Nutrition-Alcohol Part 1 notes
Nutrition-Alcohol Part 1 notes Nutr 2360
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by KiaraMValentino on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Nutr 2360 at Texas State University taught by Hannah Thornton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Basic Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
Alcohol Notes Part I Energy yield of alcohol 7kcal/gm. Although it has a energy yield it is NOT a nutrient! Standard Drink -Beer: 12 ounces -Wine: 5 ounces -hard liquor: 1.5 ounces You are actually getting more out of a 12-ounce beer. Beer has 5-11% alcohol and that is considered the LOWEST end of the spectrum. Production of alcoholic beverages Fermentation: the process in which some sugars are converted into alcohol and carbon dioxide by the action of bacteria on carbohydrate materials. Process: (1)Complex carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars through “malting.” –turning grain into malt. (2)Yeast consumes simple carbohydrates under aerobic conditions. (with oxygen) (3)Yeast ferments simple carbohydrates under anaerobic conditions (without oxygen) Distillation: method of recovering alcohol via separation. Absorption -20% is absorbed in the stomach and 80% is absorbed in the small intestine -alcohol absorption is slowed by food being in the stomach, especially slowed down by HIGH FAT MEALS. -alcohol cannot be stored in the stomach -Moves in and out of the cells freely BUT it may cause damage to cell membranes proteins. Alcohol metabolism Alcohol dehydrogenase pathway (ADH)-Metabolized with low to moderate intake of alcohol. It is metabolized in both the stomach and liver but mainly in the liver. Only 10-30% is metabolized in the stomach. MEOS pathway: metabolized with moderate to excessive intake of alcohol. Primary metabolizing site is the liver for this pathway. It treats alcohol as a “foreign” substance. Intact excretion: besides the two sides listed above. Alcohol can also be excreted from sweat, urine and the lungs. That is only about 2-10%. That is why sometimes people can smell like alcohol even if it isn’t on their breath because it is coming out of their body probably via sweat. ADH pathway -Ethanol to acetaldehyde to acetyl CoA. -enzymes involved: *alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. -acetyl CoA is converted into fatty acids (mainly!) it can also be used for ATP (energy) production. -metabolizes about 90% of alcohol. MEOS (microsomal ethanol oxidizing system) -This occurs PRIMARILY in the liver. -the end products are the same as ADH except: *MEOS requires NADPH to function properly *that NADPH could be used for energy production -activity increases over time *it increases the efficiency of alcohol metabolism *it increases tolerance for alcohol *enzymes increase -reduces the capacity of the liver to metabolize drugs and xenobiotic. MEOS cont. -Ethanol effects the brain. The more ethanol, the worse it is on the brain. -The more alcohol that is in the stomach, the longer it stays and it doesn’t get sent to the liver processing system. Acetaldehyde -the end point of every single pathway -carcinogen: damages protein and DNA. It could decrease anti oxidant activity of enzymes in the body. -it can work inside of the brain to increase alcohol dependence. -it is responsible for “alcohol flush,” nausea, headaches and dizziness. -toxicity may contribute to HANGOVER SYMPTOMS short term effects of alcohol why you get drunk… -alcohol stimulates the “pleasure” chemicals *serotonin and dopamine -EtOH binds glutamate receptors in the brain and causes… *excitatory synapses *prevents signal transduction *slows normal brain function -EtOH binds GABA receptors and causes… *” slow down synapses” basically sending you a message telling you to calm down on the alcohol *inhibitory synapses *enhances signal transduction *slows normal brain function Results in a reduced mental capacity and you are very happyJ Blood alcohol content (BAC) -Texas legal limit: .08 Alcohol Metabolism -Rate of alcohol metabolism *average 5-7g per hour (1/2 drink) *blood alcohol levels rise *result in intoxication *Binge drinking: drinking more than can handle or use to. Ex: 3 out of 7 days when use to drinking one a day. -Factors affecting *ethnicity, age, gender *alcoholic content, amount consumed, individual’s intake ability. *muscle vs fat content. The more muscle, the more water that can be held along with more ethanol that can be held. -differences in ADH pathway *east Asian ethnicity -alcohol dehydrogenase levels increase and aldehyde dehydrogenase levels decrease. -acetaldehyde builds up -results in flushing, dizziness and nausea *females -Less alcohol dehydrogenase in the stomach -can absorb 30-35% more un-metabolized EtOH into the blood. -typically females have more fat than males so they have less water holding muscles and EtOH concentrates in the blood. Guidelines for alcohol consumption -Rate of consumption is based up the livers capacity to metabolize which is about 1 standard drink per hour BUT, *for females: 1 drink a day *for men: 1-2 drinks a day -NEVER CONSUME WHILE PREGNANT OR DRIVING Health effects -effects on the organ system *Brain and nervous system -Wernicke’s encephalopathy: a neurological disorder caused by thiamine deficiency, typically from chronic drinking. Symptoms are mental confusion, abnormal eye movements and unsteady gait. *cardiovascular system -CVD and high blood pressure *GI bleeding -damage from EtOH absorption *cancer -risk becomes increased -oral, trachea, larynx and throat, colorectal, breast -nutritional issues -psychological impacts: accidents, injuries, sexual abuse, fighting, suicide -Steatosis (fatty liver) *fat accumulation in the liver *due to Acetyl CoA turning into fatty acids *BEER BELLY -hepatitis (from drinking excessively) *inflammation of the liver *due to steatosis and acetaldehyde damage *can lead to reduced liver function and cell death *also can lead to jaundice (yellowing of the eyes and skin) -Cirrhosis *loss of liver function *occurs from hepatitis *decrease protein production in the liver *this occurs in about 10-15% of alcoholics, usually those who have 7 or more beers a day for 10 years or more depending on the individual *this is irreversible which makes it about a 50% chances of death in the next 4 years. Alcohol abuse and nutritional status -protein energy malnutrition *alcohol replaces food as primary source of calories (loss of calories) *need to drink about 40-55 bottles of beer to get adequate protein. -impaired nutrient status *decreased absorption -thiamin, B12, folate, calcium * increased excretion -B6, magnesium *impaired liver function -Fat soluble vitamins *GI bleeding from EtOH damage -loss of Iron
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