Psychology 202, Week 10
Psychology 202, Week 10 PSY 202
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Cochrane on Saturday February 27, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Pennefather J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society >2 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 02/27/16
Feb 22 Animals Have Personalities Researchers have found that traits similar to the Big Five traits of extraversion, neuritis and agreeableness could be seen in most species Sam Gosling and Oliver John Openness to experience was found in approximately 50% of species only chimpanzees showed conscientiousness Personality Is Rooted in Genetics Nearly all personality traits have a genetic component Genetic inﬂuence accounts for approximately half of the variance (40-60%) between individuals in personality traits Environment also plays a large part Parenting style has an eﬀect Children who are raised with inadequate parenting are not socialized properly More likely to become delinquent or display antisocial behavior In general, genetics inﬂuence personality based on multiple genes However, single genes have been identiﬁed in: Novelty seeking dopamine Neuroticism and agreeableness serotonin Temperaments Are Evident in Infancy From birth, infants show temperamental diﬀerences that can be grouped into three categories: Activity level Emotionality Sociability Long term implications of temperaments: Research has demonstrated that early temperament is predictive of later personality and behaviors Gender and temperaments Girls have stronger ability to control their attention and to resist impulses Boys are physical active and experience more high-intensity pleasure rough and tumble play Shyness and inhibition Shyness has been linked to early temperament with about 15-20% of newborns classiﬁed as inhibited Biological evidence indicates the amygdala shows created responsively in shy individuals About 25% of inhibited children do not become shy Illustrating the importance of parental creation of calm and safe environments Personality Is Adaptive David Buss Big Five personality traits emerged as foundational Each provides important information regarding mate selection Personality Traits Are Stable Over Time Over many years the relative rankings of individuals on each of the Big Five personality traits remind stable Stability is lowest during early childhood and highest over age 50 Age-related change in general, people become less neurotic, less extraverted, and less open to new experiences as they get older People tend to become more agreeable and much more conscientious with age The brain develops well into early adulthood May explain the greater evidence of personality change before age 30 Environments tend to be relatively stable, especially after early adulthood How Do We Know Our Own Personalities? Our Self-Concepts Consist of Self-Knowlesge Self-awareness: The objectiﬁed self Researchers have diﬀerentiated between the self as the knower (“I”) and the self as the object that is known (“me”) – called the objectiﬁed self The theory of objective self-awareness Self-awareness leads people to act in accordance with their personal values and beliefs Self-discrepancy theory Awareness of diﬀerences between personal standards and goals leads to strong emotions Self-awareness is highly dependent on the normal development of the frontal lobes As evidenced by the diﬃculties experienced by those with damage to this region Self-schema Network of interconnected knowledge about the self Memories, beliefs, generalizations about the self-help ﬁlter information Activation of the middle of the frontal lobes occurs when people process information about themselves Working self-concept The immediate experience of the self Limited to the amount of personal information that can be processed cognitively at any given time Perceived Social Regard Inﬂuences Self-Esteem Self-esteem Whether people perceive themselves to be worthy or unworthy, good or bad Many theorists, such as Carl Rogers, assume that people’s self-esteem is based on how they believe others perceive them Reﬂected appraisal We Use Mental Strategies to Maintain Our Views of Self Most people have positive illusions in at least three domains: better-than-average eﬀect unrealistic perception of their personal control over events unrealistically optimistic about their futures A number of automatic and unconscious strategies have been proposed to explain how people maintain their positive self of self self-evaluative maintenance social comparisons People evaluate their own actions, abilities, and beliefs by contrasting them with those of others. people with high self-esteem make downward comparisons, contrasting themselves with people who are deﬁcient to them on relevant dimensions people with low self-esteem tend to make upward comparisons, with those who are superior to them self-serving biases people with high self-esteem tend to take credit for success but blame failure on outside factors criticism is assumed by those with high self-esteem to be motivated by envy for prejudice There Are Cultural Diﬀerences in the Self An important way in which people diﬀer in their self-concepts is whether they view themselves as fundamentally separate from western cultures; individualistic collectivistic Feb 24th Disorders of the Mind and Body (Chapter 14) Psychological Disorders People are fascinated by the exceptional, the unusual, and the abnormal. This fascination may be caused by two reasons: During various moments, we feel, think, and act like an abnormal individual. Psychological disorders may bring unexplained physical symptoms, irrational fears, and suicidal thoughts. There are 450 million people suﬀering from psychological disorders Depression and schizophrenia exist in all cultures in the world Deﬁning Psychological Disorders Mental health workers view psychological disorders as persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions. When behavior is deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional psychiatrists and psychological label it as disordered. Deviant, Distressful, and Dysfunctional Deviant behavior in one culture may be considered normal, with in others it may lead to arrest. Deviant behavior must accompany distress. If a behavior is dysfunctional, it is clearly a disorder. Understanding Psychological Disorders Ancient treatments of psychological disorders included trephination, exorcism, being caged like animals, beating beaten, burned, castrated, mutilated, or transfused with animal’s blood. The Medical Model Philoppe Pinel (1745-1826) from France insisted that madness was not due to demonic possession, but an ailment of the mind. When physicians discovered that syphilis led to mental disorders, they started using medical models to review the physical causes of these disorders Etiology: cause and development of the disorder Diagnosis: identifying (symptoms) and distinguishing one disease from another Treatment: treating a disorder in a psychiatric hospital. Prognosis: forecast about the disorder. Classifying Psychological Disorders The American Psychiatric Association rendered a Diagnostic and Statical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) to describe psychological disorders. The most recent edition, DSM-V (2013), describes 400 psychological disorders compared to 60 in the 1950’s Mental Disorders Are Classiﬁed into Categories There are clear advantages to categorizing disorders such as being able to investigate etiology and treatment Goals of DSM 1. Describe disorders 2. Determine how prevalent the disorder is Mental Disorders Must Be Assessed Assessment refers to the process of examining a person’s mental functions and psychological health Allows for a diagnosis to be made Ongoing assessment can assist in understanding the eﬀectiveness of treatment, situations that might trigger relapse, and improved understanding of the disorder. Structured vs. unstructured interviews: The clinical interview is the most common assessment tool Allowing interviews to express empathy, build a rapport, and discover the nature of the client’s problem. Types of testing: Behavioral assessment includes observations of individuals in a variety of settings and psychological testings: Beck Depression Inventory Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory Neuropsychological assessment allows for a determination of possible brain abnormalities. Evidence-based assessment: Uses research to guide how mental disorders are evaluated including: Selecting appropriate psychological tests Using appropriate neuropsychological methods Using critical thinking in making a diagnosis Beck’s Depression Inventory 0 I do not feel sad 1 I feel sad 2 I am sad all the time and I can’t snap out of it 3 I am so sad and unhappy that I can’t stand it Mental Disorders Have Many Causes Diathesis-stress model Disorders are caused by an underlying vulnerability or predisposition (diathesis) to a mental disorder that is triggered by stress The diathesis can be biological, such as a genetic predisposition to a speciﬁc disorder, or environmental, such as childhood trauma. Biological factors Genetics Toxins Some mental disorders may arise from prenatal problems such as maternal illness, malnutrition, and exposure to toxins Environmental toxins and malnutrition during childhood and adolescence can increase risk for mental disorders Diﬀerences in Brain structural imaging, PET, and fMRI have revealed diﬀerences in brain anatomy between those with mental disorders and those without may be due to genetics the role of neurotransmitters Psychological factors Freud believed that mental disorders were mostly due to unconscious conﬂicts Thoughts and emotions are shaped by the environment and can profoundly inﬂuence behavior Family systems model Sociocultural model Cognitive-behavioral factors: Thoughts can become distorted and produce maladaptive behaviors and emotions One way of categorizing mental disorders is to divide them into two major groups Internalizing disorders Externalizing disorders Sex diﬀerences in mental disorders Disorders associated with internalizing are more prevalent in females, externalized disorders are prevalent more in men. Culture and mental disorders Most mental disorders show both universal and culture-speciﬁc symptoms They may be very similar around the world, but at the same time, they reﬂect cultural diﬀerenecs The Biopsychosocial Approach Assumes that biological, socio-cultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders. Disorders Anxiety Disorders: feeling of excessive apprehension and anxiety. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Panic Disorder Phobias Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) There Are Diﬀerent Types of Anxiety Disorders More than 25% of people will experience an anxiety disorder at some point in their lives Diﬀerent anxiety disorders share some emotional, cognitive, somatic, and motor symptoms. Despite similar symptoms, the behavioral manifestations of these disorders are quite diﬀerent. Phobic Disorder: speciﬁc phobias involve particular objects or situations social phobia involves fear of being humiliated in a social situation Generalized Anxiety Disorder persistent and uncontrollable tenseness and apprehension autonomic arousal inability to identify or avoid the cause of certain feelings Obsessive Compulsive Disorder a person experiences repeated intrusive thoughts or images (obsessions) the person feels compelled to engage in ritualistic behavior (compulsions)
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