Week Two Lecture Notes
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Date Created: 04/28/14
Ps ch 101 Lecture 6 4 7 14 1 How a neuron communicates with other neurons the synapse a Chemical mechanism neurotransmitters ow from neuron sending presynaptic nerve a signal to the receiving postsynaptic neuron passage of chemicals b 3 elements of the synapse i Presynaptic neuron neuron sending the signal signal sent from axon terminal ii Post synaptic neuron neuron receiving the signal usually on dendrite iii Synaptic gap small space between the presynaptic and postsynaptic neuron at the synapse iv Presynaptic events 1 Neurotransmitter molecules are manufactured by the presynaptic neuron ie glutamate excites neurons gaba inhibits dopamine pleasure serotonin mood temperature sleep wake acetylcholine movement substance P runners high Fast acting open ion channels in postsynaptic neuron other slow acting v Neurotransmitter molecules are stored in sack called vesicles in the axon terminal vi The electrical impulse travelling down the axon causes the vesicle to fuse to the membrane of the neuron and release neurotransmitter into the synaptic gap vii Post synaptic events 1 Receptors reside on the dendrite of the postsynaptic neuron Each receptor is selective for a particular type of neurotransmitter 2 Neurotransmitter molecules bind to receptor much like a key in a lock 3 a bound receptor causes ion channel in the postsynaptic neuron s membrane to open up ions ow into the postsynaptic neuron 4 Neurotransmitters quickly released by receptor oats into synaptic gap 5 Re uptake of neurotransmitter into presynaptic axon terminal occurs 2 Toxins and Poisons often interfere with membranes channel or synapse a Examples tetrodotoxin 1000X more deadly than cyanide fit into and plug sodium channels toxin that affects synapse curare block acetylcholine receptors paralysis 3 Macroscopic view The Brain a Brain development b Location and function i Forebrain is largest part envelops mid and hind brain c The Cortex d Three types of cortex sensory motor association Ps ch 101 Lecture 7 4 8 14 1 The Cortex a What is the cortex i A sheet of neural tissue that lies on top of other brain structures It is about 11 of an inch thick although it varies from place to place b The structure of the cortex i 4 major lobes 2 hemispheres c Function of the Cortex i Sophisticated sensoryperceptual processing object identification and location Voluntary muscle movement language thought consciousness d Three types of cortex i Sensory ii Motor iii Association for complex thinking e Hemispheric specialization of function i Split brain patients epileptics who have had their corpus callosum surgically severed to reduce the number of seizures ii Corpus Callosum large bundle of axons that transverse from left to right hemisphere and vice versa connects the 2 sides f Brain plasticity i The brain39s capacity for modifying and recognizing itself ii Early in life the brain is amazingly plastic somewhat less so in later life iii Hydrocephalus literally water head drain in ventricles becomes blocked increasing levels of cerebral spinal uid are trapped in ventricles and ventricles expand like balloons iv 9095 reduction in cortical tissue Even so some children with this syndrome seem to develop normally knowledge redistributes to available areas when young v There are limits to brain plasticity 1 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome FAS smaller brain less dents more space around brain disrupts genetically programmed neuron birth and migration Cortex doesn39t develop or function properly vi Neural prostheses when damage occurs to the central nervous system neural prostheses can sometimes restore function Fetal alcohol syndrome was discovered at the University of Washington D Ps ch 101 Lecture 8 4 10 14 Developmental Psychology 1 Cognitive Development a Capabilities of the newborn William ames theory A newborn s mind is nothing but a blooming buzzing confusion i ii iii iv WRONG At only 14 days old an infant was able to imitate behavior face movements Things a newborn can do re exes grasping sucking discriminate mommy39s voice from others fixate on obj ects track with eyes imitate facial expressions show emotions laugh cry Meltzoff The more sophisticated our tools and methods have become the more competent the newborn appears to be We could never see before how smart a newborn actually was and we are seeing more and more b Cognitive development in children Piaget39s Theory i ii iii iv How does a child39s ability to think and reason develop Iean Piaget was a Swiss biologist hired to administer intelligence tests on French children He soon became curious about how kinds minds developed and switched to psychology Piaget39s hypothesis 1 Thinking and reasoning develop in stages 2 The sequence of stages is genetically pre programmed and environment alters only the speed with which a child progresses through the stages at each stage there are things the child CAN and CANNOT do Piaget39s 4 stage theory 1 Sensorimotor 02 years Major schema grasping sucking Cognitive abilities child understands the world through sensing and acting Limitations can39t distinguish past and future Doesn39t know objects are permanent can39t think symbolically Milestones object permanence develops at about 8 months Ps ch 101 Lecture 9 4 11 14 1 continued from previous lecture a Preoperational stage 26 years Operational means reasoning i Cognitive abilities symbolic thought develops objects are represented as ideas ii Cognitive limitations poor logical reasoning ie failure as conservation tasks iii Developmental milestones ability to pretend language skills grow they become power crazy dictators Osterhout b Concrete operational 611 years i Abilities logical reasoning develops only about concrete observable events ii Limitations poor reasoning about abstractnon observable ie A is shorter than B and B is longer than C is A shorter than B iii Milestone observational conservation c Formal operational 11 adulthood i Abilities logical reasoning about abstract events ii Milestone correct performance on unobservable abstract reasoning problems 2 Basic Concepts Piaget a Schema concept framework for organizing information about the world simple schema early in life ower then more complicated later birthday party much more complicated later honestly love Assimilation fitting new information into an existing schema c Accommodation modifying an existing schema or creating a new schema to represent new information 3 Evaluation Piaget39s Theory Current Evidence a What39s right a lot of evidence is consistend that cognitive development occurs in stages Lots of evidence is consistent with what types of stages kids go though b What39s wrong underestimated the rates that many kids go through the stages 4 Social Development a Attachment an intense enduring emotional bond between the child and a parent b What factors affect this Can it be fixed later