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J101: Grammar For Communication

by: Laura Sears

J101: Grammar For Communication

Laura Sears


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About this Document

These notes cover all the material that will be on Wednesday's midterm: from what a subject is to when to use an adverb. Good luck, guys!
One Day of Notes
journalism, grammar, english, subject, verb, pronoun, agreement, quiz
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This 4 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Laura Sears on Sunday April 27, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to a course at University of Oregon taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 107 views.


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Date Created: 04/27/14
I101 Midterm 1 Subjects A sentence must have a subject a verb and a complete thought A subject can be either a noun or a pronoun that is doing the action described in the sentence or being described How To Find The Subject Take a look at this sentence Find the verb and what or whom is being projected onto the verb 0 immy Fallon and Steve Higgins preform hilarious banter during The Tonight Show 0 The verb here is preform jimmy and Steve are the ones preforming so they are the subjects of the sentence Sometimes the subject isn39t specifically stated in the sentence For example Don39t go Here there is an implied you The subject isn39t always in the beginning of the sentence either An example of this is 0 Down the hall are a bathroom and a study room o In this sentence bathroom and study room are the subjects because they follow the prepositional phrase Other tricky faux subjects include nonessential information except for but not anything between two commas and pronouns in prepositional phrases There may also be more than one subject in a sentence Don39t just find one and assume that will be all Verbs Action amp Linking Action verbs are pretty self explanatory walk talk laugh party take 0 These describe the action the subject undergoes Linking verbs connect the subject of the verb to additional info about the subject quotI like dogs It looked great He watched the movie Main Verbs amp Helping Verbs Main verbs are action linking verbs Helping verbs are also called auxiliary verbs 0 They change the meaning of main verbs I She might Q to the movies I He should not have E that pizza I I could bifamous To a verb never leads to a verbs This is an infinitive 0 lat to go to New York this summer want is the verb o The best part of his day is when he goes to bed Verb Tense The main tense are present I laugh past I laughed past participle I had laughed and future I will laugh Gerunds These tricky subjects objects appear like verbs with their ing endings but they are actually nouns 0 Laughing is the best medicine laughing is the subject here 0 Collecting that trash Las his punishment collecting is the subject SubjectVerb Agreement Easy to remember if the subject is singular the verb is singular and visa versa Collective nouns board audience family are singular but members of these make the verb plural members of the audience are laughing Units of measurements are singular When is comes to or nor you must match the verb to the nearest subject Latin based media data are always plural Fractions match the verb to what that fraction modifies A number of is always plural while the number of is always singular One of always matches to the group describes while only one of is always singular Words that are always singular are everyone each either anyone much no one nothing someone Words that are always plural are both few many several Any some all most will always depend on what is being modified Pronouns They replace nouns so they each do mean the same thing in a sentence 0 Subject 0 Object o Possessive Remember there are different cases of pronouns for the subject object a possessive than the nouns You cannot join nominative and object cases with and or That39s illegal o Incorrect Me and her went to the mall 0 Correct She and I went to the mall Avoid using one It just makes a sentence clunky Antecedents This is the pronoun your noun replaces 0 Ex Alice was happy she fell down the rabbit hole She is the antecedent Other antecedents include he its their and we Antecedents amp pronouns must match just like nouns amp verbs single single plural plural There are 3 different kinds of pronouns o Nominative objective possessive Nominative Pronouns Subject NIquot llyOu J llShe quot llhe quot Nitquot llWe quot llthey quot k llwholi always have their own verbs Objective Pronouns llme quot llyOu J llherlll llhimlll Nitquot Hus llthemlll 0i llwhomll receive the action Possessive Pronouns mymine youryours herhers his its our ours theirtheirs and whose Do not use apostrophe with these 0 Her dog can39t sit still 0 The fault is all theirs Re exive Pronoun Pretty self explanatory They re ect the personal pronoun o I see myself as a comedian Don39t use commas to separate these Whom amp Who Never use that instead That39s cheating Use them when talking about people not objects Groups of people are still people Organizations are not 0 Ex Chris Hardwick is a comedian who hosts after shows 0 Ex I should give these notes to whom Comparisons Ex The black dog is faster than I remember it39s not me b c do is implied Ex She enjoys long walks on the beach more than he remember it39s he b c does is implied Adjectives These are noun modifiers They give description to the noun They do not always describe the noun they come before 0 Ex This guy39s attitude is infuriating Oftentimes they follow linking verbs is smell amp were Use these with linking verbs Less amp Fewer If you can count the noun use fewer If you cant amount use less Adverbs Modify verbs adjectives and other adverbs Don39t confuse when or where 0 When is only for time 0 Where is only for location Don39t use empty verbs It39s not very enticing writing 0 Incorrect She was really pretty 0 She was stunning Use these with action verbs Conjunctive Adverbs Most common type however also furthermore thus yet then yet meanwhile amp for example Good vs Well amp Bad vs Badly Poorly If you need an adjective use goodbad 0 Ex The Harry Potter books are a good series If you need an adverb use well badlypoorly 0 Ex Michael Buble sings well Prepositions at for on in of by with from amp to Pronouns in these phrases are never nominative pronouns Never contain the subject


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