Exam 1 Textbook Notes
Exam 1 Textbook Notes BSC 215
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This 49 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mallory Ivy on Saturday August 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Jason Pienaar in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Chapter 1 Major Themes of Anatomy amp Physiology The Scope of Anatomy and Physiology Examination of Anatomy anatomy study of structure gross anatomy structures visible to the naked eye systemic anatomy structures associated with one system often throughout body e g cardiovascular system 1 regional anatomy structures located in the same basic region physiologystudy of function how does it work a lot of organs have more than one function bones function as a structural supplement as well as aids in calcium intake and produces white blood cells difficult to understand function without first understanding its structure palpation feeling a structure with the hands auscultation listening to the natural sounds made by the body percussion feels for abnormal resistance listens to the emitted sour for signs of abnormalities such as pockets of uid or air histology study of tissues cytology microscopic anatomy of cell structure ultrastructure fine detail down to molecular level seen by use of electron microscope Examination of Physiology comparative physiology study of how different species solved problems of life usually the basis for the development of new drugs animal research History Lesson from the Greeks and Romans Hippocrates father of medicine Hippocratic Oath physician code of ethics Aristotle wrote about AampP supernatural causes theology natural causes physici On the Parts of Animals reductionism theory that the large complex human body can be understood by studying its smaller components highly productive approach gtxholism complement of reductionism emergent properties of the whole cannot be predicted from its separate parts the whole is more than the sum of their parts treats the whole person patient s emotional response and confidence in YOU may play a greater role in recovery than the treatment Claudius Galen Wmte in uential medical book attempting to define the human anatomy based on dissections of animals and treating gladiators wounds cadaver dissection was illegal back then Warned that his observations were not necessarily correct and indeed some were not Birth of Modern Medicine in uenza deriv Italian in uence as parts of the body were once believed to be in uenced by the zodiac Mainmonides was a Jewish physician that was not only an honored rabbi but also wrote 10 medical books Avicenna was a Muslim medical scholar and author of The Canon of Medicine Andreas Vesalius focused on anatomy from Italy the term barber comes from barbersurgeon who as a professor spoke would remove the mentioned decaying organs from a cadaver for the class to see The red and white on a barber pole represents blood and bandages unlike most professors Vesalius would come down from the cathedra where he lectured to do the dissections himself Wmte De Humani Corporis Fabrica On the Structure of the Human Body 1543 included correct illustrations of anatomy William Harvey focused on physiology StUdied blood circulation as well as embryology De Motu Cordis On the Motion of the Heart 1628 his work is part of the birth of experimental physiology With the help of Michael Servetus realized blood circulates throughout the body continuously Robert Hooke designed the compound microscope van Leeuwenhoek named Father of Microbiology improved the microscope and studied various organisms and tissues with it spherical aberration blurry edges through microscope chromatic aberration rainbowlike distortion as seen through microscope Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann concluded that all organisms are composed of cells gt foundation of cell theory Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes despised bias looked for trends in nature wanted a cooperative enterprise Experimentation psychosomatic effects effects of the subject s state of mind on his or her physiology placebo usage prevention of bias doubleblind method neither the subject to whom a treatment is given nor the person giving it and recording thee results knows whether the subject is receiving the treatment or placebo Statistical testing Chisquare test t test analySIS of variance datermmes if data was in uenced by bias or random variation Facts Laws and Theories fact information that can be independently verified law of nature a generalizationdescription about the predictable ways in which matter and energy behave Theory explanatory statement or set of statements derived from facts laws and confimed hypotheses Evolution Selection and Adaptation Charles Darwin father of biology and evolution Wmte On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection 1859 The Descent OfM m 1871 evolution and relationship to other animals evolution change in the genetic composition of a population of organisms natural selection hereditary advantages enable organisms to produce offspring and pass down the trait selection pressures natural forces that promote the reproductive success of some individuals more than others Chmate predators disease competition resources adaptations features that have evolved in response to selection pressures Vesuglal organs remnants of organs that were once useful to our ancestors Our Basic Primate Adaptations arboreal treetop prehensile capable of grasping stereoscopic depth perception bipedalism standing and walking on two legs Human Evolution Australopithicus tall stature greater brain volume simple tools articulate speech italics indicate conjecture Homo Erectus 18 mil Homo sapiens 200000 sole surviving hominid species evolutionary medicine how human disease and dysfunctions can be traced to differences between the present and past environments Structural Hierarchv of ColeeXitV atoms smallest particles with unique chemical identities molecules organelles cells smallest units of organisms that carry out all the basic functions of life tissues 4 epithelial IlGI39VOllS connective muscular organs a single organ can belong to 2 organ systems ie pancreas endocrine and digestive organ systems 11 consult Atlas A Fig A11 usually physically connected integumentary forms the external body covering protects deeper tissues from injury synthesizes vitamin D site of cutaneous pain pressure etc receptors and sweat and oil glands skeletal protects and supports body organs provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement blood cells are formed within bones stores minerals muscular nervous endocrine glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth reproduction and nutrient use metabolism by body cells diabetes often is caused by issues in the pancreas and digestive system circulatorycardiovascular lymphatic picks up uid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream houses white blood cells lymphocytes involved in immunity respiratory keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen Krebs cycle and removes carbon dioxide the gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of air sacs of the lungs urinary digestive reproductive organism Situs Inversus and Other Atypical Anatomy situs solitis normal arrangement of internal thoracic and abdominal cavity organs situs inversus organs of the thoracic and abdominal cavities are reversed between right and left dextrocardia rightleft reversal of the heart usually includes other heart defects double outlet right ventricle aorta connects to the right ventricle instead of the left thus sending oxygen poor blood through the body mixing the oxygen rich and poor blood endocardial cushion defect walls separating the four chambers are malformed or not present causes increased bp in lungs swelling heart failure cyanosis blue coloring of skin pulmonary stenosis pulmonary valve narrows causing less blood ow to lungs or atresia tissue covers the pulmonary valve preventing blood from the right side to the heart going into the lungs symptoms cyanosis fast breathing fatigue single ventricle transposition of the great vessels ventricular septal defect a hole in the septum may close as wall continues to grow if it does not leads to heart failure some with only mirrored dextrocardia have issues with the nasal cilia Kartagener syndrome Characteristics of Life Organization Compartmentalization separate internal and external environments from the sub cellular scale upwards metabolism internal chemical processes that break down molecules into those that can be used within the body as energy sum of anabolism and catabolism processes anabolism synthesis catabolism digestion excretion separation of wastes from the tissues and their elimination responsiveness and movement homeostasis development differentiation the transformation of cells with on specialized function into cells that are committed to a particular task growth evolution reproduction Homeostasis and Negative Feedback In order to maintain life organisms need nutrients carbohydrates fats proteins vitaminsminerals oxygen it is the final electron acceptor water 6080 of your body composition body temperature maintained around 37 C atmospheric pressure support of metabolism Claude Bemard internal condition stability although external conditions vary Walter Cannon one of the fathers of AampP came up with the term homoeostasis for this internal stability Bernard observed We undergo dynamic equilibrium our internal state uctuates slightly around a set point like 37 C for body temperature feedback loop receptor detects stretch tissue damage blood chemicals body temp and other stimuli afferent signals leading toward a control center integrating control center not necessarily the brain efferent signals carry signals away from the control center effector the cell or organ that carries out the final corrective action When we are overheated it sometimes triggers vasodilation widening of blood vessels allowing the warm blood to lose heat to its surroundings and further sweat In contrast heatconservation is achieved by vasoconstriction as well as shivering muscle tremors that generate heat baroreceptors are sensory nerve endings on arteries near your heart that detect changes in blood pressure and send information to brainstem to increase or decrease heart rate barore ex the condition that is triggering the feedback loop is the thing that needs to be changed negative feedback a process in which the body senses a change and activates mechanisms that NEGATE or REVERSE it ex temperature maintenance bring back to set point temporary high blood pressure detected by arterial stretch receptors send afferent signals to control center hypothalamus the control center makes a decision to decrease the bp efferent signals travel to the heart telling it to slow down effector heart activity is modified gt heart rate slows thus reducing blood pressure optimal temperature for proteins to work is 68 F aka 37 C positive feedback selfamplifying cycle in which the end result causing an increase in the same direction ex childbirth blood clotting protein digestion fever generation of nerve signals move conditions further away from set point typically an emergency situation blood clotting fibrinogen prothrombin thromboplastin calcium ion childbirth releases oxytocin When feedback fails it can lead to diseases illness or death acromegaly abnormal growth of the hands feet and face caused by overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland Gradients and Flow matter and energy tend to ow down gradients from high to low and doesn t require extra energy expenditure However going from low to high requires energy input pressure gradient ex blood owing from the heart concentration gradient chemical ex water ow into cells electrical gradients ex sodiumpotassium pump thermal gradient ex vasodilation History of Anatomical Terminology written down in the TA Terminologia Anatomica 1998 Greek and Latin roots eponyms terms based on the names of people How to Learn Medical Terminology root bears core meaning of the word not necessarily only one combining vowels are often inserted to join roots ex cardiomyopathy tachycardia prefix modifies core meaning ex epigastric above stomach digastric a muscle with two bellies suffixes are added to modify the core meaning ex microscopy often there are 2 suffixes or a root and suffix that are so often used together we create a compound suffix ex log study y process form the compound logy the study of Plural Adjective and Possessive Forms Table 11 on pg 20 will help you recognize the difference between plural and singular forms singular adjectives usually end in i large larger largest gt magnus major maximus adjectives usually go after the noun Kev Anatomical Terms superior toward the head inferior away from the head dorsal back of the body imagine a four legged animal on the ground the back is away from the ground aka dorsal as well as the top of the paw ventral front of the body medial towards the central line of the body lateral away from the midline intermediate between a more medial and a more lateral structure proximal closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk the elbow is proximal to the wrist distal farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk superficial closer to the body surface need a reference feature not necessarily the skin usually a membrane deep more internal that body surface need a reference feature not necessarily the skin usually a membrane frontal coronal planes divides the body into a dorsal and ventral section section means literal cutting the plane is an imaginary feature median midsagittal plane divides the body into a left and right hand side transverse horizontal plane divides the body into a superior and inferior half oblique cuts made diagonally between the sagittal and transverse planes pelvic cavity contains bladder reproductive organs and rectum celum is a body cavity acelumate is an organism that does not have body cavities as human beings are we acelumates or celumates we are cellmates mediastinum contains all the organs that connect to the heart and organs in the thoracic cavity mediastinum covers the entire thoracic cavity or just the tubes and things and heart Body Cavity serosa Serous membrane doubled layered membrane that lines ventral body cavity and outer surface of organs it contains parietal serosa lines cavity walls visceral serosa lines the organs pleura pericardia peritonea read about Marie Curie and her role in photographic imaging of the internal structures of the body Bod Ima in Techni ues Xray CT scan computed tomography creates transverse cross sections of the body Positron Emission Tomography PET scan observation of metabolic processes radiolabeled glucose injected to visualize performance and activity of organ systems Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI can provide visuals of soft tissue unlike X rays relies on energy released form water hydrogen atoms that spin in the magnetic field Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging fMRI tracks blood ow in brain in real time ascertain brain activity in response to stimuli tracks molecules as the brain processes them etc refer to tegrity recording to remember correct terminology Sonography second oldest and second most Widely used highfrequency sound waves echo back from internal organs one of the safest imaging techniques used in obstetrics Mercer infections in hospitals after surgery Chapter 2 Chemical Basis of Life Key Points Matter and Energy Atoms why is life carbon based Chemical Bonds and Reactions Inorganic Molecules Organic Molecules Atoms Ions and Molecules expected to be able to name the 6 primary chemical elements of the body their percentages and chemical symbols understand the properties of atoms isotopes chemical elements and compounds and the differences between each explain the basis for radioactivity and the types of hazards of ionizing radiation define the types of chemical bonds and understand the basis for each type of bond All matter is composed of elements a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler unique substances 6 elements make up 985 of body mass CCHOPIN Oxygen 65 Carbon 18 life is carbon based because carbon can form four different bonds with four different elements at once its also the right size for proteins and enzyme to work with to metabolize we derive all the carbon we have from the atmosphere listen around 15min Hydrogen 10 Nitrogen 3 Calcium 15 Phosphorous 1 12 other elements occur in trace quantities within the body iodine iron only animal that can live in outer space a moss piglet or tardigrade All elements are composed of atoms the smallest indivisible unit of matter loses its unique characteristics when broken down composed of protons neutrons 0 and electrons subatomic particles nucleus of an atom contains protons and neutrons electrons orbit the nucleus in a cloud region where electrons are likely to be found protons and neutrons are about 1 amu while electrons are about 0 amu 000055 amu atomic number Z p atomic mass A p n balanced atoms have the same number of electrons as protons however it is the number of protons that define the element isotopes have a different number of neutrons Isotopes of hydrogen include Hydrogen 1p 0n 1e Deuterium 1p 1n 1e Tritium 1p 2n 1e ions have a different number of electrons Radioactive Isotopes the heavier an isotope the more unstable and will decay into stable forms Most forms of radiation are harmless ie light radio waves Harmful forms of radiation typically result from electron loss ionizing radiation highenergy radiation converts atoms to ions destroys molecules in high doses it is quite fatal mutagenic andor carcinogenic in low doses and produces free ions and radicals in human ssue free radicals chemical particles with an odd number of electrons the most stable form of oxygen is OZ but if an extra electron is added it becomes a superoxide anion denoted with a dot beside it 0239 an antioxidant is a chemical that neutralizes free radicals so they are no longer harmful Examples of Ionizing Radiation xrays and UV rays alpha radioactivity and betaradioactivity low penetration power but dangerous if ingested gammaradioactivity high energy and penetrating power thus very dangerous artificial sources of radiation are also potentially harmful ex long exposure to xrays each radioisotope has its defining physical halflife the time it takes for half of its mass to decay Molecules 2 of the m atoms combine to yield a molecule of that element N leemental nitrogen N molecular nitrogen 2 different elements combine to yield a compound Chemical bonds are energy relationships between electrons of reacting atoms atoms can have up to 7 electron shells with one or more orbitals shell 1 2 e shell 2 8 e the outermost electron shell is called the valence shell when valence shell is full it is stable characterized by being a chemically inert element Ionic bonds transfer of electrons from one atom to another cation is the electron donor anion is the electron acceptor Chlorine is only missing one valence electrons so it really wants to gain one Sodium on the other hand has only one electron in its valence shell and therefore it is held weakly to the atom and will readily donate it to chlorine Nonpolar Covalent Bonds electrons are shared and each atom fills its outer electron shell you can have up to a quadruple covalent bond Polar Covalent Bond unequal sharing of electrons atoms have different abilities to attract electrons some are stronger than others electronegative atoms strongly attract electrons and usually have a close to full valence shell oxygen is highly electronegative and thus pulls electrons closer to itself In H20 oxygen gains a partial negative charge and hydrogen gains a partial positive charge We use the word partial because there is an angle of 105 9 so there is a side that is more negative than the other We use a lowercase delta to denote this Hydrogen Bonds weak attractions between the poles of water molecules plays an enormous role in the stabilization of biological molecules for example DNA and protein folding Hydrogen bonds give water the properties of solvency cohesion attracted to itselfsurface tension allows spiders to walk on top of water and keeps water in the form of puddles and droplets adhesion attracted to other substances chemical reactivity and thermal stability Van der Waal s interactions a disturbance of electrons to give a temporary positively and negatively charged areas to neutral atoms geckos use this to climb windows important in protein folding Biochemistrv studvind the chemical composition of living matter and the reactions associated with it inorganic typically molecules that do not contain carbon with few exceptions eg C02 salts acids bases water organic molecules that contain CARBON and are covalently bonded proteins carbohydrates lipids DNA The most important inorganic compound Water the most abundant in living things accounts for 6080 of cell volume High heat capacity high heat of vaporization highly reactive participates in hydrolysis and dehydration synthesis polar solvent it is the universal solvent biological molecules must be dissolved in water to move come together and react polar due to its 1059 bond angle however it can only dissolve polar substances Acids all are electrolytes substances that ionize and dissociate in water to form solutions that can conduct electrical currents electrolyte imbalances can cause anything from muscle cramps to cardiac arrest known as proton donors release hydrogen ions H into solution it is the concentration of hydrogen ions that determines acidity the more ions you release into water the stronger the acid HCI gt H Cl log H pH pH and drug interactions medications can exist in charged and uncharged forms when aspirin enters the stomach it is neutrally charged allowing it to pass through the stomach membrane into the blood stream Once there however the basic pH of the blood accepts electrons from the aspirin giving it a negative charge and thus preventing it from crossing back through the membrane Bases all are also electrolytes known as a proton acceptor dissociates into hydroxyl ions OH39 in solution Concentraton of hydroxyl ions determines the alkalinity NaOH gt Na OH39 when the pH scale was invented a Dutch scientist wanted to measure the pH ofbeer R Console program helps calculate pH hlt000000001 ogh base10 the answer is 11 higher H is more acidic pH is the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion molarity log H higher OH39 is more alkaline basic logarithmic scale gt each pH unit increase means 10X less acidic What s molesliter Molarity see concentration One mole of a substance 60221415 X 1023 units or atoms of the substance Avogadro s Constant one mole of grapefruits 60221415 X 102grapefruits not necessarily always the same volume but same number Buffers Blood pH has a mnarrow range 735745 before becoming fatal we need molecules that prevent rapid shifts in pH buffers release H when pH begins to rise and binds to H when pH begins to fall carbonic acidbicarbonate buffering system Matter and Enerdv matter anything that occupies space and has mass solid liquid gas energy the capacity to do work put matter into motion has no mass takes up no space only tangible in the EFFECTS it has ON matter Kinetic energy movement of particles potential energy stored energy has the potential to do work chemical potential energy locked up in chemical bonds when bonds break kinetic electrical energy movement of charged particles eg nervous impulses mechanical energy energy directly involved in moving matter radiant electromagnetic energy energy that travels in waves light UV x ray Law of Conservation of Energy energy can neither be created nor destroyedjust converted between different forms Look up Laws of Thermodynamics l39neraV and chemical Reactions Expected to understand how chemical runs are symbolized by chemical equations list and define the three fundamental types of chemical reactions define metabolism and its two subdivisions define oxidation and reduction and relate those to changes in the energy content of a molecule Chemical Reactions reactions occur with more frequency with higher temperature higher concentrations and catalysts synthesis reaction bond formation anabolic A B gt AB amino acids form a protein molecule decomposition bond breakage catabolic AB gt A B breakdown of glycogen to release glucose units displacement reaction both breakage and formation AB C gt AC B ATP transfers its terminal phosphate group to glucose to form glucosephosphate reversible reactions are those that can be reversed law of mass action reversible reactions proceed from the reactants in greater quantities to the substances with the lesser quantity explains the absorption and release of oxygen Metabolism Oxidation and Reduction metabolism is the sum of all the chemical reactions of the body catabolism is exergonic energyreleasing decomposition runs breaks covalent bonds produces smaller molecules from larger ones anabolism is endergonic energystoring synthesis reactions requires energy input production of protein or fat driven bv enerClv that catabolism releases Redox Reactions drive the catabolism of foods for energy basis for which is electron exchange electron donors lose electrons oxidized electron acceptors gain electrons reduced Oxidation occurs when a molecule gives up electrons and releases energy Reduction occurs when a molecule accepts electrons Two ways to oxidize lose a hydrogen atom 1 proton 1 electron combine with oxygen oxygen s electronegativity draws electron away Organic Compounds Expected to discuss the relevance of polymers to biology and explain how they are formed and broken by dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis discuss the types and functions of carbohydrates lipids and proteins explain how enzymes function and how to build proteins describe the basic structure and function of ATP describe the basic structure of nucleic acids and some basic differences between DNA and RNA Organic Molecules proteins carbohydrates lipids and nucleic acids large carboncontaining molecules macromolecules despite large size only a small region of the molecule participates in chemical reactions functional group hydroxyl OH carbonyl CO carboxyl COOH amino NH2 methyl CH3 isomers are molecules that have the same chemical formula but are structurally different ex grain ethanol and ethyl ether are both C2H60 but they are certainly not interchangeable Monomers and Polymers The four classes of organic molecules usually exist as polymers repetitive series of smaller subunits monomers starch is a polymer of about 3000 glucose monomers that humans cannot produce but plants do if we were to build up a polymer made of glucose it would be in the form of glycogen which is stored in our liver other important carbohydrates are cellulose Monomers covalent bond together to form a polymer through dehydration synthesis removal of a water molecule a hydroxyl group is removed from one monomer and a hydrogen from the next if you wanted to break apart a polymer you hydrolyze it by adding a water molecule AIl digestion reactions consist of hydrolysis reactions Carbohydrates1C 2H 10 building blocks monosaccharides mainly exist as pentose 5 carbon and hexose 6 carbon sugars prime numbering we number the carbons starting from the oxygen atom and then go around clockwise numbering the cornerscarbons deoxyribose is named such because it is missing a hydroxyl group on the 2 prime carbon whereas ribose is not carbohydrates must be digested to be utilized by the body formed through dehydration synthesis and broken down by hydrolysis Three Maior Monosaccharides glucose fructose and galactose Three Maior Disaccharides maltose lactose and sucrose Polysaccharides are long strings of monosaccharides Glycogen is the only polysaccharide in human tissue produced by the liver and good for storage of energy produced after a meal when blood glucose is high and stored broken down between meals maintains blood glucose muscles also store glycogen for energy needs Lipids CHO much less than carbs though can contain phosphorous triglycerides composed of one glycerol molecule and three fatty acids linear chains of carbon with organic acid COOH the difference between lipids and saccharides is that lipids will have a different molecular ratio in which the number of oxygen atoms are either 2 3 or 4 they have carboxyl groups vs hydroxyl groups basically a lot more carbons than oxygens saturated single bonds only create a straight chain allowing the lipid to cool into a solid unsaturated has some double bonds that create kinks in the lipid preventing it from solidifying when cooled food manufacturers discovered that bubbling hydrogen through polyunsaturated oils created partially hydrogenated fats that were less vulnerable to becoming rancid than original oils hydrogenation process converts bent cis form to a straightened trans form trans packs tightly to become a solid at room temp much harder to break down by our bodies and are thence deposited in our arteries and create plaque build ups phospholipids creates membranes phospholipid bilayer triglyceride replaces a fatty acid with a phosphate group which will further attach to another functional group to give it more properties amphipathic has a polar end hydrophilic and a nonpolar end hydrophobic theory that phospholipids form spontaneously throw them in water and they will form a circular bilayer 831 experiment recreating primordial earth steroids 4 interlocking carbon rings precursor to all steroid hormones eg testosterone estrogen etc cholesterol is the precursor to all steroid hormones involved in development of secondary sexual characteristics something used to attract the opposite sex ie lion s mane Steroid Abuse Side Effects acneoily skin enlarged clitoris or penis and not really functional deepened voice unusual hair loss or growth psychological disturbances in sexually mature males enlarged breasts Proteins CHON primary structural material of the body diverse functions enzymes contractility oxygen carriers building blocks amino acids 20 types two functional groups include amine NH and organic acid COOH Rgroup distinguishes the AA s 849 sulfur is good for creating chain links for higher order molecules sulfur bndges being with glycine aspartic acid lysine cysteine amino acids are connected by peptide bonds classification of protein structure primary sequence of a proteins amino acids chains secondary caused by hydrogen bonds Betapleated sheets and alpha helix tertiary quaternary Enzymes and Metabolism enzymes proteins that function as biological catalysts permit reactions to occur rapidly at normal body temperature substrates substances an enzyme acts upon substratease enzyme digests substrate lowers activation energy energy needed to get reaction started by facilitating molecular interaction How it Works 1 Substrate approaches active site on enzyme molecule Adenosine Triphosphate ATP generated most famously in the process of glucose catabolism Krebs Cycle nucleotide adenine ribose phosphate two highenergy phosphate groups the body s most important energytransport molecules typically used for active transport mechanical work muscle contraction chemical work provide the necessary energy for a chemical reaction to occur by transferring a phosphate molecule Nucleic Acids CHON P largest molecules in the body building block nucleotide adenine thymine guanine cytosine uracil large 2 ring purines A G small 1 ring pyrimidines C T U DNA inside the nucleus replicates for cell division provides directions for protein synthesis deoxyribose pentose sugar A T G C RNA outside the nucleus translates DNA in preparation for protein synthesis ribose pentose sugar A U GC Solutions Colloids Susoensions Solutions the solute and solvent should not be visibly distinguished even with a microscope usually transparent solutes the substance that is dissolved solvent the substance that does the dissolving Colloids mixtures of protein and water ex albumin in blood plasma many can change from liquid to gel states Properties usually cloudy because the particles are larger than that of solutions Suspension ex our blood cells in our blood plasma larger particles than that of colloids they are cloudy or opaque particles are too heavy to remain permanently suspended so they separate upon standing Emulsion suspension of one liquid in another ex oil and vinegar A single mixture can have multiple of these categories Concentration weight of solutevolume of solution percentage molaritythe number of moles of solute per liter of solution much more accurate commonly as millimolar and micro molar for clinical work Electrolyte Concentrations denoted by Eq one Eq of an electrolyteamount that would electrically neutralize 1 mol of H or OH know the structure of a nucleotide 3 prime end etc Chapter 3 Anatomy and Physiology of Cells Cell Membrane Structure and Function Protein Receptors won t always stay the same always be there Cells It wasn t always evident that cells were the foundation for life or that they even existed One way that you can define something as being alive multicellular has a membrane and membrane bound organelles Robert Hooke discovered cells invented the microscope Cell theory Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann less than 200 yrs ago All organisms are composed of cells and cell products Cells are the basic structural and functional unit of life The activity of cells is manifested as organism activity Cellular activity reflects their structural components organelle type Life is propagated through cellular activity reproduction must be able to replicated DNA and then build a membrane around it Eukaryotic true membrane cells have a membrane bound genetic information Cell Organelles nucleus where DNA is concentrated contains nucleolus nucleolus stores DNA billions of nucleotides chromatin colored material less tightly packed DNA DNA is highly negatively charged you can stain DNA with positively charged dyes DNA is so negative that it binds to it rough ER surrounds the nucleus RNA from nucleus is passed out into the rough ER where it goes through a ribosome ribosomes synthesize proteins thousands of AA by translating RNA plasma membrane surrounds the entire cell phospholipid bilayer golgi apparatus produces lysosomes that enclose substances and transport through the cell and excrete them membrane is a phospholipid bilayer lysosomes excretes materials and encases them so as to prevent them from reacting within the cell break down proteins peroxisome destroys DNA and bateria that is within it intermediate filaments microtubule microfilaments extends from the centriole and centrosome matrix made up of proteins primarily actin filamentsprovide structure to the cell cytoskeleton also provides a fiber that the chromosomes move up when separating during cell division mitochondria power house of the cell has a double membrane and its own DNA contains peptidoglycan surrounding the membrane helps build cell walls home of Krebs Cycle cytosol cytoplasm made up of mostly water contains organelles microvilli not all cells have them increases cells surface area intestines Cell Surface describe the structure of the plasma membrane explain the functions of the lipid protein and carbohydrate components of the plasma membrane describe the composition and functions of the glycocalyx that coats cell surfaces sugar surrounding membrane describe the structure and functions of microvilli cilia and flagella Plasma Membrane Fluid Mosaic Model phospholipid bilayer studded with functional proteins integral protein allows charged particlesmolecules into the cell most transverse the entire membrane some are associated with just one side of the membrane why they attach to another protein peripheral all must have hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains to interact with respective parts of the membrane ex receptor enzyme ion channel gated ion channel cellidentity marker glycoprotein celladhesion mechanically operated gated channel works due to pressure or stress on the cell itself example Afferent nerve fibers responsible for sensory stimulus detection and feedback are especially sensitive to stimulation This results from the specialized mechanoreceptor cells that are superimposed upon the afferent nerve fibers Stretchactivated ion channels are located on these mechanoreceptor cells and serve to lower the action potential threshold thus making the afferent nerves more sensitive to stimulation Afferent nerve endings without mechanoreceptor cells are called free nerve endings They are less sensitive than the encapsulated afferent fibers and generally function in the perception of pain peripheral protein associate loosely with integral proteins or the membrane itself some are important for maintenance of the cytoskeleton maintains cell shape some are enzymes others participate in cell growth and plasticity eg during cell division connects to other cells and allow them to communicate with each other whats the name and purpose of that secondarymessage pathway that produced cAMP Gprotein Many drugs use the Gprotein second messenger system Glycocalyx sugarcoating of the cell enriched by glycolipids and glycoproteins consists of and allows a binding spot for them diverse patterns of sugar distribution facilitate cell recognition receive and send signals functions protection immunity to infection defense against cancer changes in the glycocalyx of cancerous cells enable the immune system to recognize and destroy them transplant compatibility cell adhesion fertilization embryonic development glycoprotein protein portion allows you to attach it to a protein in the membrane and the glyco part attaches to substances outside the cell Types of lipids found in plasma membrane about 98 unsaturated most abundant about 75 glycolipids phospholipids sugar in outer membrane surface often acts as a receptor for hormones that regulate growth and development cholesterol separates phospholipids to make the membrane more fluid separates intracellular and extracellular compartments hydrophilic phosphorous end of phospholipid aims out hydrophobic fatty acid end of the phospholipid aims in the result a double layered sheath enveloping the cell provides place for proteins to bind to the surface Plasma Membrane Specializations microvilli fingerlike projections that increase the surface area of the cell surface they do not move substances found inside our intestinal cells Tight junction integral membrane proteins have functional groups on the outside and allow two cells to stick together junction is impermeable to passage of molecules between cells Desmosomes anchor cells together preventing separation linker proteins secure the connection intermediate filaments anchor the plaque to the opposite side of the cell providing cellular support and allowing the cell to resist tension skin cells Gap junction connect two different cells together by means of a channel allowing the two to communicate created by groups of transmembrane proteins connexons ions electrolytes pass between cells to facilitate rapid and coordinated excitability contraction of cardiac and smooth muscle ssue Cilia hairlike processes 710 micrometers long single nonmotile primary cilium found on nearly every cell antenna for monitoring nearby conditions sensory in inner ear retina nasal cavity and kidney Motile cilia respiratory tract uterine tubes ventricles of the brain efferent ductule of testes beat in waves sweep substances across surface in same direction power strokes followed by recovery strokes Flagella tail of a sperm whiplike structure with axoneme identical to cilium much longer than cilium stiffened by course fibers that support the tail axoneme core of cilia or flagella that consist of an array of microtubules two central microtubules are surrounded by a ring of nine microtubules dynein a motor protein that crawls up the adjacent pair of microtubules to it every peripheral microtubule has two when the dyneins crawl up the microtubules behind them the cilia bend forward movement is more undulating like a snake no power stroke or recovery stroke as in cilia Membrane Transport Explain what is meant by a selectively permeable membrane describe the various mechanism for transporting material throughout the plasma membrane Describe osmolarity and tonicity and explain their importance Describe how the sodiumpotassium pump works and the process of active transport Membrane Transoort In spite of the heavy traffic through cell membranes there is selective permeability the hydrophobic core impedes transport of ions and polar molecules hydrophobic molecules can dissolve in the membrane and easily cross it larger molecules like glucose cannot pass through proteins play a key role in regulating transport Two Main Ways Items Cross Biological Membranes passive mechanisms simple diffusion osmosis facilitated diffusion no energy required active mechanisms active transport vesicular transport consumes ATP Simple Diffusion a substance will diffuse along concentration gradient and is spontaneous can have diffusion of one solute two solutes going in different directions in equilibrium the molecules do not stop flowing they just flow back and forth at an equal rate and zero net change Factors Influence Diffusion Rate temperature greater temp greater motion of particles molecular weight larger molecules move slower steepness of concentrated gradient greater difference greater rate membrane surface area larger area larger rate membrane permeability greater permeability greater rate Osmosis flow of water from one side of a selectively permeable membrane to the other along concentration gradient reversible attraction of water to solute particles forms hydration spheres surrounds particles due to its polar structure makes those water molecules less available to diffuse back to the side from which they came aquaporins channel proteins in plasma membrane that specialize in the passage of water allowing significant amounts of water to diffuse even through the hydrophobic phospholipid regions of the plasma membrane Solute Concentrations Tonicity hypertonic refers to the solution with a higher concentration of solutes hypotonic refers to the solution with a lower concentration of solute isotonic solutions have equal soute concentrations Red blood cells in a hypotonic solution outside the cell fills up like a balloon isotonic red blood cells have a thumbprint cookie shape hypertonic solution outside of the cell causes water to flow out of the cell crenated Passive Mechanisms Review and Examples simple diffusion goes directly through the phospholipid bilayer carriermediated facilitated diffusion via protein carrier specific for one chemical binding of substrate causes shape change in transport protein channelmediated facilitated diffusion through a channel protein mostly ions selected on basis of size and charge osmosis occurs through diffusion through an aquaporin or through the lipid bHayer Active Transport requiring added energy requires carrier proteins that combine specifically and reversibly with a substance and can transport them AGAINST a concentration gradient energy for transport comes directly from hydrolysis of ATP gt phosphoylation of transport protein gt protein changes conformation gt conformational change allows material to be pumped across the membrane secondary active transport does not need direct transfer of energy uses the concentration of another substance formed using ATP to create a gradient moving gt 1 substance at a time depends only indirectly on ATP symport system substances moved in same direction antiport system substances moved in opposite direction uniporter binds to one molecule of solute at a time high sodium concentration outside the cell glucose can use the concentration sodium forms to move inside the cell in other words sodium moves back into a cell and drags other substances with it cotransport SodiumPotassium Pump constantly need to move potassium inside cells and sodium outside carrier protein NaK ATPase enzyme drives sodium out of and potassium into the cell against their concentration gradients potassium is often significantly more concentrated inside cells while sodium often significantly more concentrated outside cell vesicular transport requires ATP processes that move large particles fluid droplets or numerous molecules at once through the membrane in vesicles endocytosis phagocytosis cell eating engulfing large particles pseudopods phagosomes macrophages pinocytosis cell drinking taking in droplets of ECF containing molecules useful to the cell receptormediated endocytosis particles bind to specific receptors on plasma membrane Clathrincoated vesicle on inside of the vesicle you have Clathrin and the outside has receptors when something binds to the receptor the membrane will pinch off causing the Clathrin being on the outside of the vesicle the Clathrin acts as an address telling the vesicle where it needs to go uptake of LDL from blood stream exocytosis discharging material from the cell such as waste as well as replace the phospholipids of the membrane that have been used in endocytosis utilizes motor proteins energized by ATP Organelle Structure and Function Cell Interior Section 34 Expected LearninCl list the main organelles of a cell describe their structure and explain their functions describe the cytoskeleton and its functions lnto the Cvtoolasm cytoplasm cellular material between the plasma membrane and nucleus most cellular activites occur in the cytoplasm composed of cytosol liquid portion dissolved substances and organelles organelles are specialized to perform certain functions within the cell organelles can lack membrane ex ribosomes centrioles or possess a membrane mitochondria Mitochondria powerhouse of the cell main site of ATP production smooth outer membrane folded inner membrane folds are called crisfae contain their own DNA and RNA aerobic cellular respiration Cytoskeleton network of proteins located in cytosol These proteins are called microfilaments thinnest cytoskeletal elements 7nm in diameter composed of strands of actin involved in cell motility and cell shape associated with myosin Intermediate Filaments most stable of the 3 cytoskeletal elements 1 Onm thick high tensile strength associate with desmosomes to resist tension no contractile or transport Microtubules largest diameter 25nm made of tubulin radiate from centrosome determine cell shape serve as docking station for organelles organelles moved by motor proteins support system for cellular structures provides means for cell movement Nucleus control center of the cell and contains the genetic material dictates which kids of proteins are synthesized in the cells and in what amounts largest cytoplasmic organelle 5 micrometers in diameter 3 Regions Nuclear envelope nucleoli chromatin Most cells have a single nucleus some are multinucleate eg liver skeletal muscle to coordinate activities in a broad range only blood cells lack a nucleus Chromatin 30 DNA 60 histone protein 10 RNA stained purple between histone clusters is linker DNA that links one histone to another Histones histones pack DNA in orderly compact fashion histones can regulate gene expression patterns depending on biochemical modifications methylated histones prevent gene expression acetylated histones expose DNA for expression histones are positively charged nucleosomes clusters of 8 histone proteins that are connected by DNA 1 Onm coil the histones around each other 30nm DNA supercoiling wrapping histones that are wrapped with DNA around each other 200nm epigenefics we inherit our methylation and acetylation patterns from our parents Chromosome condensed form of chromatin tightly packed form in preparation for cell division Ribosomes composed of protein and ribosomal RNA 2 subunits large and small key organelle for protein synthesis some are free not associated with membrane others associate with the rough ER Endoplasmic Reticulum network of interconnected tubes cisternae fluidfilled cavities of the ER closely associated with the nuclear membrane because its function is to serve as a base for ribosomes and mRNA Rough ER studded with ribosome close to the nucleus associated ribosomes synthesize proteins manufactures integral proteins and phospholipids Smooth ER no ribosomes further away from nucleus metabolizes lipids synthesizes cholesterol synthesize steroid hormones fat transport and absorption detoxification of harmful substances catabolism of glycogen to for glucose Golgi Apparatus stacked membranous sacs vesicles directs cellular traffic modifies and packages proteinslipids made in the rER cis face receives from rER while the trans face sends products out products packaged in secretory vesicles products transported to plasma membrane for export Lysosomes membranous organelles containing digestive enzymes abundant in cells that engage in phagocytosis main function digest biological molecules Endomembrane System includes sER rER Golgi apparatus lysosomes nuclear membrane produce store and export biological molecules degrade potentially harmful substances Centrosome anchoring point for microtubules contains paired organelles centrioles oriented at 909 angles centrosomes centrioles generate microtubules and are critically involved in cell division movement TABLE 34 pg 108 IS A GOOD STUDY RESOURCE Chapter 4 Genetics and Cellular Function Key Points DNA and RNA structure and function describe the structure of DNA and relate this to its function explain how DNA and proteins are organized to form chromosomes describe the types of RNA their structural and functional differences and how they compare with DNA protein synthesis DNA replication the cell cycle DNA Structure and Function deoxyribonucleic acid 2 prime Carbon is missing hydroxyl group DNA and other nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides each nucleotide consist of 1 sugar deoxyribose 1 phosphate group 1 nitrogenous base pyrimidines single carbonnitrogen ring purines double ring isten to recording at 849 about this need to be able to know the structure of adenine etc molecular shape is a double helix each side piece is a backbone composed of phosphate groups alternating with the sugar deoxyribose sugar of one nucleotide is covalently bonded to phosphate of the next steplike connections between the backbones are pairs of nitrogen bases bonded with covalent bonds nitrogenous bases are united by hydrogen bonds a purine on one backbone binds to a pyrimidine on the other adenine and thymine have 2 hydrogen bonds cytosine and guanine create 3 hydrogen bonds Law of Complementary Base Pairing one strand determines the base sequence of the other how is the template strand determined one side creates one protein doesn t the other side create another protein Chromatin to Chromosome chromatin is DNA complexed with proteins DNA winds around core particles 8 histone proteins to form nucleosomes nucleosomes fold accordion style irregular loops due to interactions between histones and DNA continued looping to form chromatin condensed to 46 chromosomes chromosomes are surrounded by spheroidal regions with channels allowing chemicals to pass through during mitosis chromosomes duplicated into sister chromatids Genes and Their Action Section 42 Learning Outcomes define gene and contrast with genome define genetic code and describe how DNA codes for protein structure how to translate it describe the process of protein synthesis from start to finish What is a Gene previous definition gene a segment of DNA that carries the coe for a particular protein body has millions of protein but only about 25000 genes small of genes produce only RNA molecules some segments of DNA belong to two different genes CURRENT DEFINITION GENE an informationcontaining segment of DNA that codes for the production of a molecule of RNA that plays a role in synthesizing one or more proteins not all genes code for proteins some genes code for multiple proteins via use of alternative splicing Amino acid sequence of a protein is determined by the nucleotide sequence in the DNA The Genome genome all the DNA of one person one 23 chromosome set 31 billion nucleotide pairs inhuman genome humans have an estimated 2000025000 genes these genes synthesize millions of different proteins only 2 of total DNA are genes other 98 is noncoding DNA some play roles in chromosome structure some regulate gene activity some has no function at all junk DNA gt it could have a function we just haven39t found it yet viruses produce mRNA in your body The Genetic Code a system that enables the four nucleotides A T C G to code for the amino acid sequence of all proteins body can make millions of different proteins all from the same 20 AA minimum code to symbolize 20 AA is three nucleotides per amino acid WHY IS THE DNA CODE MADE OF 3 INSTEAD OF 4 DONT WANT TO OVERKILL SYSTEM OR 2 phosphodiester bonds5 Carbon end has a phosphate group attached while the 3 end has a hydroxyl group attached Protein Svnthesis read from 5 end to 3 end base triplet sequence of 3 DNA nucleotides that stands for one AA codon the 3 base sequence in mRNA 64 possible codons available to represent the 20 AA 61 code for AA AUG methionine as well as a start codon UAA UAG UGA stop codons once you39ve already translated the DNA into mRNA you go straight to the table to fid the codons mRNA codon determines the anticodon in tRNA that determines which amino acid is carried how do you define methionine that is not used as a start codon RNA is the translator between DNA and protein tRNA small cloverleafshaped molecule rRNA integral part of the ribosomes mRNA long singlestranded RNA s more type of RNA but we aren t going to study them all RNA s formed on the DNA in the nucleus instead of DNA polymerases RNA polymerases Transcription DNA to mRNA gt Translation mRNA to protein mRNA has a polyA tail on the 3 carbon as well as a cap on the 5 end prevents the mRNA from being degraded as well as serves as a signal Transcription converting the DNA code into RNA mRNA code transcription factors help dissociate histones from DNA transcription factors bind to the promoter region of a gene promoter sits adjacentupstream to start site for mRNA synthesis TATAAA box is where promoter is it s easier to break the bonds between A s and T s because there are only 2 bonds between adenines and thymines RNA polymerase binds to the transcription factor and begins to unwind the DNA helix RNA polymerase uses RNA nucleotides A C G U to generated mRNA strand complementary to DNA strand eg if DNA has the code AGC mRNA will have UCG RNA has more than 50 nitrogenous bases but we ll only discuss ACGU premRNA strand elongates RNA polymerase hits a termination signal on the DNA template strand and ceases transcriptionpremRNA is formed and sometimes matures through posttranscriptional splicing polarity of DNA based on carbon directions as in 5 vs 3 ends Translation converting the mRNA code into protein Initiation shuttle mRNA out of nucleus into cytoplasm mRNA binds to ribosome small subunit tRNA joins to mRNA and ribosome and builds the polypeptide has anticodon site binds to mRNA amino acid site carries correct amino acid ribosomes have two small subunits that are different solely in size come together on top of mRNA mRNA ribosomal subunits and first start tRNA come together UAG small ribosomal subunit binds to mRNA and the first amino acid always methionine large ribosomal subunit attaches to this complex assembled ribosome begins sliding along mRNA reading bases uses GTP requires energy Elongation polypeptide is synthesized in a stepwise manner polypeptide from P site is transferred to tRNA in A site and then that chain is transferred to P site allowing another tRNA to come into the A site next tRNA anticodon binds to mRNA strand and brings the proper AA as each AA is added to a growing polypeptide chain a peptide bond is formed between the amino acids tRNA detaches process repeated until STOP codon is reached Termination elongation continues until STOP codon is reached No tRNA recognizes STOP codon proteins called release factors recognize nonsense codons polypeptide is hydrolyzed from tRNA and released ribosome separates into subunits REVIEW 1 DNA double helix seven base triplets on the template strand of DNA the corresponding codons of mRNA transcribed from the DNA triplets the anticodons of tRNA that bind to the mRNA codons the AA carried by those six tRNA molecules 959159353 the AA are linked into a peptide chain Polyribosomes one mRNA may be translated by several ribosomes simultaneously ribosomes attach after previous one has moved down mRNA Gene Regulation Genes do not produce their products at a steady pace their products may or may not always be needed Genes are turned on and off from day to day hour to hour many genes are permanently turned off in any given cell examples genes for hemoglobin or digestive enzymes are present but inactive in the liver several ways to turn genes on or off too many to discuss but we will use example of casein mother giving birth to first baby hormone prolactin stimulates cells of the mammary glands to begin synthesizing components of breast milk including protein casein Mechanism of Gene Activation 1 Prolactin binds to receptors pair of proteins in plasma membrane of mammary cell 1 receptors trigger the activation of a regulatory protein transcription activator in cytoplasm 2 Regulatory protein moves into the nucleus and binds to the DNA near the casein gene 3 the binding enables RNA polymerase to bind to the gene and transcribe it producing the mRNA for casein 4 the casein mRNA moves to the cytoplasm and is translated by ribosomes on the rER 5 the Golgi apparatus packages casein into secretory vesicles to further edit the molecule and direct it somewhere in the cell 6 the secretory vesicles release the casein by exocytosis and it becomes part of the milk DNA Replication and the Cell Cycle Section 43 Describe the life history of a cell including the events of mitosis understand the different phases of interphase and mitosis describe how DNA is replicated Cell Growth and Reproduction Interphase can last from a couple hours to several days G rapid growth high metabolic activity protein synthesis variable lengths anywhere from minute to years behaves like a cell 8 DNA is replicated so that both daughter cells have full complements of DNA G2 phase growth and final preparations for division Mitosis cytokinesis occurs during some of anaphase and telophase GO OVER DNA REPLICATION PROCESS AND ENZYMES ETC semiconservative replication RepHcann In order to replicate entire DNA replication starts at a number of places called origins of replication ORI all at one time bubbles form and replication begins within them It continues to grow until you have two daughter molecules DNA polymerase cannot initiate a polynucleotide strand it can only add to the 3 end of an already started strand replicates in 5 to 3 direction the primer is a short segment of RNA synthesized by the enzyme primase each primer is eventually replaced by DNA 1 Primase joins RNA nucleotides into primer 2 DNA polymerase adds DNA nucleotides to the primer 3 A different DNA polymerase I replaces the RNA with DNA 4 Daughter strand is complete Section 44 Expected Learning Outcomes describe the paired arrangement of chromosomes in the human karyotype define allele and discuss how alleles affect the traits of an individual eg homozygosity heterozygosity distinguish genotype from phenotype two alleles come together at a locus Chromosomes and Heredity heredity transmission of genetic characteristics from parent to offspring karyotype chart of 46 chromosomes laid out in order by size and other physical features There are 23 pairs The two members of each pair are called homologous chromosomes 1 chromosome from each pair inherited from each parent 22 pairs are called autosomes they look alike and carry the same genes 1 pair of sex chromosomes XY typical female XX typical male XY The Karyotype Diploid any cell with 23 pairs of chromosomes somatic cells haploid contain half as many chromosomes as somatic cells sperm and egg cells germ cells fertilization restores diploid number to the fertilized egg and the somatic cells arise from it Genes and Alleles locus location of a particular gene on a chromosome alleles different forms of gene at same locus on two homologous chromosomes dominant allele represented by capital letter corresponding trait is usually detectable in the individual masks the effect of any recessive allele that may be present produces protein responsible for visible trait recessive allele represented by lower case letter expressed only when present on both of the homologous chromosomes no dominant alleles at that locus When parents are heterozygous carriers of hereditary diseases cystic fibrosis 25 the disease can be passed to the offspring How can males be carriers The disease is inherited through autosomal genes rather than being an xlinked disease Sexlinked traits carried on the X and Y chromosomes and therefore tend to be inherited by one sex more than the other males Recessive color blindness allele on X no gene locus for the trait on Y so red green color blindness is more common in men mother is typically a carrier