Organic Chemistry II Week 1 Notes
Organic Chemistry II Week 1 Notes CHE 256
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bethany Shay Edgeworth on Friday August 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHE 256 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Janice Buchanan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry II in Chemistry at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 08/21/15
Organic Chemistry II CHE 256 Dr Buchanan Week 1 August 21 2015 INTRODUCTION HOW RADICALS FORM amp HOW THEY REACT 1 Heterolysis transfer of electrons with the production of ions 2 Homolysis each element takes 1 electron with the production of radicals associated with bond strength PRODUCTION OF RADICALS o Homolysis of covalent bond requires heat or light hv o Alkoxvl radical radical on oxygen group 0 Chlorine radical radical on chlorine group REACTIONS OF RADICALS 0 Almost all small radicals are 1 Shortlived 2 Highly reactive o Radicals can be 1 Generated 2 Propagated 3 Terminated o Radicals can either 1 Abstract atoms so 2 species forms 2 species OR 2 Add atoms so 2 species becomes 1 species Side note 1 H neutral hydrogen atom 2 H proton 3 H hydride REM EM BER pi bonds are weaker than sigma bonds HOMOLYTIC BOND DISSOCIATION ENERGIES AH 0 Bond formation is an exothermic process gives off energy 0 Reactions in which bonds break is an endothermic process uses energy 0 Energy has to be supplied to do what BREAK COVALENT BONDS Homolvtic bond dissociation energies energies required to break covalent bonds homolytically Fuorine characteristics 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Always unpredictable Exception Exothermic 159 kjmol Small with short bond Very electronegative Lone pairs are in the way High ionization energy PRIMARY BONDS ARE STRONGER THAN TERTIARY BONDS TERTIARY BONDS ARE MORE STABLE THE GREATER THE S CHARACTER THE STRONGER THE BOND 1 2 EXAMPLE Primary chlorine 354 kjmol Secondary chlorine 355 kjmol 3 Tertiary chlorine 349 kjmol TYPES OF RADICALS 1 Propyl primary radical 423 kjmol 2 Isopropyl secondary radical 413 kjmol 3 TertButyl tertiary radical 400 kjmol 4 Isobutyl primary radical 422 kjmol REACTIVE STABILITY 0 Carbon radicals are considered to be electron deficient similar to carbocations thus electron donating groups stabilize radicals 0 ORDER OF STABILITY 3 gt2 gt1 PROBLEM OF THE DAY What is the hybridization and formal charge of the carbon in the methyl cation methyl radical and methyl anion Methyl cation sp2 Methyl radical sp2 Methyl anion sp3
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