 100m 00 00 cm 00 cm English 9 Metric 12 in 254 cm 10 m x x 10 ft 10m 1000 cm 400 ft x 12192 m z 12 m Elements In this course you are required to know the names and how to spell them and symbols for certain elements from the periodic table B Boron Iodine Al Aluminum Sc Scandium C Carbon Ti Titanium Si Silicon V Vanadium Sn Tin Cr Chromium Pb Lead Mn Magnesium 0 Oxygen Fe Iron S Sulfur Co Cobalt F Fluorine Ni Nickle Cl Chlorine Cu Copper Br Bromine Zn Zinc Pt Platinum Ag Silver Hg Mercury Au Gold U Uranium The best way to memorize these elements is flash cards I will post a printable set of flashcards with the study guide Compounds are groups of two or more elements atoms Water is a compound two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom Periodic Table Arrangement The periodic table is arranged by atomic number Atomic Number is the number of protons Atomic Mass is the average number of protons and neutrons Atomic Number Element Symbol Atomic h ass Columns are called groups or families A K2 m m 1539 am 1 1m m ll 55 31 l W ll W Hill 13912 H V 7 Rows are w called penods 5 Mt mls gt Non Molals metal lo39wls transition Murals Metals conduct electricity malleable Nonmetals don t conduct electricity Metalloids semimetals transition metals have properties of both metals and nonmetals Some groups and rows have specific names Group one Alkali Metals Group two Alkaline Earth Metals Group Seventeen Halogens Group Eighteen Noble Gases Groups 12 amp 1318 are known as the main groups Groups 312 are known as the transitional metal groups The Atom and How It Was Discovered Dalton s atomic theory 1 2 3 Elements are made of atoms Elements are characterized by their atoms mass Chemical compounds occur when atoms of different elements bond together in whole number ratios Chemical reactions only rearrange how atoms combine but don t change the atom s makeup Law of Mass Conservation Mass cannot be created or destroyed in chemical reactions Thomson discovered electrons Millikan oildrop experiment determined the mass of electrons Rutherford gold foil experiment found the nucleus Starting with Dalton these scientists started building on the concept of the atom and its structure became clearer with each of their discoveries Thanks to them we now have a clear understanding of the atom Atoms are the smallest unit of matter Elements are made of atoms and cannot be broken down into any simpler forms Atom Structure Pro to In POS39l wL 0mm 6 electron mama ve charge If the atom is neutral the number of protons will be the same as the number of electrons Electrons Negative charge Protons Positive charge Neutrons No charge Electrons are the smaller than protons and neutrons but are found in the largest area The area surrounding the nucleus accounts for most of the volume but very little of the mass Protons and neutrons are larger than electrons but are confined to a small area in the nucleus The nucleus accounts for almost all of the mass but very little of the volume Properties Any characteristic used to define or describe matter Intensive Properties do not depend on amount of the sample Ex Color melting point temperature Extensive Properties depend on amount of the sample Ex Length Volume When deciding if something is an extensive or intensive property ask yourself quotIfl increase the amount will it change my answer Chemical Properties Involve change in a sample s chemical makeup Ex Rusting combustion tarnishing Physical Properties Do not involve change in a sample s chemical makeup Ex Temperature conductivity odor
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