Nutrition for Health
Nutrition for Health
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This 7 page Reader was uploaded by Brittnee Zuckerman on Monday April 28, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 141 views.
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Date Created: 04/28/14
ESS 3 NUTRITION FOR HEALTH Spring Quarter 2014 421 Trans Fat Developed through a process call hydrogenation the process of adding hydrogen to unsaturated fatty acids making them more saturated and more solid at room temperature Hydrogenation straightens out the chains making the liquid fat more solid and resist rancidity Trans fats are more detrimental to our health then saturated fats because they change cell functioning and make it more difficult to remove cholesterol from the blood Check the label for partially hydrogenated oils trans fat Butter 65 saturated fat 1 tbsp 30 grams of cholesterol Margarine Filled with trans fats that increase risk of heart disease weaken immune function and harm cell membranes Many contain toxic metals nickel and aluminum Solution try nut butters instead peanut cashew walnut and almond They may be high in calories but they are rich in essential fatty acids and other hearthealthy unsaturated fats Essential Fatty Acids EFA Essential Nutrients 0 Body requires it to function 0 Body cannot make it 0 Must be consumed in the diet Fatty acids that must be consumed in the diet because hey cannot be made by our body The building blocks of other elements that the body needs precursors Linoleic acid omega6 fatty acid found in vegetable and nut oils Alphalinoleic acid omega3 fatty acid found in leady green vegetables axseed oil soy oil fish oil and fish products Makes 2 important fatty acids 0 EPA and DHA protect against heart disease improve function of blood vessels clotting blood pressure irregularities in the heartbeat and triglyceride levels Phospholipids A type of lipid in which a fatty acid is combined with another compound that contains phosphate Phospholipids are soluble in water Assist in transporting fats in our bloodstream Present in peanuts egg yolk and some processed foods They are not essential fats body can manufacture them Sterol A type of lipid found in foods and the body that has a ring structure Sterols are found in plant and animal foods Fatty part of animal products butter egg yolks whole milk meats poultry Cholesterol is the most common sterol that occurs in our diet Has a bad reputation because is often associated with saturated fatty acids which can increase blood cholesterol levels and increased risk of heart disease Body requires cholesterol for neural cells brain spinal cord nerves synthesis of hormones bile and vitamin D It is essential to human health Fats and Energy Dietary fat is a primary source of energy Fat provides 9 kcal per gram VERY ENERGY DENSED Fat is much more energy dense than carbohydrates 1 tbsp of oil 100 kcal At rest 3070 of the energy used by muscles and organs are from fat Fat is a major energy source during physical activity During exercise the body breaks down fat stores to fuel the working muscles The amount of fat bumed depends on type intensity duration of exercise and what you ate before Body only has limited supply of carbohydrate so the longer you exercise the more fat you burn Where is glucose stored Fat Storage Fats store energy for later use at rest and during exercise Stored fat is essential to keep the body going The body can only store limited carbohydrate and no extra protein We have an unlimited ability to store fat problematic Any nutrient consumed in excess is stored as fat Fats Function Fats help to maintain cell function and provide protection Help determine what substances are transported in and out of the cell and what substances can bind to the cell Fats help to maintain cell uidity Fats pad our body and protect our organs Fat acts as insulation to help retain body heat Fats also contribute to the avor and texture of foods Fats help us to feel satiated full much higher energy density and take longer to digest Fats Digestion Fats are insoluble so they must be digested absorbed and transported within the body differently that other nutrients Mouth and stomach have limited roles in fat digestion Gallbladder liver and pancreas produce bole and other enzymes that breakdown fat Most fat is absorbed in the Small intestine where phospholipids trap the fatty acids and transport fat into the lymphatic system and release them into the bloodstream Fats are not digested and absorbed easily because they are insoluble in water Enzymes in the mouth and stomach digest about 10 of the fats present Most digestion of fats begins in the small intestine After entering body cells trigylcerides can be 0 Used immediately for energy 0 Used to make lipidcontaining compounds some hormones bile etc Stores in muscle tissue Fat blockers Can we block fat breakdown and absorption to avoid strange Some products claim this Alli works to block enzymes that break down fat modest fat loss Products can be harmful and cause gastrointestinal distress Consulthealthcare prehealth Fat Storage Chylomicrom a lipoprotein produce in the mucosal cell of the intestine which transports fat out of the intestinal tracts and into the liver and circulating blood Dietary Reference for Fat AMDR for fat is 20 3 5 of total Athletes and physically active people need to eat a lower percentage of fat because their carbohydrate and protein needs Saturated and Trans Fat Fats Visible and Invisible Visible fats that we can see in our foods or see added to foods such as butter margarine cream fat Invisible fats that are hidden in foods such as those in baked goods regular fat dairy products etc Lowfat Reducedfat Nonfat Food manufacturers have produced a host or modi ed fat foods FDA regulations state 1 serving Fat free less than 5 g of fat Low fat 3 grams or less fat Guidelines for healthful fats Eat more fish increase your EPADHA intake by eating twice a week Safe fish low in contaminants mercury are farmed trout sole mahimahi and cooked salmon Choose plants replace animal cased foods with versions derived from plants ex soy milk Cook with canola oil instead of butter Eat nuts that provide unsaturated fat protein minerals vitamins fiber Opt for lowfat 423 Metabolic Syndrome A cluster of factors more likely to be present in people who develop type 2 diabetes andor cardiovascular disease 1 Abdominal obesity a waist circumference that is greater than 40 inches for me and 35 inches for women 2 Elevated blood triglycerides 150 mgIL or higher 3 Low HDL cholesterol levels less than 40 mgdL for men and 50 mgdL for women 4 Higher than normal blood pressure greater than 13085 mmHg 5 Elevated blood glucose levels greater than 100 mgdL Reduce your risk for Cardiovascular disease Maintain total fat intake to within 20 to 35 of energy Decrease your consumption of saturated fat Increase your consumption of whole grains fruits and vegetables Schedule regular physical checkups Eat a healthful diet overall Be active Maintain a healthy body weight Avoid using and being exposed to tobacco products Cancer high fat diet Diet and lifestyle are important environmental factors in the development of cancer Obesity and physical inactivity many account for 2530 of breast cancer colon cancer and prostate cancer Diet high in red meat fat refmed grains and dessert foods is associated with occurrence of colon cancer To reduce risk of cancers 1 Maintain healthy body weight Be physically active at least 30 minutes a day Avoid sugary drinks Eat a variety of fruits vegetables whole grains legumes Limit consumption of red meats Limit alcohol consumption Limit consumption of salty foods Don t use or regard supplements as a way to protect against cancer 39gtquot Proteins Crucial Components of all Body Tissues building blocks What are proteins Large complex molecule made up of amino acids and found as essential components of all living cells Proteins are important part of muscle mass Proteins are critical components of all tissues of the human body including bones and blood Proteins can provide energy in certain circumstances Long chainlike compounds made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds Five Functions of Body Proteins 1 Building new tissue Repair and maintenance of existing tissue Regulatory and control functions Lactation milk production Produce energy glucose for emergencies or fat if you have excess protein V 39gt Building New Tissues Throughout life new tissue is being added to our bodies hair skin cells etc Sometimes new growth is greater than others adolescence puberty exercise Therefore dietary protein amino acids must be supplied to meet this demand Regulatory or Control Functions These are roles of proteins that are responsible for maintaining the proper functions of many processes of the body They are not structural parts of the body but specific molecules that function as independent compounds to do their jobs Repair and Maintenance of Existing Tissues The protein in your body is in a state of dynamic equilibrium As old tissues die or are wom out they are replaced with new tissue amino acids These amino acids must be provided in the diet Food proteins are digested into simple amino acids How are proteins made Proteins are long chains of amino acids Amino acids are joined to each other by peptide bonds The structure of each protein is dictated by the DNA of a gene Amino Acids nitrogen Nitrogen containing molecules that combine to form proteins Linked by peptide bonds Unique types of chemical bonds in which the amine group of one amino acid binds to the acid group od another in order to manufacture dipeptides Proteins are made from combinations of 20 amino acids 10000 to 20000 unique proteins are developed throught he stringing together of different sequences of these 20 amino acids Amino acid structure nitrogen atom an acid group an amine group and a side chain Peptide Bond The chemical structure of proteins provides a base alkaline molecule at one end and an acid on the other end A protein molecule will always contain at least one Nitrogen bond so look for nitrogen if she asks what a protein molecule looks like 9 Essential Amino Acids cannot be produce by our bodies Must be obtained from food 11 Nonessential amino acids can be made by our bodies Development of Proteins DNA A molecule present in the nucleus of all body cells that directs the assembly of amino acids into body proteins Genes A segment of DNA that carries the instructions for assembling available amino acids into a unique protein These different proteins result in the unique physical and physiological characteristics you possess Protein Shape and Function Dipeptide two amino acids joined together Tripeptide three amino acids joined together Polypeptide chains of ten or more amino acids liked together by peptide bonds The shape of a protein determines its function in the body Structure and exibility of proteins in red blood cells permit them to change shape and ow freely through blood vessels to deliver oxygen and still retum to their original shape Denaturation Proteins can uncoil and lose their shape when exposed to heat acids bases heavy metals alcohol and other damaging substances When a protein loses its shape its function is lost Denaturation will occur during protein digestion as a response to body heat and stomach acids Protein Synthesis Our body synthesizes protein by selecting the needed amino acids available at any given time For protein synthesis to occur all essential amino acids must be available to the cell Limiting amino acid the amino acid that is missing or in the smallest supply that is responsible for slowing protein synthesis Incomplete proteins foods that do not contain all of the essential amino acids to support growth and health Complete proteins foods that contain all nine essential amino acids Proteins in the Diet Incomplete protein does not contain all essential amino acids 0 Not sufficient for growth and health 0 Considered a lowquality protein Complete protein contains sufficient amounts of all nine essential amino acids 0 Considered a highquality protein Mutual supplementation using two incomplete proteins together to make a complete protein Complementary proteins two protein sources that together will supply all nine essential amino acids 0 Example beans and rice Complete Protein Sources Generally all animal source protein is complete That means if the only place you were getting protein in your diet from a single animal source red meat chicken sh eggs Incomplete Protein Sources Generally plants protein sources are considered incomplete protein sources That means if the only place you were getting protein was from a plant source legumes grains or nuts You would not get all the essential amino acids
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