Week 1 notes for CH101
Week 1 notes for CH101 Chemistry 101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jonathan Warburton on Friday August 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Paul Rupar in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 148 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 08/21/15
00 OO Chemistry 101 8192015 82115 Required stuff Turning Tech Clicker 66 Casio FX260 calculator 10 Review Session Thursday 630 750 Can only miss two lab sessions Homework link httpuamvlabsr3luscom Log In User MyBama ID Password CWID Whv Studv Chemistrv Our ability to understand and control chemistry makes the modern world possible Too tips for Chemistrv 101 Attend Class Finish your prelab assignment before the due date The molecule of the semester is Ammonia Ammonia You exist because we ake ammonia And yes I mean exist not life as you know it Also useful for making explosives Appoxiamtley 1 of the words energy is devoted to Ammonia productio HW Log onto the class website Register your clicker Log into Mylabs plus and complrte the first homework assignment 0 Chapter 1 Learning objective Define what constitutes a good scientific hypothesis scientific theory and scientific law Scientists try to understand the universe through emirical knowledge gained through observation and experiment Observation Some observations are descriptions of the characteristics or behavior of nature qualitative Some observations compre a characteristic to a standard numerical scale quantitative From Observation to Understanding Hypothesis a tentative interpretation or explanation for an observation A good hypothesis is one that can be tested to be proven wrong Testing Ideas Ideas in science are tested with experiments An experiment is a set of highly controlled procedures designed to test whether an idea about nature is valid The experiment generates observations that will either validate or invalidate the idea From specific to general understanding A hypothesis is a potential explanation for a single or small number of observations A scientific theory is a general explanation for why things in nature are the way they are and behave the way they do From Specific to General Observations A scientific law is a statement that summarizes all past observations and predicts future observations Law of Conservation of Mass In the chemical reaction matter is neither created nor destroyed A scientific law allows you to predict future observations O 0 0000 Learning Obiectives Define key characteristics of a solids liquids and gases Know how to classify matter into elements compounds heterogeneous mixtures and homogeneous mixtures Classification of Matter Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass Matter comes in three different states Solid Liquid and gas Solids Do not flow Not compressible Liguids Flow Don t expand Constant Volume Particles are not held together Lots of empty space Classifying Matter bv Composition Another way to classify matter is to examine its composition Composition includes types of particles arrangement of the particles attractions and attachments between the particles Matter can either be a pure substance of a mixture Clssification of Matter bv Composition Matter whose composition does not change from one sample to another is called a pure substance made of a single type of atom or molecule 000 000 O OO O OO 0 000 because the composition of a pure substance is always the same all samples have the same characteristics Matter whose composition may vary from one sample to another is called a mixture two or more types of atoms or molecules combined in variable proportions because composition varies different samples have different characteristics Classification of Pure Substances Elements Pure substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical reactions are called elements decomposed broken down basic building blocks of matter composed of single type of atom though those atoms may or may not be combined into molecules Classification of Pure Substances Combounds Pure so all samples of ae substances that can be decomposed are called compounds chemical combinations of elements composed of molecules that contain two or more different kinds of atoms all molecules of a compound are identical so all samples of a compound behave the same way Most natural pure substances are compounds Classification of Mixtures Homogeneous mixtures are mixtures that have uniform composition throughout every piece of a sample has identical characteristics though another sample with the same components may have different characteristics atoms or molecules mixed uniformly Example Salt Heterogeneous mixtures are mixtures that do not have uniform composition throughout regions within the sample can have different characteristics atoms or molecules not mixed uniformly Example Sand Chapter 1 Dav 2 Learning Obiectives The law of definite proportions The law of multiple proportions Dalton s atomic theory Cathode rays and what they tell us about matter Mullikan s experiment and what we learn from it Rutherford s gold foil experiment The electron What is learned from the gold foil experiment The Atom 0 All matter is made of atoms 000000 OO In a chemical reaction atoms are never created or destroyed Structure of the atom Electrons EA Protons Pquot Neutrons nquot0 Structure of the atom pt 2 Proton Have a mass 167262 x 10quot27 kg 1 amu Charge 1 60218 x10quot19 coulomb 1 Neutrons Have a mass of 167493 x 10quot27 kg 1 amu Have a charge of 0 Electrons Have a mass of 000091 x 10quot27 kg 000055 amu 0 amu Have a charge of 160218 x10quot19 c 1 The Elements Each element has a specific number of protons within its nucleus The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called the atomic number number The atomic number uses the symbol 2 Eg an atom with a 22 is a helium atom it has 2 protons in its nucleus There are about 116 different elements Each element has a different number of protons or Z number Each Element is given a symbol 00000 0 The periodic table lists the elements in order of their Z Chemists care very much about protons and electrons because the chemistry of an element is determined by its atomic number The chemistry of fluorine z 9 is very different from the chemistry of neon 210 Isotopes All atoms of a given element have the same number of protons However the number of neutron can vary These are called isotopes 99 of all carbon atoms have 6 nAO 1 of all carbon atoms have 7 nAO ltltlt1 o of carbon atoms have 8 n quotO 28 Mass Number SI Element 14 Atomic Number Random Note about AMUs Since the masses of neutrons and protons are not exactly 1 amu the masses of isotopes are not whole numbers OHS Neutral atoms have an equal number or protons and electrons During Chemical reactions atoms gain or lose equot to become charged to form ions Z never changes in chemistry 101 Examples of common ions Fquot the fluoride ion forms by giving a fluorine atom one extra electron Caquot2 calcium ion formed by removing two electrons from a calcium ion The properties of ions are very different from the parent element For example Sodium Na metal reacts violently with water Chlorine gas CL2 is highly corrosive and toxic However sodium chloride which is composed of Naquot cations and CIA is not toxic and not very reactive The law of Conservation of Mass In a chemical reaction matter is neither created or destroyed The mass of what you end up with must equal the mass that you started with Always The law of Definite Prooortions 0 All samples of a pure substance always have the same proportions of their constituent elements 0 Ex 18g of water is composed of 169 of oxgn and 2 9 hydrogen