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HA & P Chapter 1 Lesson 2

by: Kelsie Carter

HA & P Chapter 1 Lesson 2 Bio 2010

Kelsie Carter
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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter Lesson 2
Human Anatomy and Physiology
Sabine Allenspach
Class Notes
Human, anatomy, cavities, tissue, organs, layers




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsie Carter on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 2010 at University of Colorado Colorado Springs taught by Sabine Allenspach in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biology at University of Colorado Colorado Springs.


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Date Created: 02/27/16
 Levels of Organization 1. the chemical (or molecular) level: atom is the smallest unit 2. the cellular level: atoms working together 3. the tissue level: cells working together 4. the organ level: tissue working together 5. the organ system level: organs working together 6. the organism level: organ systems working together  Levels of Organization 1. Integumentary System: A. skin B. hair C. nails D. sweat glands E. function: protects against environmental hazards, regulates body temperature, provides sensory information 2. Muscular: A. skeletal muscles B. ligaments (bone-bone) and tendons (muscle-bone) C. function: provides movement, protects and supports, generates heat, regulates body temperature, stores glycogen 3. Skeletal: A. bones B. cartilage C. ligaments D. bone marrow E. function: supports and protects, stares calcium and minerals, forms blood 4. Nervous: A. brain B. spinal cord C. peripheral nerves D. sense organs E. function: directs response to stimuli, coordinates activates of other organs, provides and integrates sensory information 5. Endocrine: A. pituitary gland B. thyroid gland C. gonads D. pancreas E. endocrine tissues F. function: directs long term changes in activities of other organs, adjust metabolic activity 6. Lymphatic/ Immune: A. spleen B. thymus C. lymphatic muscles D. lymph nodes E. tonsils F. function: defend against infection, return lymph to cardiovascular system 7. Cardiovascular: A. heart B. blood C. blood vessels D. function: distributes water, blood, nutrients, waste and oxygen, distributes heat 8. Respiratory: A. nasal cavity B. sinuses C. larynx D. trachea E. bronchi F. lungs G. alveoli H. function: delivers air to alveoli for gas exchange, provides oxygen to blood, removes carbon dioxide from blood, production of sound 9. Digestive: A. teeth B. tongue C. pharynx D. esophagus E. stomach F. small intestine G. large intestine H. liver I. gallbladder J. pancreas K. function: absorb nutrients, digest food, in conservation of water, and stores energy 10. Urinary: A. bladder B. kidney C. urethra D. ureter E. function: excretes waste. Controls water balance, stores urine, and regulates blood ion concentration and blood pH 11. Male Reproductive A. testes B. epididymis C. seminal vesicles D. ductus deferens E. prostate F. penis G. scrotum H. function: production of male sex cells (sperm), testosterone and seminal fluid, and sexual intercourse 12. Female Reproductive: A. ovaries B. fallopian tubes C. uterus D. vagina E. labia F. clitoris G. mammary glands H. function: produces sex cells, supports a developing fetus, produce milk for nutrition and sexual intercourse  Homeostasis 1. all body systems working together to maintain a stable internal environment A. systems respond to external and internal changes to function within a normal range 2. examples: body temperature, fluid balance, blood pressure, and body fluid composition 3. mechanisms of regulation A. autoregulation- intrinsic a. automatic response in a cell, tissue, or organ to some environmental change B. extrinsic regulation a. response controlled by nervous and endocrine system C. homeostatic regulatory mechanism consists of: a. receptor- receives stimuli b. control center- processes stimuli c. effector- instructions are sent to here  Negative and Positive Feedback 1. the role of negative feedback A. the response of the effector negates the stimulus B. body is brought back into homeostasis a. normal range is achieved 2. example: A. metabolism, production of T3 and T4 from the thyroid gland B. hypothalamus produces TRH; goes into the pituitary gland C. anterior lobe of pituitary gland produces TSH, which travels to the thyroid producing T3 and T4 3. the role of positive feedback A. the response of the effector increases change of the stimulus B. body is moved away from homeostasis a. normal range is lost C. used to speed up processes 4. example: blood clots, fever, child birth, breast feeding A. the child is a stimuli, oxytocin is produced which cause contractions  Anatomical Terminology 1. superficial anatomy A. locating structures on or near the body surface 2. anatomical landmarks B. anatomical position: palms forward, feet should width apart, facing forward C. supine: laying down, face up D. prone: laying down, face down 3. anatomical regions A. abdominal pelvic quadrant (4) B. abdominal pelvic regions (9) 4. anatomical directions A. reference terms based on subject  Body Cavities 1. essential functions of body cavities A. protect organs B. permit changes in size of organs 2. ventral body cavity (coelom) A. thoracic cavity B. abdominal cavity a. dorsal cavity 3. thoracic cavity A. two pleural cavities a. stores the lungs B. mediastinum a. upper portion filled with blood vessels, trachea, esophagus, and thymus b. lower portion contains pericardial cavity I. the heart is located within the pericardial cavity 4. serous membranes A. consists of parietal layer and visceral layer a. parietal layer: lines cavities b. visceral layer: covers organs 5. abdominopelvic cavity A. peritoneal cavity: chamber in abdominopelvic cavity a. parietal peritoneum: lines body wall b. visceral peritoneum: lines/covers organs B. abdominal cavity a. superior: above, houses digestive organs b. retroperitoneal space: (retro-behind) area posterior to peritoneum and anterior to muscular body wall (example: pancreas and kidneys) c. intraperitoneal space: (infra- below) area inferior to peritoneum (example: urinary bladder) C. pelvic cavity a. inferior- reproduction organs, rectum and urinary bladder


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