Panic, Anxiety, Obsession, and Their Disorders
Panic, Anxiety, Obsession, and Their Disorders Psy 247
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by KatieAlbritton on Thursday August 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 247 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Dr. Clemens in Fall 2013. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 08/20/15
Panic Anxiety Obsessions and Their Disorders Katie Albritton Study Soup What is the difference between fear and anxiety Fear is fightor ight a response to real danger Anxiety is worrying about possible future dangers Is the source of danger obvious If the answer is yes then it is fear If the answer is no then it is anxiety Fear or panic Activation of fight or ight response Anxiety The general feeling of apprehension about possible danger Future oriented and diffuse Anxiety Disorders Unrealistic irrational fears or anxieties The intensity is disabling The DSM5 recognizes five primary types of anxiety disorders Commonalities Basic biological causes Basic psychological causes Effective treatments Speci c Phobias Strong and persistent fear recognized as excessive or unreasonable Triggered by a speci c object or situation Subtypes identified in DSM Animal examples snakes Natural environment examples high cliffs Bloodinjectioninjury examples needles Situational examples being naked at school Other does not fit into the other four subtypes Psychological causes Psychoanalytic viewpoint Learned behaviorclassical conditioning Vicarious conditioning Ie you saw a snake bite your friend and now you have a snake phobia Individual differences in learning Evolutionary preparedness Some fears are more common than others For example a fear of snakes is common because many snakes are venomous and thus dangerous to humans Our ancestors would have learned to be afraid of all snakes on the off chance one was venomous Fun fact venomous and poisonous do not mean the same thing Here is an easy way to remember the difference If you bite it and you die it was poisonous If it bites you and you die it was venomous Biological causal factors Genetics interact with temperament Treatments Exposure therapy Participant modeling Virtual reality components Cognitive technique combinations Social Phobias Disabling fear of one or more specific social situations Fear of exposure to scrutiny and potential negative evaluation of others Includes Social Anxiety Disorder Psychological Causal Factors Learned behavior Evolutionary factors Perceptions of uncontrollability and unpredictability Cognitive biases toward danger schemas Biological causal factors genetics and temperament Treatments Cognitive therapy Behavioral therapy Medications Panic Disorder Occurrence of unexpected panic attacks out of the blue Abrupt onset of 4 out of 13 symptoms listed in the DSM5 Worry about future attacks Agoraphobia Fear of being in places where escape may be difficult or impossible Comorbidity 83 of people with panic disorder have a comorbid disorder 5070 Will have a major depressive episode at some point in their lives Biological causal factors Genetics Biochemical agents Neural regions Psychological causal factors Comprehensive learning theory Cognitive theory Anxiety sensitivity and perceived control Safety behaviors and persistence of panic Cognitive biases and maintenance of panic Treatments Medications Behavioral treatment Cognitivebehavioral treatment Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD Chronic or obsessive worry about multiple events and activities Occurs more days than not over a period of six months Comorbidity With other disorders Occasional Panicgt GADgt Anxiety and mood disordersgt Occasional Panic Cycle Psychological causal factors Con ict between the id and ego Perceptions of uncontrollability or unpredictability Worry positive or negative Can be either or Automatic attentional bias toward threatening information from the environment Biological causal factors Genetically moderately heritable Neurotransmitters GABA deficiency CRH Cortical release hormone Activated by stress Treatments Anxiolytic drugs Buspirone less addictive Cognitivebehavioral therapy Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Occurrence of unwanted and intrusive obsessive or distressing images Usually accompanied by compulsive behaviors Obsessions Contamination fears Fears of harming oneself or others Lack of symmetry pathological doubt Compulsions cleaning checking repeating ordering arranging counting Comorbidity Frequently cooccurs With another anxiety disorder or a mood disorder the subject of the next notes May also be comorbid With Body Dysmorphic Disorder Psychological causal factors Twoprocess theory of avoidance learning neutral stimuli become associated With fearful thoughts Via classical conditioning Biological causal factors Moderately genetic Brain functioning abnormalities Higher levels of Serotonin Treatments Exposure and response prevention Medications that effect Serotonin Body Dysmorphic Disorder Obsessed With perceived or imagined aws in their appearance Causes clinically significant distress May focus on any body part Comorbidity Common With depression and suicidality Similar behaviors and causes as OCD Shares body image distortions With eating disorders Treatments Antidepressants Exposure and response prevention therapy Hoarding Disorder Acquire and fail to discard limited value possessions Disorganized living space interferes With daily living Poorer prognosis for treatment than 0CD Trichotillomania Urge to pull out hair from and body location Preceded by tension and followed by pleasure Must cause clinically significant distress Sociocultural causal factors for all anxiety disorders Anxiety is a universal emotion Expression and rates of anxiety expressed differently across cultures Cultural differences in sources of worry Yoruba culture of Nigeria Koro in China Taijin Kyofusho in Japan That39s the end of these notes I hope you nd these useful