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BSC 182 Human Physiology & Anatomy 2 Week One Notes

by: Cassie Notetaker

BSC 182 Human Physiology & Anatomy 2 Week One Notes BSC 182

Marketplace > Illinois State University > Biological Sciences > BSC 182 > BSC 182 Human Physiology Anatomy 2 Week One Notes
Cassie Notetaker
GPA 3.19
Human Physiology & Anatomy 2
Betsy Wargo

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Hey guys! I'm an elite note taker this year and I am going to be posting notes every week for both BSC 182 Human Physiology & Anatomy 2 and BSC 160 Microbiology along with study guides for exams! ...
Human Physiology & Anatomy 2
Betsy Wargo
Class Notes
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This 54 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassie Notetaker on Saturday August 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 182 at Illinois State University taught by Betsy Wargo in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 127 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology & Anatomy 2 in Biological Sciences at Illinois State University.

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Date Created: 08/22/15
r ENDOCRINE SYSTEM OVERVIEW HORMONES Acts with nervous system to coordinate and integrate activity of body cells Influences metabolic activities Response slower but longer lasting than nervous system ENDOERINE SYSTEM OVERVIEW Pineal gland 39 Hypothalamus tra lge Pituitary gland 39 39 Nonhormonorl subslornces 4 T I Thyroid gland I SW60 39 30 NO Parathyroid glands 2 39 39 a 0 Have ducts To carry on dorsal aspect ofthyroid gland X secre rlon lo membrane Thymus A a su oce Adrenal glands Pancreas Produce hormones Gonads Ovary female l Testis male CHEMICAL MESSENGERS Hormones long disTdhce chemicdl sighdls Trdvel in blood or lymph AuTocrines chemicdls Tth exerT effecTs on some cells Tth secreTe Them Pardcrines locdll dcTihgc quot secre e Them 39 o ffecT cells oTher Thdh Those Tth AuTocrihes dhd pdrdcrihesore locol chemicdl messengers hoT considered odrT of endocrine sysTem r CHEMISTRY OF HORMON ES Two moin Closses Amino acidbased hormones nonsteroiddl Amino dcid derivotives peptides dnd proteins Steroids Synthesized from cholesterol Gondddl dnd ddrenocortiCdl hormones r MECHANISMS OF HORMONE ACTION Though hormones circulole syslemicolly only cells wilh receolors for lhol hormone offecled Target cells Tissues wilh recep rors for specific hormone Hormones oller lorgel cell oclivily Circulole syslemicolly hove occess To The whole syslem bul only inlerocl wilh lorgel cells r MECHANISMS OF HORMONE ACTION Hormones doT dT reoepTors in one of Two Wdys depending on Their ohemiodl ndTure dnd reoepTor Iood on i WoTer soluble hormones dll omino doid bdsed hormones exoepT Thyroid hormone ACT on pldsmd membrdne recepTors Use second messengers ConnoT enTer cell r COMPARING HORMONES Nan sTeraiaaI aa STeraia ChalesTeral waTer soluble insaluble in waTer Targe r cells have can diffuse Through exTemaI receptor plasma membranes sTimuaTes a second inTema recep rars messenger sysTem sTimuaTesinhibirs DNA r MECHANISMS OF HORMONE ACTION 2 Lipidsoluble hormones steroid onol Thyroid hormones Act on introcellulor receptors thot directly octivote genes Con enter cell f 39JLULAR RECEPTORS AND DIRECT GENE ACTIVATION Sferoid hormones dnd Thyroid hormone 1 Diffuse info forgef cells dnd bind wifh receofors wifhin fhe cell 2 Recepforhormone enfers nucleus binds fo specific region of DNA 3 Prompfs DNA frdnscripfion fo produce mRNA mRNA direcfs profein synfhesis 5 Promofe mefdbolic dcfivifies or promofe synfhesis of sfrucfurdl profeins or profeins for exporf from cell 5 r TARGET CELL SPECIFICITY Torgef cells musf hove specific receofors fo which hormone binds for exomble Some hormones hove only or few forgef cells ACTH receofors found only on cerfdin cells of ddrendl corfex Some hormones hove mdny differenf forgef cells Thyroxin recepfors ore found on nedrly dll cells of body fhyroid hormones influenfidl fhroughouf body r CONTROL OF HORMONE RELEASE Blood levels of hormones Controlled by negative feedback systems Vary only within narrow desirable range Endocrine gland stimulated to synthesize and release hormones in response to Humoral stimuli Neural stimuli Hormonal stimuli Negative feedback system producing until we have enough and then turning it off r HUMORAL STIMULI Chonging blood levels of ions dnd nuirienis direc rly siimuld re secreiion of hormones Exomble Cd2 in blood Declining blood Cd2 oonoenirdiion siimuld res pdrdihyroid gldnds lo secrele PTH pdrd rhyroid hormone PTH oouses Cd2 oonoenirdiions lo rise dnd slimulus is removed BODY FLUIDS a Humoral Stimulus Hormone release caused by altered levels of certain critical ions or nutrients Capillary low Ca2 in blood l Thyroid gland posteriorview Parathyroid l Parathyrord glands r NEURAL STIMULI b Neural Stimulus Nerve fibers slimulole hormone Hormoneremecaused by neural input releose CNS spinal cord Sympo rhe no nervous syslem fibers siimulo re oolrenol meolullo lo secrele oo reoholomines Preganglionic sympathetic fibers Medulla of adrenal gland Capillary 0quot 39 r HORMONAL STIMULI Hormones stimulote other endocrine Hormon equot jquot39Omer orgons to releose their hormones hormone a tropic hormone Hypothalamus Hypotholomio hormones stimulote releose of most onterior pituitory hormones Anterior pituitory hormones stimulote 35323 torgets to secrete still more hormones 9 Hypotholomic pituitory torget Adrenal mad cortex Testis endocrine orgon feeolbook loop hormones from finol torget orgons inhibit releose of onterior pituitory 5 5 5 hormones quot HORMONAL STIMULATION amp NEURAL TRACT RH gr H yum ha Ha m ura IF39 t Lu Eta ry Hormonal Triggered by hormones Neural Triggered by neurons r NERVOUS SYSTEM MODULATION Nervous syslem modifies slimuldlion of endocrine glonds dnd Their negolive feedloch mecnonisms Exomple under severe s rress hypolhdldmus dnd sympdlhelic nervous syslem dclivdred 9 body glucose levels rise Nervous syslem con override normdl endocrine conlrols r ONSET OF HORMONE ACTIVITY Some responses are olmosl immediele Some especially sleroid hours To days Some musl be ocliveled in lorgel cells r DURATION OF HORMONE ACTIVITY Limileal Ranges from 10 seconds To several hours EffeCTs may disappear as blood levels drop Same persis r al low blood levels THE PITUITARY GLAND AND HYPOTHALAMUS Pituitary gland hypophysis has Two major lobes Posterior pituitary Neurohypophysis Neural lissue Anterior pituitary Aolenohypophysis Glandular lissue Adenohypophysis glandular lhal grows below hypolhalamus PlTUITARYHYPOTHALAMIC RELATIONSHIPS Posterior pituitan loloe Extension of hypothalamic neural tissue Neural connection to hypothalamus hypothalamichypophyseal tract Nuclei of hypothalamus make oxytocin OT and antidiuretic hormone ADH Neurohormones are transported to and stored in posterior pituitary Tract like a nerve but in the central nervous svstem V Hypothalamus lnfundibulum connecting stalk Hypothalamicf f39 hypophyseal tract Axonterminals Posteriorjobe of pItUItary r POSTERIOR PITUITARY AND HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES Oxyfocin and ADH funcfian amp sfrucfure are similar Each composed of amino acids Almasf idenfical differ in fwa amino acids OXYTOCI N Strong stimulont of uterine controotion Released during childbirth Hormonol Trigger for milk ejection Acts os neurotransmitter in Ioroin sense of good feeling Torgets smooth muscle ADH VASOPRESSIN ALTERS BLOOD VESSEL PRESSURE Prevenls urine formalion Regulales waler balance Release also lriggerea by pain low blood pressure and drugs Innibilea by alcohol diurelics alconol Turns off ADH Telling body To make more urine Hign concenlralions 9 vasoconslriclion lignlening of blood vessels r PITUITARYHYPOTHALAMIC RELATIONSHIPS Anierior Lobe Vosculorconneciion To U hypoiholomus j i gt Hypophyseol I sysiem Corries releasing and inhibiting hormones reguloie hormone secreiion GH TSHACTH lquot FSHLHPRL of pituitary Hypophyseol portal system HPS sends from hypoiholomus To pituitary gland Releosing hormone RH only released from The hypoiholomus and destination is olwoys anterior pituitary ANTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES Growth hormone GH Thyroidstimulating hormone TSH or Thyrofropin Adrenocor cotropic hormone ACTH Folliclestimulating hormone FSH Produce and moinfoin sex Lufernrzrng hormone LH cells Target Proloc n PRL gonads r GROWTH HORMONE GH GH releose chiefly reguloied on hypoiholomio hormones Grow rh hormone releasing hormone GHRH Siimuloies releose Grow rh hormone inhibiting hormone GHIH somo rosioiin Inhibits releose Turns off glond Ghrelin hunger hormone olso s rimulo res releose HOMEOSTATIC IMBALANCES OF GROWTH HORMONE Hyperseorefion Too much growth hormone In resul rs in giganfism bones oonTinue To lengThen person continues To ge r Toller In resul rs in Hyposeore on In children resul rs in w a r THYROIDSTIMULATING HORMONE THYROTROPIN Produced by cells of onlerlor pllUIlory Hyp thalamue Slimuloles normolodevelopmeonl and secrelory oclrvrly of lhyrord TRH Release Triggered by lhyrolropin I Anteriorpituitary l releorsln hormone from hypolho omus TSH by rising blood levels of Th rbld hormones Thor OCT on pl urlorry and hypolholomus Thyr39 icl gland Thymid harmenee r OCORTICOTROPIC HORMON E CORTICOTROPIN Secreled by corlicolropic cells of onlerior piluilow Slimuloles adrenal corlex lo release corlicosleroids ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE CORTICOTROPIN Regulation of ACTH Hynothalamus Triggered by hypothalamic CRH in aain rhythm Anterior pituitary Internal and external factors such as fever hypoglycemia and stressars can ACTH alter release of CRH Adrenal Cortex Corticosteroids Target cells r GONADOTROPINS Follicle sTimuloTing hormone FSH ond luTeinizing hormone LH ore responsible for TorgeTIng The gonods SecreTed onogonodoTrophs lond ThoT produces gonodoTropIns nourishing oe ls of onTerIor pITUITory F H sTimuloTes gomeTe egg or sperm produoTion LH promoTes producTionoT gonodol hormones helps To mollte TronsITIon To hovlng e g In IT amp funo Ionol To Ioelng releosed TorgeTs gonods In mo e sysTem ICSH AlosenT from The blood in oreouloerTol Iooys ond girls aa s GONADOTROPINS GN Regulorion of gonodorropin releose Triggered by gonoIoloTropinreleorsing Hypotha39amus hormone GnRH oluring end after puberTy GnRH Suppressed by gonorolol hormones Anteriorr pitunary eedboom FSH and LH Gonacle Ee ogen Or Testoeterone Target SENS r PROLACTIN PRL Secreled by proloclin cells of onlerior piluilew Slimuloles milk produclion Role in males nol well underslood r PROLACTIN PRL Regulalian of PRL release Primarily canlrallea by pralaclin innibi ring hormone PIH dopamine Blood levels rise lawara end of pregnancy Suckling slimulales PRL release and pramales canlinuea milk praauclian Hypersecrelian causes inappropriale laclalian lack of menses inferlilily in females and impalence in males cannal malte sperm cells THYROID GLAND Two lolerol lobes connecled by Composed of follicles lhol Parafollicular cells produce The follicles V a 393 oquot 4 239 7 39 n a a 39 O THYROID HORMONE TH Aoluolly Two reloled compounds T4 lhyroxine T3 lriiodolhyronine Affeols virluolly every cell in body Reledsed inlo The bloodslredm dnd circuldle lhroughoul The body r THYROID HORMONE Ivtdjor metdloolio hormone Inoreoses metoloolio rote now much energy we dre using ot rest Reguldtion of tissue growth dnd development Development of slteetd dnd nervous systems Reproductive odpdbilities Mointenonoe of blood pressure aa 39 REGULATION OF TH Hypothalamus Negaflve feedback regulaflon of TH release TR Rising TH levels provide negafive feedback inhibifion on release of TSH Anterior pituitary Hypofhalamic fhyrofropin releasing TSH hormone TRH can overcome negafive feedback during pregnancy or exposure Thyroid gland fo cold F Thyroi hormones Target cellg r CALCITONIN Produced by porofolliculor cells Also colled exlrdfolliculdr cells nol coming from follicles Themselves An rdgonis r ro pdrd rhyroid hormone PTH helps lo conlrol cdlcium Al higher lhon normol doses Helps To keep Cd2 in bones Slimuldles Cd2 upldke dnd incorpord rion inlo bone mdlrix Cdlcilonin dnd PTH work logelher lo bdldnce colcium levels cdlcilonin keeps colcium in The bones PARATHYROID GLANDS Four lo eighl liny glands embedded in ooslerior aspeol of Thyroid Conlain oxyohil cells funo rion unknown paralhyroid cells secrele parathyroid hormone PTH PTH mosl imoorlanl hormone in Ca2 homeoslasis r PARATHYROID HORMONE Functions Stimulotes osteoolosts to digest bone motrix onol releose Co2 to blood Enhances reobsorotion of 202 onol secretion of phosbnote by kidneys Promotes ootivotion of vitomin D by kidneys inoreoses obsorption of 202 by intestinol muooso Negotive feedbock control rising Co2t in blood inhibits PTH releose HOMEOSTATIC IMBALANCES OF PTH Hyperpdrdthyroidism due to tumor PTH is excessive Bones soften dnd deform Elevoted Cd2 Depresses nervous system Contributes to formdtion of kidney stones when in blood Hypoparathyroidism following gldnd trdumd or removol or dietory mognesium deficiency Results in tetdny sustdined controction of the muscles muscle becomes nonfunctiondl respirotory porolysis dnd dedth 02055 wgtgtZOm FED mm n in g E r ADRENAL SUPRARENAL GLANDS Paired pyramid shaped organs aloo kidneys Slruolurally and funolionally are Two glands in one Adrenal medulla nervous Tissue parl of sympalnelio nervous syslem Adrenal cortex lhree layers of glandular rissue Thai synlhesize and secrele ooriioos reroids Suprarenal above The kidneys ADRENAL CORTEX Three layers of cortex produce The different corticosreroids Zona glomerulosa 2m 7 glomerulosa Zona fasciculata Adrenal gland 39 I 39 I Medula 0Conex Kidney r a o Zona fasciculafa Zona re cularis Adrenal medulla 1 t 1 I V 1 I IV ltIi7lamp39x i f J AL r MINERALOCORTICOIDS Regulole eleolrolyles Nd dnd K in exlrdoelluldr fluid Aldoslerone mosl polenl minerdlooorliooid Cduses wo rer relenlion by kidneys Elimind rion of K Aldoslerone helps move dround sodium where sodium goes woler goes very dependenl in urindry syslem ALDOSTERONE Release Triggered by Decreasing blood volume and blood pressure Rising blood levels of K MECHANISMS OF ALDOSTERONE SECRETION Reninangiorensinalaos rerone mechanism decreased blood pressure shmula res kidneys To release renrn 9 Triggers formaTion of angiorensin II a poTenT sTimuIaTor of alaosTerone release ACTH causes small increases of alaos rerone during s rress A rrial na rriure ric pep riae ANP blocks renin and alaosTerone secrerron To decrease blood pressure When aTriaI becomes sTressea releases ANP removes wafer from The sysTem ANP and alaosTerone work Togerher To conTroI wafer movemenr r TRIGGERING ALDOSTERONE Angiofensinogen inoCTive Low blood pressurevolume 9 Renin l AngioTensin ACE AngioTensin Converting Enzyme AngioTensin H l AldosTerone reToins H20 r GLUCOCORTICOIDS Keep blood glucose levels reldlively oonsldnl lvldinldin blood pressure by incredsing dolion of Vdsooonslriolors oonslriolion of blood vessels blood pressure rises Cortisol hydrocor sone Only one in significonl dmounls in humdns Corlisone Corlicoslerone 4 H r m I gt a our 9 GLUCOCORTICOIDS CORTISOL Released in response To ACTH Pollems of edling ond dclivily S rress Prime meldloolic effecl is gluconeogenesis mdkmg or new source for glucose Formdlion of glucose from fdls dnd proleins Promoles rises in blood glucose folly dcids dnd dmmo ClCldS quotSovesquot glucose for lordin Enhdnces Vdsoconslricfrion 9 rise in blood pressure To quickly dIslrlloule nulrlenls lo cells r GONADOCORTICOIDS SEX HORMONES lvlosl weak androgens male sex hormones converlea lo lesloslerone in Tissue cells some lo eslrogens lvlay conlriloule lo Onse r of puberer Appearance of secondary sex charac rerislics Sex drive in women Eslrogens in poslmenopausal women r ADRENAL MEDULLA Medullory chromaffin cells synlnesize epinephrine 80 dnd noreoineonrine 20 Effecls Vdsoconslriclion Increased hedrl role Increased blood glucose levels Blood diver red lo brdin hedr r dnd slteeld muscle r ADRENAL MEDULLA Responses are brief Epinephrine slimulales melabalic aclivilies bronchial ailalian and blood flow To sltelelal muscles and hearl Narephinephrine influences peripheral vasacanslric rian and blood pressure


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