Week 1 Notes
Week 1 Notes ANTH 3540
Popular in Multicultural Healthcare
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kara Pemberton on Thursday August 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 3540 at University of Georgia taught by Dr. Susan Tanner in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Multicultural Healthcare in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 08/20/15
Multicultural Healthcare Week 1 8 1715 Multicultural Healthcare 0 Focus on healthcare and disease patterns 0 Medical anthropology Understanding global and personal patterns of health 0 US Healthcare in different localized groups 0 What is the culture of medicine 0 Biocultural approaches Interaction between biology ecology culture and society 0 What in uences or causes these patterns 0 Health Disparities What Why and How to fix them 8 1915 Questions to consider 0 What does anthropology contribute to the study of health and disease 0 What is so cultural about health and disease 0 Why do people get colds 0 Temperature environment contagion germs weaker immune system 0 How do you treat a cold 0 Prevention rest behavioral changes vitamin C treating the symptoms 0 How sick did you have to be to have a sick day 0 Fever throwing up looking sick Our definition and treatment of sickness is as much circumstantial as it is medical Disciplines studying human health and disease 0 Bio and life sciences o Historians 0 Psychology and mental health 0 Medicine More treatment focused o Epidemiology More prevention focused Anthropological Contributions 0 Studying the interactions between biology and culture 0 Long term fieldwork Creating an understanding of the system 0 Individual experience and crosscultural perspective 0 Relationship between the individual and broader society 0 Relationship between cultures Culture 0 Socially transmitted systems of shared knowledge beliefs and practices that vary across groups 0 Gives meaning to physical world and senses o Allows humans to exploit many diverse habitats 0 Code Book of reality 0 In order to understand culture it must be explained o EMIC Insider s perspective 0 ETIC Outsider s perspective What is the relationship between body and health 0 Health might live in the body but is not clearly of the body Code Book of reality In the US 0 Science and medicine are how we learn about the body o The Individual is the center of reality 0 Individuality in normal mental functionality I What is the beginning and end of personhood and control I Loss of personhood With loss of ability to make sound decisions for oneself 0 Life is a functioning mind 0 I Life defined by beating heart in other countries I US Concept of brain death Individual decisions are responsible for health outcomes I What happens When individual decisions become dangerous to society 0 What responsibilities do we have to society 0 Reconstruction of Body 0 O O Xenotransplantation taking organs from another species for transplant Concept of Chimera I Which parts of human body can be replaced With that of other animals I What is considered intrinsic to being human 0 Brain 0 External aspects IdentityAnonymous I Covering eyestop part of face anonymity o The Body as a Machine 0 O 0 Can take parts out and replace Can treat individual systems T Kats 16521729 Originator of idea of the Body as a house and organs as rooms Cartesian dualism I Separation of the Body and Mind Health as a battle Military metaphors in medicine I Invading bacteria I Fighting tuberculosis US Biomedicine summary 1 Emphasis on Technology 2 Body is bounded and limited 3 Disease is deviation from normal that can be corrected Scienti c Medicine 0 Highly professionalized 0 International dominant and very successful at curing medical problems 0 Not culture free 82115 What is Health History of Medicine 0 Hippocrates 400 BC 0 Inhabitants of mountainous rocky wellwatered country at high altitude where the margin of seasonal climactic variation is wide will tend to have largebuilt bodies constitutionally adapted for courage and endurance and in such natures there will be a considerable element of ferocity and brutality 0 Importance of looking and observing 0 Ideas of people s natures based on environments and elements I Fire water air earth 0 Many works and studies attributed to him I Might have been multiple people writing under one name 0 Balances between bodily uids important I Purging and bloodletting prominent 0 Galen AD 129199 RomanGreek physician philosopher and surgeon o Humoral theory I Balances of uids 0 Relatively uncontested until 1500s 0 Disease considered result of sin or imbalance in body humors o 1St to describe the circulatory system 0 1St to recognize a light and dark part to blood I Thought they were different systems 0 1500s amp 1600s The Renaissance 0 Andreas Versalius 1543 Challenged Galen s ideas I Dissected humans instead of primates I Fixed Galen s mistakes but was resented for it 0 1700s amp 1800s Industrial Revolution 0 Germ theory replaces humoral theory andor supernatural disease causation o Invention of microscope 0 1800s beginning of linking certain germs and viruses to certain diseases 0 Industrial Revolution 0 Simultaneous improvement of life I Sanitation I Piped water I Pest eradication I Housing regulations 0 Control of Infectious Disease I 1880 handwashing between surgeries proved to be healthiersafer Disease in classic biomedical model 0 Doctrine of specific etiology o All disease caused by theoretically identifiable agents I Treating the cause instead of the symptoms 0 Assumption of generic disease I Identifiable features of disease are universal I Getting the virus for malaria won t give you smallpox o Unhealthy is deviation from the range found in healthy ie Normal individuals 0 Science is neutral rational logical Is medicine culture free Miner 1956 reading 0 Nacirema is American backwards 0 It s easy to foreignize something familiar 0 Have to trust the system in order to be a part of it 0 Culture works best on autopilot 0 When we don t think about it or question it it makes perfect sense Health 0 WHO World Health Organization 1958 0 State of complete physical mental and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease 0 Murray and Zentner 1975 Nursing concepts for Health Promotion 0 Purposeful adaptive response Much more complicated definition Basic Social Model 0 Critiques of WHO definition 0 Stressors and pathogens are part of the human condition I Not always bad for us 0 Mirage of health I Health is difficult to measureachieve o Extent to which individual perceives world as comprehensible manageable and meaningful 39 Subjective assessments often accurate 0 But don t include disease Other ways of defining Health 0 Health as a state or process A current state or end goal 0 Health as balance Homeostasis 0 Health as function fitness ease of movement normal Sickness 0 External and public mode of unhealth Sickness is a social role a status a negotiated position in the world Marinker 1975 0 Unwanted variation in physical social and psychological health 0 2 divisions of sickness I Illness experience I Disease or pathology I Based on subjective experience of suffering The Illness Experience 0 Illness experience has several stages 0 O O Onset of symptoms Diagnosis often by authority Person is patient Required to follow treatment plan restricted freedom and movement Recovery no longer patient can still have lasting effects
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