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Principles of Biochemistry Week 1 Notes

by: Bethany Shay Edgeworth

Principles of Biochemistry Week 1 Notes CHE 420

Marketplace > University of Southern Mississippi > Chemistry > CHE 420 > Principles of Biochemistry Week 1 Notes
Bethany Shay Edgeworth
GPA 3.2
Principles of Biochemistry
Vijay Rangachari

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This is the principles of biochemistry notes from week one of Dr. Rangachari's lecture! Enjoy and if you have any questions, feel free to ask me! Thank you!
Principles of Biochemistry
Vijay Rangachari
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bethany Shay Edgeworth on Friday August 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 420 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Vijay Rangachari in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biochemistry in Chemistry at University of Southern Mississippi.


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Date Created: 08/21/15
Principles of Biochemistry CHE 420 Dr Vijay Rangachari Week 1 August 20 2015 CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW 0 Life is a mystery 0 Section 11 What is life 0 Section 12 Biomolecules 0 Section 13 Is the Living Cell a Chemical Factory 0 Section 14 Systems Biology LIFE IT IS A MYSTERY 0 Life is very diverse o All living things are made of C N P O H amp S o Biomolecules molecules synthesized by living organisms o What is the purpose of studying biochemistry It is the foundation upon which all of modern life sciences are built FUNDAMENTAL FEATURES THAT IDENTIFY LIFE 0 Life is the following 1 Selfsustaining amp organized 2 Made of cells 3 Informationbased 4 Adapts amp evolves 5 Obeys the same chemical amp physical laws SECTION 12 BIOMOLECU LES 0 Living organisms are composed of inorganic amp organic molecules 0 Water matrix of life which constitutes 5095 of cell 0 The 6 principal elements 1 Carbon 2 Hydrogen 3 Oxygen 4 Nitrogen 5 Phosphorus 6 Sulfur Trace elements are also important amp include 1 Na 2 K 3 Mg2 4 Ca2 Carbon forms 4 strong covalent bonds Organic molecules can form the following 3 complex shapes 1 Straight structures 2 Branched chains 3 Rings Functional Groups of Organic Biomolecules Hydrocarbons most organic molecules are derived from this Hydrophobic hydrocarbons contain carbon amp hydrogen compounds that are this waterhating Functional groug chemical properties are determined by this Important functional groups in biomolecules 1 Alcohol 2 Aldehyde 3 Ketone 4 Acids 5 Amine 6 Amide 7 Thiol 8 Ester 9 Alkene TAB LE 1 1 Family Name Important Functional Groups in Biomolecules Group Structure Group Name Signi cance Alcohol Aldehyde Ketone Acids Amine Amide Thiol Ester Alkene R OH R C O R39 RCHCHR Hydroxyl Carbonyl Carbonyl C arboxyl Ami no Amido Thiol Ester Double bond Polar and therefore watersoluble forms hydrogen bonds Polar found in some sugars Polar found in some sugars Weakly acidic bears a negative charge when it donates a proton Weakly basic bears a positive charge when it accepts a proton Polar but does not bear a charge Easily oxidized can form S S disul de bonds readily Found in certain lipid molecules Important structural component of many biomoleculcs cg found in lipid molecules Major Classes of Small Biomolecules Many organic molecules are relatively small less than 1000 Daltons Da Families of small molecules include 1 Amino acids 2 Sugars 3 Fatty acids 4 Nucleotides TABLE 1 2 Major Classes of Biomolecules Small Molecule Polymer General Functions Amino acids Proteins Catalysts and structural elements Sugars Carbohydrates Energy sources and structural elements Fatty acids NA Energy sources and structural elements of complex lipid molecules Nucleotides DNA Genetic information RNA Protein synthesis Amino Acids amp Proteins Hundreds of naturally occurring amino acids Classified alpha beta or gamma according to amino group location Alphaamino acids most common type Alphaamino acids examples 1 Glutamine 2 Valine 3 Lysine 4 Glycine 5 Phenylalanine 6 Serine Noncoded amino acids not alpha examples 1 BetaAlanine precursor of the vitamin pantothenic acid 2 GammaAminobutvric acid a neurotransmitter Chemical properties of amino acids depend on hydrophobic or hydrophilic side chains or R groups Amino acids used to make long polymers or polypeptides proteins proteins consist of 1 or more polypeptides Polypeptide bonds connects amino acids Amino acid R groug lead to structure amp function of proteins Sugars amp Carbohydrates Alcohol amp carbonyl functional groups 2 types of carbohydrates 1 Aldoses monosaccharides with an aldehyde group 2 Ketoses monosaccharides with a ketone group Range from monosaccharides to polysaccharides 1 Monosaccharides simplest form of carbohydrates amp sugars 2 Polvsaccharides complex carbohydrates examples starch amp cellulose Fatty Acids 2 types of fatty acids 1 Saturated 2 Unsaturated Very few fatty acids occur independently most are components of lipids triacylglycerol Nucleotides amp Nucleic Acids Nucleotides composed of 5carbon sugar nitrogenous base amp 1 or more phosphate groups 2 classes of base purine amp pyrimidine 1 Purine doubleringed adenine amp guanine 2 Pyrimidine singleringed thymine cytosine amp uracil


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