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Week 1 Notes- BSC 182

by: Summer Schuler

Week 1 Notes- BSC 182 BSC 182

Summer Schuler
GPA 3.58
Human Physiology & Anatomy 2
Betsy Wargo

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Hey everyone! Hope your first week of school is going great for you! Here is the notes we have gotten through in this class so far. WEEK ONE NOTES END AT SLIDE #52. I have class Tuesday and Thursda...
Human Physiology & Anatomy 2
Betsy Wargo
Class Notes
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This 149 page Class Notes was uploaded by Summer Schuler on Thursday August 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 182 at Illinois State University taught by Betsy Wargo in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology & Anatomy 2 in Biological Sciences at Illinois State University.


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Date Created: 08/20/15
Endocrine Hormones System Overview Acts with nervous system to coordinate amp integrate activity of body cells Influences activities Response slower but longer lasting than nervous system Diffused pathway bloodstream9 slow response Hormones are systemic Endocrine System 39 Pinealgland Hypothalamus Pituitary gland ExoeXItcrIne Glands Thyroid gland leavmg the body to the skrn Parathyroid glands on dorsal aspect 0r caVItles ofthyroid gland Nonhormonal substances Thymus sweat saliva Have ducts to carry secretion Adrenal glands to membrane surface Endoinsidecrine Glands Pam39eas fluids bloodcirculatory pathways tissues Gonads Ovary female Produce hormones oTestis male No ducts Chemical Messengers Hormones longdistance chemical signals travel in blood or lymph Autocrines chemicals that exert effects on same cells that secrete them Paracrines locally acting chemicals that affect cells other than those that secrete them Autocrines and paracrines are local chemical messengers not considered part of endocrine system Chemistry of Hormones Two main classes Amino Acidbased hormones nonsteroidal Hydrophilic Amino acid derivatives peptides and proteins Steriods lipids oils amp fats Hydrophobic Synthesized from cholesterol Gonadal and adrenocortical hormones Mechanisms of Hormone Action Though hormones circulate systemically only cells with receptors for that hormone affected Target Cells the one that has the receptor Tissues with receptors for specific hormone Hormones alter target cell activity Mechanisms of Hormone Action Hormones act at receptors in one of two ways depending on their chemical nature and receptor location 1 Watersoluble hormones all amino acid based hormones except thyroid hormone Act on plasma membrane receptors Use second messengers Cannot enter cell Mechanisms of Hormone Action 2 Lipidsoluble hormones steroid and thyroid hormones Act on intracellular within the cell receptors that directly activate genes Can enter cell Intracellular Receptors and Direct Gene Activation Steroid hormones and thyroid hormone 1 Diffuse into target cells and bind with receptors within the cell 2 Receptor hormone enters nucleus binds to specific region of DNA 3 Prompts DNA transcription to produce mRNA 4 mRNA directs protein synthesis 5 Promote metabolic activities or promote synthesis of structural proteins or proteins for export from cell Target Cell Specificity Target cells must have specific receptors to which hormone binds for example Some hormones have only a few target cells ACTH receptors found only on certain cells of adrenal cortex Some hormones have many different target cells Thyroxin receptors are found on nearly all cells of the body Control of Hormone Release Blood levels of hormones Controlled by negative feedback systems Negative feedback systems turn off production of something when we have enough Vary only within narrow desirable range Endocrine gland stimulated to synthesize and release hormones in response to Humoral Stimuli 9 something in body s fluid is triggering a response Neural Stimuli neurons stimulate a release Ca 29 parathyroid hormones Hormonal Stimuli 9 hormones stimulate hormones Humoral Stimuli a Humoral Stimulus Hormone release caused by altered Changing blood levels of ions levels of certain critical ions or and nutrients directly stimulate nutrients secretion of hormones Capillary low Ca2 in blood Thyroid gland posterior view Example Ca2 in blood parathyroid glands Declining blood Ca2 concentration j stimulates parathyroid glands to secrete PTH parathyroid hormone 39 Parathyroid PTH causes Ca2 concentrations to glands sPTll rIse and stimulus IS removed Neural Stimuli Nerve fibers stimulate hormone release Sympathetic nervous system fibers stimulate adrenal medulla to secrete catecholamines Fight or flight norepinephrine Goes from a neurotransmitter to a hormonecan be either gtgt Adrenal gland or posterior pituitary gland b Neural Stimulus Hormone release caused by neural input CNS spinal cord sl Preganglionic sympathetic bers I Medulla of adrenal gland Hormonal Stimuli Hormones stimulate other endocrine organs to release their hormones Hypothalamic hormones stimulate release of most anterior pituitary hormones Anterior pituitary hormones stimulate targets to secrete still more hormones Hypothalamicpituitarytarget endocrine organ feedback loop hormones from final target organs inhibit release of anterior pituitary hormones c Hormonal Stimulus Hormone release caused by another hormone a tropic hormone Hypothalamus 7quot Anterior pituitary gland Nervous System Modulation Nervous system modifies stimulation of endocrine glands and their negative feedback mechanisms Example under severe stress hypothalamus and sympathetic nervous system activated 9 body glucose levels rise Nervous system can override normal endocrine controls Onset of Hormone Activity Some responses are almost immediate Some especially steroids hours to days Some must be activated in target cells Duration of Hormone Activity Limited Ranges from 10 seconds to several hours Effects may disappear as blood levels drop Some persist at low blood levels The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus Pituitary gland hypophysis has two major lobes Posterior pituitary Neurohypophysis Neural tissue Anterior pituitary Adenohypophysis Gland Less than Below Grow Gland that grows below the hypothalamus Glandular tissue Pituitaryhypothalamic Relationships Posterior pituitary lobe Extension of hypothalamic neural tissue Neural connection to hypothalamus hypothalamic hypophyseal tract Nuclei of hypothalamus make oxytocin amp antidiuretic hormone Neurohormones are transported to and stored in posterior pituitary quotpbthalah nus J Supraoptic nucleus lnfundlbulum connecting stalk Inferior Hypothalamic hypophyseal hypophyseal artery tr act lt Axon terminals Posteriorjobe of pltultary Posterior Pituitary and Hypothalamic Hormones Oxytocin and ADH Each composed of 9 amino acids Almost identical differ in 2 amino acids Oxytocin Strong stimulant of uterine contraction Released during childbirth Hormonal trigger for milk ejection Acts as neurotransmitter in brain ADH Vasopressin Prevents urine formation Regulates water balance Release also triggered by pain low blood pressure and drugs Inhibited by alchoholdiuretic High concentrations 9 vasoconstriction tightening of blood vessels Kidneys Extra notes from Lecture 1 Hypothalamus is the only place you see a releasing hormone RH Pituitary Gland Posterior Neural Stimulation tractneurons that connects the 2 hypothalamus pituitary Anterior Hormonal stimulation portalblood vessel connects the 2 hypothalamus pituitary Extra notes from Lecture 1 Paracrine nearby Autocrine Self Comparing Hormones Steroidal Cholesterol Insoluble in water Can diffuse thru plasma membranes Internal receptors StimulatesInhibits DNA Non Steroidal Amino Acids Water soluble Target cells have external receptor Stimulates a quot2nd messenger system Pituitaryhypothalamic Relationships Anterior Lobe Vascular connection to hypothalamus Hypophyseal portal system Carries releasing and inhibiting hormones only place we release releasing GHgTSHTACTH hormones is from the hypothalamus quot quotquotquota Always goes to the anterior pituitary regulate hormone secretion Hypothalamic neurons synthesize GHRH GHlH TRH 39 CRH GnRH PIH Hypophyseal portal system Pri ary capillary plexus Hypophyseal portal veins Secondary capillary plexus Anterior Pituitary Hormones Growth hormone GH Thyroidstimulating hormone TSH or thyrotropin Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH Folliclestimulating hormone FSH Luteinizing hormone LH Prolactin PRL Growth Hormone GH GH release chiefly regulated by hypothalamic hormones Growth hormone releasing hormone GHRH Stimulates release Growth hormone inhibiting hormone GHIH somatostatin Inhibits release Ghrelin hunger hormone also stimulates release Homeostatic Imbalances of Growth Hormone Hypersecretion In children results in gigantism In adults results in acromegaly Hyposecretion In children results in pituitary dwarfism Thyroidstimulating Hormone Thyrotropin Produced by thyrotropic cells of anterior pituitary Stimulates normal develoEment and secretory activity of t yroid l TRH t Anterir ituitar y H Release triggered by thyrotropinreleasing hormone w l W from hypothalamus t T5 Inhibited by rising blood levels Thy Ian OHMmid hormones that act on f Thyroid PItUItary and hypothalamus e e A w hormonee l Taret cells J Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Corticotropin Secreted by corticotropic cells of anterior pituitary Stimulates adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Corticotropin U HYOthalamus H Regulation of ACTH release Triggered by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone CRH in daily rhythm CRH H Anterior pituitary H l ACTH Internal and external factors such as fever hypoglycemia and StFESSOFS can J Adrenal Crtex U alter release of CRH e w u a Corticosteroids l Taret cells J Gonadotropins Folliclestimulating hormone FSH and luteinizing hormone LH Secreted by gonadotrophs secrets the gonadotropinsgonad nourishing cells of anterior pituitary FSH stimulates gamete egg or sperm production LH promotes production of gonadal hormones Absent from the blood in prepubertal boys and girls Gonadotropins Hythalamus I Regulation of gonadotropin release F GnRH Triggered by gonadotropinreleasing hormone GnRH during and after Ameri ituitary puberty Wquot 39 quot FSH d LH Gn IS abbrevratlon for gonadotropln F an Gnads J Suppressed by gonadal hormones F Estrogen feedback r m Target cells Prolactin PRL Secreted by prolactin cells of anterior pituitary Stimulates milk production Role in males not well understood Prolactin PRL Regulation of PRL release Primarily controlled by prolactininhibiting hormone PIH dopamine Blood levels rise toward end of pregnancy Suckling stimulates PRL release and promotes continued milk production Hypersecretion causes inappropriate lactation lack of menses infertility in females and impotence in males Thyroid Gland I b 39 39939 e 39 Isthmus of 5 W39 W thyroid gland Two lateral lobes connected by a ili f Trache Composed of follicles that produce thyroglobulin Colloid lled follicles Follicular cells Parafollicular cells produce the hormone calcitonin Parafollicular cells Thyroid Hormone TH Actually two related compounds T4 thyroxine T3 triodothyronine Both made from the follicle Hormones that are released into the bloodstream Affects virtually every cell in the body Thyroid Hormone Vajor metabolic hormone Increases metabolic rate Regulation of tissue growth and development Development of skeletal and nervous systems Reproductive capabilities Maintenance of blood pressure Transport and Regulation of TH H Hypothalamus H Negative feedback regulation of TH release TRH Rising TH levels provide negative Anterior pituitary feedback inhibition on release of TSH 2 TSH Hypothalamic thyrotropinreleasing Thymid g39and hormone TRH can overcome negative Thyroid hormones feedback during pregnancy or exposure t0 COId 1 Target cells J Calcitonin Produced by parafollicular cells Also called extrafollicular cells Antagonist to parathyroid hormone PTH At higher than normal doses Helps to keep Ca2 in bones Stimulates Ca2 uptake and incorporation into bone matrix Parathyroid Glands Four to eight tiny glands embedded in posterior aspect of thyroid Contain oxyphil cells function unknown parathyroid cells secrete parathyroid hormone PTH PTH most important hormone in Ca 2 homeostasis Parathyroid Hormone Functions Stimulates osteoclasts to digest bone matrix and release Ca2 Enhances reabsorption of Ca2 and secretion of phosphate by kidneys Promotes activation of vitamin D by kidneys increases absorption of Ca2 by intestinal mucosa Negative feedback control rising Ca2 in blood inhibits PTH release Homeostatic lmbalances of PTH Hyperparathyroidism excessive PTH due to tumor Bones soften and deform Elevated Ca2 Depresses nervous system contributes to formation of kidney stones Hypoparathyroidism following gland trauma or removal or dietary magnesium deficiency Results in tetany muscle tightenscontracts and won t release Muscle becomes unfuntionable respiratory paralysis and death Adrenal Suprarenal Glands Paired pyramidshaped organs atop kidneys Structurally and functionally are two glands in one Adrenal medulla nervous tissue part of sympathetic nervous system right next toon top of kidneys Adrenal cortex three layers of glandular tissue that synthesize and secrete corticosteroids right next toon top of kidneys Adrenal Cortex Three layers of cortex produce the different corticosteroids Zona glomerulosa 3 Mineralocorticoids g Sodium amp potassium ions Target and cause a release of the 53369 minerals in our system ltonex 7 3 Zona fasciculata Glucocorticoids Some level of control over our glucose levels Zona reticularis Gonadocoritcoids Gonads ovariestestes The hormones they produce estrogentestosterone gtgt Manufactured out of cholesterol Medth g V b jk lt 0 I 39 c l I 39 LCapsule Zona glomerulosa quot2 Zona fasciculata I 1quot quot 39 Zona llquot v reticularis Adrenal medulla Mineralocorticoids Regulate electrolytes Na and K in extracellular fluid Aldosterone most potent mineralocorticoid Causes water retention by kidneys Where sodium goes water goes Elimination of K Aldosterone Release triggered by Decreasing blood volume and blood pressure Rising blood levels of K Bloating during menstruation is caused from this It caused sodium levels to increase which causes water levels to increase No fluid 9 no blood pressure Lots of fluid high blood pressure Mechanisms of Aldosterone Secretion Reninangiotensinaldosterone mechanism decreased blood pressure stimulates kidneys to release renin 9 triggers formation of angiotensin 2 a potent stimulator of aldosterone release ACTH causes small increases of aldosterone during stress Atrial atria of the heart upper chamber natriuretic peptide ANP blocks renin and aldosterone secretion to decrease blood pressure when stressed Removes water from the system Glucocorticoids Keep blood glucose levels relatively constant IVIaintain blood pressure by increasing action of vasoconstrictors Cortisol hydrocortisone Only one in significant amounts in humans Can attribute to blood pressure changes vasoconstriction Cortisone Corticosterone Glucocorticoids Cortisol Released in response to ACTH Patterns of eating and activity Stress Prime metabolic effect is glucogucoseneo newgenesiscreation of9 New source of glucose Formation of glucose from fats and proteins Promotes rises in blood glucose fatty acids and amino acids quotSavesquot glucose for brain Enhances vasoconstriction 9 rise in blood pressure to quickly distribute nutrients to cells Gonadocorticoids Sex Hormones Vost weak androgens male sex hormones converted to testosterone in tissue cells some to estrogens IVIay contribute to Onset of puberty Appearance of secondary sex characteristics Sex drive in women adrenal glands produce testosterone for our sex drive Estrogens in postmenopausal women Adrenal Medulla Medullary chromaffin cells synthesize epinephrine 80 and norepinephrine 20 9stimuation of the medulla Effects Vasoconstriction Increased heart rate Increased blood glucose levels Blood diverted to brain heart and skeletal muscle Adrenal Medulla Responses are brief Epinephrine stimulates metabolic activities bronchial dilation and blood flow to skeletal muscles and heart Norepinephrine influences peripheral vasoconstriction and blood pressure Pineal Gland Small gland hanging from roof of third ventricle SECFEtES derived from Melatonin may affect Timing of Daynight cycles Physiological processes that show rhythmic variations body temperature appetite Pancreas Triangular gland partially behind stomach Has both and endocrine cells Acinar cells exocrine produce enzymerich juice for digestion Pancreatic islets islets of Langerhans contain endocrine cells on cells produce glucagon 3 cells produce insulin Glucagon Major target Causes Effects Release of glucose to blood Glycogenolysis breakdown of glycogen to Gluconeogenesis from lactic acid and noncarbohydrates Insulin Effects of insulin Enhances membrane transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells Inhibits glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis Participates in and learning and memory Not needed for glucose uptake in liver kidney or brain Homeostatic Imbalances of Insulin Diabetes mellitus DIVI Due to type 1 or type 2 of insulin Blood glucose levels remain high 9 nausea 9 higher blood glucose levels glucose spilled into urine Diabetes Mellitus Signs Three cardinal signs of DIVI huge urine output Glucose acts as osmotic diuretic excessive thirst From water loss due to polyuria excessive hunger and food consumption Cells cannot take up glucose are quotstarvingquot Homeostatic Imbalances of Insulin Hyperinsulinism Excessive insulin secretion Low blood glucose levels Anxiety nervousness disorientation unconsciousness even death Treated by Ovaries and Placenta Gonads produce steroid sex hormones Same as those of Ovaries produce Estrogen Maturation of reproductive organs Appearance of secondary sexual characteristics With progesterone causes breast development and cyclic changes in uterine mucosa secretes estrogens progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin Testes Testes produce Initiates maturation of male reproductive organs Causes appearance of male secondary sexual characteristics and sex drive Necessary for Maintains reproductive organs in functional state Other Hormoneproducing Structures Adipose tissue appetite control stimulates increased energy expenditure insulin antagonist Adiponectin enhances sensitivity to insulin Other Hormoneproducing Structures Enteroendocrine cells of gastrointestinal tract stimulates release of stimulates liver and pancreas Cholecystokinin stimulates pancreas and gallbladder Other Hormoneproducing Structures Atrial natriuretic peptide AN P decreases blood Na concentration blood pressure and blood volume Kidneys Erythropoietin signals production of red blood cells initiates the renin angiotensinaldosterone mechanism Results in increased blood pressure Blood Composition Blood Plasma nonliving fluid matrix Formed elements living blood quotcellsquot suspended in plasma gtgt red blood cells or RBCs gtgt white blood cells or WBCs Blood Composition Spun tube of blood yields three layers on bottom WBCs and platelets in Buffy coat Hematocrit 47 i 5 for males 42 i 5 for females Physical Characteristics and Volume Color varies with 02 content scarlet darkred 39 pH 735 745 Average volume S 6 Lfor males 4 S L for females Functions of Blood Functions include Delivering and nutrients to body cells Transporting to lungs and kidneys for elimination Transporting from endocrine organs to target organs Functions of Blood Regulating blood levels of substances Maintaining body temperature by Maintaining normal pH using alkaline reserve of bicarbonate ions Maintaining adequate fluid volume in circulatory system Functions of Blood Protection Preventing blood loss Plasma proteins and platelets Preventing infection Complement proteins Blood Plasma 90 water Over 100 dissolved solutes Nutrients gases hormones wastes proteins inorganic ions Plasma proteins most abundant solutes Proteins produced mosty Albumin 60 of plasma proteins Functions Blood Major contributor of plasma osmotic pressure Globulins Three subcategories Transport molecule Transport molecule Gamma Transport molecules carry those compounds that do not circulate well in a watery plasma environment Fats cholesterol etc Formed Elements Only WBCs are RBCs have no Platelets are cell Vost formed elements survive in bloodstream only few days Most blood cells originate in bone marrow and do not divide Erythrocytes Biconcave discs No nucleus essentially no Diameters larger than some capillaries Filled with for gas transport Major factor contributing to blood Erythrocytes Structural characteristics contribute to gas transport huge surface area relative to volume gt97 hemoglobin not counting water No mitochondria Erythrocyte Function RBCs dedicated to Hemoglobin binds with oxygen Hemoglobin Structure composed of 4 polypeptide chains Two alpha and two beta chains pigment bonded to each globin chain Gives blood red color Heme39s central binds one 02 Each Hb molecule can transport Each RBC contains 250 million Hb molecules Hemoglobin Hb 02 loading in lungs Oxygen binds with hemoglobin Produces ruby red 02 unloading in tissues Oxygen Produces deoxyhemoglobin or reduced hemoglobin dark red can also be carried on hemoglobin At a site separate from where oxygen binds Hematopoiesis Blood cell formation in In adult found in Girdles humerus and femur of Hematopoiesis Hemocytoblasts Give rise to Hormones and growth factors push cell toward specific pathway of blood cell development Committed ces cannot change Erythropoiesis Red Blood Cell Production Stages transformed into proerythroblast In 15 days proerythroblasts develop into Basophilic erythroblasts then polychromatic erythroblasts then orthochromatic erythroblasts then into Reticulocytes enter bloodstream in 2 days mature RBC Regulation of Erythropoiesis Too few RBCs leads to tissue Too many RBCs increases Hormonal Control of Erythropoiesis Hormone Erythropoietin Direct stimulus for Always a small amount in blood to maintain basal rate High RBC or 02 levels depress production Released by some from liver in response to hypoxia Hormonal Control of Erythropoiesis Causes of hypoxia Decreased RBC numbers Insufficient hemoglobin per RBC Reduced availability of 02 high altitudes Dietary Requirements for Erythropoiesis amino acids lipids and carbohydrates Available from diet 65 in Hb rest in liver spleen and bone marrow necessary for DNA synthesis for rapidly dividing cells developing RBCs Fate and Destruction of Erythrocytes Life span No protein synthesis growth division Old RBCs become Hb begins to degenerate Get trapped in smaller circulatory channels especially in spleen engulf dying RBCs in spleen Fate and Destruction of Erythrocytes Heme and globin are separated Iron salvaged Heme degraded to yellow pigment bilirubin in bile into intestines Globin metabolized into amino acids Released into circulation Erythrocyte Disorders Anemia Blood has abnormally low Clinical sign Not a disease itself Blood 02 levels cannot support Accompanied by fatigue pallor shortness of breath and chills Causes of Anemia Three groups Low RBC production Causes of Anemia Blood Loss Acute hemorrhagic anemia Treated by blood replacement Chronic hemorrhagic anemia Hemorrhoids Primary problem treated Causes of Anemia Low RBC Production Irondeficiency anemia Caused by hemorrhagic anemia low iron intake or U W x r39 quot39 t m 39 A 3 quot y I 1 39 V M s v r Q v N V r x v l t fquot g I 0 t c O v V i I r if kl Jquot r l 0 quotb Iron supplements to treat Causes of Anemia Low RBC Production Pernicious anemia destroys stomach mucosa Lack of intrinsic factor needed to Deficiency of vitamin B12 RBCs cannot divide 9 Treated with B12 injections or nasal gel Also caused by vegetarians Causes of Anemia Low RBC Production anemia Lack of erythropoeitin Often accompanies Treated with synthetic erythropoeitin Causes of Anemia Low RBC Production Destruction or inhibition of by drugs chemicals radiation viruses Usually cause unknown All cell lines affected Treated shortterm with transfusions longterm with transplanted stem cells Causes of Anemia High RBC Destruction Premature RBC Caused by Hb abnormalities Incompatible transfusions I Causes of Anemia High RBC Destruction Usually genetic basis for Globin abnormal Fragile Causes of Anemia High RBC Destruction Thalassemias Typically One globin chain UVU 3 RBCs thm r 003quot d 39V39anysubtypes 3 15 1530 Severity from mild to severe Causes of Anemia High RBC Destruction Sicklecell anemia Hemoglobin S amino acid wrong in a globin beta chain v 3 RBCs when 06 b they unload O or when blood 0 low t 3 quotQ 2 2 g 0 1 RBCs and block small vessels Poor 02 delivery pain Sicklecell Anemia Black people of African malarial belt and descendants Kills 1 million each year Sicklecell gene Two copies 9 One copy 9 milder disease better chance to COUHt production increases 9 higher RBC Less 02 available andor EPO km Secondary polycythemia J i win at oamouocwg 31w Severely increased Bone marrow cancer 9 excess RBCs Erythrocyte Disorders Leukocytes Make up lt1 of total blood volume Function in Can leave capillaries via Move through tissue spaces by ameboid motion and positive chemotaxis Leukocytosis WBC count over 11000mm3 Normal response to infection Leukocytes Two Categories Granulocytes Visible Neutrophils eosinophils basophils No visible cytoplasmic granules Lymphocytes Memory tools ever let monkeys eat bananas 6040830 Nanna lost my Easter bow Granulocytes Granulocytes Lobed nuclei Cytoplasmic granules stain specifically with Wright39s stain All to some degree Neutrophils Vost numerous WBCs Granules stain lilac hot purple contain hydrolytic enzymes or defensins 39 J P a size Of a Neutrophil Multilobed nucleus pale red and blue cytoplasmic granules Very phagocytic Eosinophils nucleus Granules lysosomelike Release enzymes to digest Role in Role in modulating immune response s y b Eosinophil Bilobed nucleus red cytoplasmic granules Basoph s Bilobed nucleus 3 Large purplishblack granules contain histamine inflammatory chemical that acts as vasodilator to attract WBCs to inflamed sites c Basophil Bilobed nucleus purplishblack Are functionally similar to mast cells cytoplasmic granules Agranulocytes Agranulocytes visible cytoplasmic granules Have or kidneyshaped nuclei Lymphocytes Second most numerous WBC Large darkpurple with thin rim of Mostly in lymphoid tissue eg lymph nodes spleen few circulate in blood Q d Lymphocyte small Large spherical nucleus thin rim of pale blue cytoplasm Lymphocytes Two types T cells act against virusinfected cells and tumor cells B cells give rise to which produce antibodies Monocytes leukocytes Abundant Dark purplestaining U or kidneyshaped nuclei e Monocyte Kidneyshaped nucleus abundant pale blue cytoplasm Monocytes Leave circulation enter tissues and Actively cells crucial against viruses intracellular bacterial parasites and chronic infections 39 to mount an immune response Leukopoiesis All leukocytes originate from cells 9 lymphocytes cells 9 all others Progression of all granulocytes Myeloblast 9 promyelocyte 9 myelocyte 9 band 9 mature cell Granulocytes stored in 3 times more WBCs produced than RBCs Shorter life span die fighting microbes Leukopoiesis Progression of agranulocytes differs IVIonocytes Share common precursor with neutrophils lVIonoblast 9 promonocyte 9 monocyte live to decades Lymphoid stem cell 9 T lymphocyte precursors travel to thymus and B lymphocyte precursors Figure 1711 Leukocyte formation Stem cells Hematopoietic stem cell hemocytoblast 3 39 Myeloid stem cell Lymphoid stem cell Committed J I i l 1 cells Myeloblast Myeloblast Myeloblast Monoblast B lymphocyte T lymphocyte 0 0 0 0 precursor precursor Developmental P pathway Promyelocyte Promyelocyte Promyelocyte romonocyte Eosinophilic Basophilic Neutrophilic myelocyte myelocyte myelocyte Eosinophilic Basophilic Neutrophilic b 3 has Granular Agranular leukocytes leukocyte v v Eosinophils Basophils Neutrophils Monocytes B lymphocytes T lymphocytes a 39 1 b c d e f 0 Some become Some become Some become Macrophages tissues Plasma cells Effector T cells Leukocyte disorders Abnormally WBC count Leukemias all fatal if untreated Cancer 9 overproduction of Myeloid leukemia involves neutrophil eosinophil basophil monocyte Lymphocytic Lymphoid leukemia involves lymphocytes Acute leukemia derives from cthren primarily affects Chronic leukemia more prevalent in Leukemia Cancerous leukocytes fill red bone marrow Other cells compromised Immature WBCs in bloodstream Death from internalhemorrhage overwhelminginfections Treatments Irradiation antileukemic drugs stem cell transplants Infectious Mononucleosis Higth contagious viral disease High numbers atypical agranulocytes Symptoms Tired achy chronic sore throat low fever Runs course with rest Platelets Cytoplasmic fragments of Bluestaining outer region purple granules Platelets Form that helps seal breaks in blood vessels Circulating platelets kept Age quickly degenerate in about 10 days Platelets Formation regulated by Derive from Hemostasis series of reactions for stoppage of bleeding Requires and substances released by platelets and injured tissues Three steps 1 2 3 Coagulation blood clotting Hemostasis Vascular Spasm 39 of damaged blood vessel Triggers to vascular smooth muscle Chemicals released by endothelial cells and platelets Pain reflexes Vost effective in Hemostasis Platelet Plug Formation feedback cycle Damaged endothelium exposes Platelets stick to collagen fibers Swell become release chemical messengers Process encourages more vascular spasm and more platelet formation Positive feedback Hemostasis Coagulation Reinforces platelet plug with Blood transformed from Series of reactions using clotting factors Coagulation Uses factors present within blood intrinsic Causes clotting outside of the body Blood in a Typically triggered with tissue damage Bypasses several steps of intrinsic pathway Both Extrinsic and Intrinsic pathways merge together to create a that results in coagulation Coagulation converts soluble fibrinogen to Fibrin strands form structural basis of clot Fibrin causes plasma to become a Thrombin with Ca2 activates another clotting factor which Strengthens and stabilizes clot Clot Retraction Actin and myosin in platelets contract within 30 60 minutes Contraction pulls on fibrin strands squeezing serum from clot Fibrinolysis Removes Begins within two days continues for several in dot is converted to by tissue plasminogen activator more clotting factors and thrombin Plasmin is a Disorders of Hemostasis Thromboembolic disorders Bleeding disorders abnormalities that Disseminated intravascular coagulation DIC Involves both types of disorders Thromboembolic Conditions Thrombus clot that develops and May block circulation leading to tissue death thrombus freely floating in bloodstream Embolism embolus Eg pulmonary and cerebral emboli Risk factors atherosclerosis inflammation slowly flowing blood or blood stasis from immobility Petechiae Bleeding Disorders Thrombocytopenia Do not blanch with Petechlae appear due to pressure Not palpable Due to suppression or destruction of red bone marrow Treated with transfusion of concentrated platelets Bleeding Disorders Impaired liver function Inability to synthesize Causes include hepatitis and cirrhosis Impaired fat absorption and liver disease can also prevent liver from producing bile impairing fat and vitamin K absorption Bleeding Disorders Hemophilia includes several similar Hemophilia A most common type 77 of all cases factor deficiency Hemophilia B factor deficiency Hemophilia C mild type factor XI deficiency Symptoms include especially into joint cavities Memory tools A8 89 Disseminated lntravascular Coagulation DIC Clotting causes bleeding blocks intact blood vessels Severe bleeding occurs because Occurs as complication in with incompatible blood transfusions Transfusions used when blood loss rapid and substantial plasma and WBCs removed transfused to restore oxygen carrying capacity Transfusion of incompatible blood Human Blood Groups RBC membranes bear 30 types of glycoprotein antigens Promoters of agglutination called agglutinogens May be agglutinated and destroyed can be fatal Presence or absence of each antigen is used to classify blood cells into different groups Blood Groups Antigens of and blood groups cause transfusion reactions Other blood groups IVINS Duffy Kell and Lewis usually agglutinogens ABO Blood Groups Types A B AB and 0 Based on presence or absence of two on surface of RBCs Blood may contain circulating antiA or antiB Antibodies seek out and attach to nonself markers AntiA or antiB form in blood adult levels by 810 years of age Type A Blood w H l 39 l I Q Type A Blood has on the cell surface It has circulating in the plasma Will attach to B antigens would be foreign nonself to this individual There will be NO reaction between the Type A antigen on the surface and the AntiB antibody in the plasma Type B Blood Type B Blood has on the cell surface It has circulating in the plasma Will attach to A antigens would be foreign nonself to this individual There will be NO reaction between the Type B antigen on the surface and the AntiA antibody in the plasma Type AB Blood Type AB blood has displayed on the surface There will be NO circulating in the blood if there were there would be an agglutination response which could be fatal Because there are NO antibodies in the bloodstream this blood type is considered a You can put any blood cell into this environment and not have an agglutination reaction because there are no antibodies in the host plasma If i l 1 Type 0 blood MQJ AntiA4 l Type 0 blood has on the cell surface Because of this ANY antigen is considered nonself so the Type 0 blood is considered a because the Type 0 blood cell with no antigens can safely go into any other blood type With no antigens on the surface there will be no interaction with any of the antibodies found in the host Rh Blood Groups 52 named Rh factors C D and E are most common 85 Americans Rh Rh Blood Groups An individual with on the blood cell surface will NOT have butthey CAN make them following exposure to antigen D to Rh blood will result in typical transfusion reaction Homeostatic Imbalance Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Also called erythroblastosis fetalis Only occurs in Rhquot mom exposed to Rh blood of fetus during delivery of first baby baby healthy lVIother Antibodies are lglVI type huge and Second pregnancy or second exposure Antibodies formed are lgG type tiny and destroy Homeostatic Imbalance Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn Baby treated with prebirth transfusions and exchange transfusions after birth serum containing anti Rh can prevent Rhquot mother from becoming sensitized Transfusion Reactions Occur if mismatched blood infused DononsceHs Attacked by recipient39s Agglutinate and Rupture and into bloodstream Result in Diminished oxygencarrying capacity Diminished blood flow beyond blocked vessels Hemoglobin in kidney tubules 9 Transfusion Reactions Symptoms chills low blood pressure nausea vomiting Treatment Preventing kidney damage to wash out hemoglobin


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