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Bio 101 Chp. 2 The Chemical Context of Life

by: Alexis McAlister

Bio 101 Chp. 2 The Chemical Context of Life Bio 101

Marketplace > Tri-County Technical College > Biology > Bio 101 > Bio 101 Chp 2 The Chemical Context of Life
Alexis McAlister
GPA 4.9
Biological Science I
Richard B. Reeves

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About this Document

This outline is great for reviewing a chapter without going for that gigantic text book! It even has the important vocabulary terms highlighted!
Biological Science I
Richard B. Reeves
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexis McAlister on Friday August 21, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 101 at Tri-County Technical College taught by Richard B. Reeves in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Biological Science I in Biology at Tri-County Technical College.


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Date Created: 08/21/15
Biology 101 Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life 0 Chemistry amp physics apply to organisms amp their surroundings Matter contains chemical elements in their purest form and in compounds which are combinations of elements 0 Matter gt purest form cannot be broken down into something smaller 0 substance that has 2 or more different elements combined together in a xed ratio Ei NaCl gt Sodium Chloride 11 Sodium Metal Chloride Salt compound has characteristics different from its elements that make it up 0 Elements of Life 0 elements that an organism needs to live a good life amp reproduce 92 elements naturally occurring 0 needed by an organism but only in small amounts 0 An element s properties depend on the structure of its atoms 0 Each element has a speci c kind of atom that separates it from the other elements unique to that element 0 smallest unit of matter that still keeps the properties of an element Ei H Hydrogen amp a single hydrogen atom Subatomic Particles o Matter gt Elements gt Atom gt Subatomic Particles Protons positively charged Electrons negatively charged Neutrons neutral charge 0 located at the center of the atom Has protons amp neutrons Positively charged bc of protons Cloud of negatively charged electrons surround it electron cloud Bc opposite charges attract the positive charge of the nucleus keeps the negatively charged electrons around the nucleus Very similar in mass amp size however electrons are very small when compared with the two Atomic amp Atomic Mass 0 of protons Subscript to the left of the symbol for the element 0 Atoms are generally neutral in charge bc there is the same of protons as electrons balances out sum of protons neutrons Superscript to the left of the symbol for the element 0 For the of neutrons mass atomic 0 Almost all of an atom s mass is from the nucleus 0 total mass of an atom O lsotopes different atomic forms of the same element 0 Have the same atomic but have different masses 0 Elements occur as a mixture of its isotopes o tendency to lose sub particles Carbon 12 amp Carbon 13 are more stable amp are less likely to decay however Carbon 14 is a very radioactive isotope nucleus decays randomly giving off particles amp energy When decay happens the proton changes This results in the creation of a different element Radioactive Tracers used in biologically active molecules those are then used as tracers to search for amp nd atoms during metabolism 0 El How kidney disorders are diagnosed amp PET scanners 0 Radiation from decay can be damaging to cellular molecules Radiometric Dating researchers measure radioactive decay in fossils to date them 0 isotope decays into a daughter isotope at a set rate Each radioactive halflife has a unique halflife that isn t disturbed by pressure temperature or etc environmental variables 0 is used to measure the ratio of different isotopes amp calculate how many half lives in yrs have passed since the organism turned to rock or was fossilized Energy levels of electrons o Atom s electrons differ in the amount of energy they have 0 capacity to cause change o energy that matter has bc of its location or structure Matter usually goes from a high energy state to a low energy state Ei Ball rolling down hill Electrons have potential energy bc of their distance from nucleus The greater the distance bw them the more potential energy the electron has 0 This energy depends on the electron s energy level it is on The potential energy of the electron decreases as the electron gets closer to the nucleus amp vice versa 0 Electrons are located on different Chemical Bonds 0 break up in water 1 atom loses electrons the other atom gains electrons Goal Completed outer most electron shell This is the strongest bond positive ion negative ion 0 electrons are shared Can have a single double or triple cov Bond sharing neutral unequal sharing creates partial charges at each bond end Due to attraction between opposite partial charges of 2 polar unequal sharing molecules Very weak individually but very strong in greater 5 The bond bw water molecules Chemical Reactions Chemical makeup is changed due to the forming or breaking of chemical bonds


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