Chapter 1, Week 1 Notes
Chapter 1, Week 1 Notes PSY 110-001
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Zoeglen on Saturday August 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 110-001 at Illinois State University taught by Cathleen Campbell-Raufer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Psychology in Psychlogy at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 08/22/15
Psych Notes Chapter 1 Intro to Psychology 819 821 Psychology The scientific study of behavior and mental processes How should you study it o SQ3R Method Survey Question Read Rec e Review Scientific Method most objective way to acquire knowledge Involves observation hypothesis testing theorizing and application 4 Goals of Psych 1 Description 2 Explanation 3 Prediction 4 Influence Two kinds of research 0 Basic pure vs Applied practical basic research applied using research4th goal Early Psychologists Wundt father of psychology structuralist o Structuralist o Introspection what is the content of the mind 0 Basic elements 0 Example an orange I What is the first thing I sense Color shape smell I What do I think about when I look at it o Functionalist o What purpose does it serve what is its FUNCTION 0 Mental process behavior 0 Studied new subjects I Children animals mentally impaired workschool environments Major Schools of psychology Behaviorism Psychoanalytic Humanism Cognitive Evolutionary Biological Sociocultural Contemporary Types of Psychology Behavioral o How do act and why do you act that way 0 Good habits and bad habits Psychoanalytic o Frued s approach 0 Unconscious motives childhood influences o How do our adult traits or problems relate to the unconscious mind Humanistic 0 Capacity for positive growth 0 Freedom to choose behavior not shackled by childhood 0 How can we promote positivity and reduce violence Cognitive o thinking learning Evolutionary o Are there genes for aggression or compassion o Is it hardwired into us Biological o Neurotransmitter affect behavior Sociocultural o Relationshipsculture o How are we a reflection of our culture Types of Psychologist Clinical diagnoses and treats one with psych issue 42 of people ae clinical School adjustment problems to school Forensic applies psych to legal system Counseling clinical but treat people with less severe psych problems Physiological brain Parkinson s disease Experimental conduct experiments Any are research Developmental changes in behavior and cognitive processesies How people change Educations study of learning and teaching Social person studies hoe behavior is affected by people Alone vs not Industrialorganization work place How are people motivated What makes best leader How are theories evaluated 0 Testable hypothesis do they generate a testable hypothesis cognitivebehavioral 0 Solutions for problems does the theory generate solutions to a problemhumanist o Heuristic value does the theory spark debate and generate research Critical thinking 0 Reasonable judgment about theory 0 Question things 1 Independent thinking skepticism a Very prevalent in psychology and science b Require evidence Prove it c Quality AND quantity 2 Suspension ofjudgment a Devil s advocate b Don t rush into judgment c Hear both sides 3 Willingness to change a If research does not support theory throw it out b Change it c Facts must stand and the theory must fall Descriptive research methods Naturalist observation 0 Watching and recording 0 Pros natural as it occurs not affecting it o Cons observer bias 0 Dian Fossey watching gorillas in jungle o Observer bias taking observations wrong way due to interest 0 More than one observer to avoid this Laboratory observation 0 Pros more control but 0 Cons more expensive less like real world Case study 0 Pros Learn a lot about one person detailed o Cons Observer bias problems with generalizability o generalizability How can you compare 1 to whole population Surveys 0 Pros A lot of data from many respondents o Cons can provide faulty info 0 People lie 0 Time consuming o Costly 0 Social desirability people answer what they think is right 0 Random sampling every member of the population has an equal chance of being part of the survey Terms Population entire group of interest Sample should be representative of population Sample sub group part of population you study The correlation method More powerful and descriptive Degree of relationship between two or more methods 0 Example 0 Aggression vs height No correlation 0 Income level vs health Some 0 Intelligence and problem solving ability Lots of correlation o Nonepositivenegative 0 Daily temp and number of people wearing sweaters Negative 0 Daily temp and people with hiccups None 0 Daily temp and people who buy cold drinks Positive Coefficient indicates strength and direction of relationships between two variables 0 Good for topics that can t be manipulated o No causation can t say one causes the other 0 Stress vs illness 0 Can go either way 0 3rel variable Poverty causes both Week 2 824 Types of Families 1 Isolated Nuclear Family 0 Extended family not living with you 0 quotOur Family 2 TwoEarner Family 0 Both adults work 3 Single Parent Family 0 Growing in number 0 Usually mom history flopped 4 ChildlessPostchildrearing Family 5 Domestic Partnerships 6 Chosen Family 0 Military sorority gang 7 Blended Family 0 Most common type of family in US 0 Brede bunch 8 Extended Family Modes of Power Patriarchal Families 0 The males is the head of the household 0 Most of the world is made up of patriarchal families Functions of the Family Today EXAM QUESTION Regulation of sexual behavior Reproduction Social Placement Socialization Economic Cooperation Care Protection and Intimacy Using your Sociological Imagination to Understand Marriages and Families Helps us understand why and how social problems History 300 Years ago Families were responsible for economy education politics and religion Took care of the sick mentally ill and elderly Policed and protected Fought wars Were responsible for the transfer of craft and job skills Families Today Are more isolated from each other from other family members and from the community Rely on outside institutions for survival and growth Have less functions are responsibilities than families from the past Why Less time More work activities etc Family Transition Family as THE fundamental unit 9 9 9 Family as one of many institutions within society Serves many functions in society Limited functions Societal Confusion Who does what job If families doesn t do it who does Who takes responsibility for social problems What does the family do now Family Confusion Forgotten skills Dependence on other institutions Helplessness What are the three primary sources of chzmge for the family 1 Change in economy 2 Demography a Reduction of marriage fertility b Aging population 3 Change and transformation of women s roles The origin of America What was life like Con den 0 Who Where Origin Means of travel economy Healthcare Standards of living Technology Job Availability What was the family responsible for 0 Raising food making clothesfurniturehomes clearing land educating children worship care 0 sick and elderly vocational training policingprotection governing o The home was 0 School church vocational training workplace Religious Patriarchy o Puritans and other religious factions came to America for RELIGIOIS FREEOM 0 God quotthe father givens men the right to RULE over women and children 0 A patriarchy is a quotmaledominated society culture institution Men s Roles Discipline of wife and children Selection of spouses for children especially daughters Selection of career apprenticeships for boyssons Protection of family Maker of family decisions 0 Representative family votes 0 Govern community other families Why was religion so important o Moved to escape religious persecution 0 Wanted religious way of life 0 Religious ways of life were strictly adhered to 0 Children had to be taught at early ages how to avoid sin feel regret for their sinful ways and fear going to hell 0 Adults told children that bad things happened because of sinful ways in order to scare sin out of them