Week Three Lecture Notes
Week Three Lecture Notes
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This 3 page Reader was uploaded by Courtney Dyer on Monday April 28, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Washington taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 85 views.
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Date Created: 04/28/14
Ps ch 101 Lecture 10 4 15 14 1 Harlow s Monkey Experiment 3 C He raised different groups of monkeys with bad conditions they were separated from their mothers and were given 2 make shift moms one was covered in terry cloth and was soft and comforting and the other provided food Monkeys preferred comfort over nutrition When they became mothers they were awful parents They killed their young or rejected them The babies kept returning which forced responsive parenting and better parenting resulted 2 Attachment in humans 3 d Klaus and Kennell 1976 argued that instant bonding between parent and baby is critical for normal social development This had an enormous impact on birthing practices Recent research says it39s probably not true however the quality of attachment over long term DOES in uence social emotional well being Securely attached children do better in school happier in adult relationships become better parents 3 Aging Three questions 3 b Iust how bad is old age i Not as bad as we think Is old age inevitably associated with a decline in cognitive abilities Can an old dog learn new tricks i Connections in your brain form your whole life Is Alzheimer39s Disease a result of normal aging or is it a pathological state i Early on set is before the age of 65 Late on set occurs after age 65 It is an insidious progressive disease that strikes older people progressive decline in cognitive abilities Progression of Illness i Stage 1 forgetful some memory loss personality distortions ii Stage 2 confusional patient gets lost in familiar places sever memory impairments inappropriate social behavior iii Dementia language problems incontinence severe disorientation Pathology of Alzheimer39s Disease i Both the early and the late on set forms seem to be primarily genetic NOT a normal result of aging ii Amyloid plaques and tangles proliferate clogging up neurons in specific parts of the brain eventually killing them Typical progression of damage i Plaques kill neurons in brain that use acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter These are found mostly in the hippocampus a structure crucial for memory ii Plaques then kill neurons in the limbic system involved in emotion iii Plaques then progress to cortex killing neurons involved in thinking reasoning language etc iv Dead cortical neurons release vast amounts of glutamate which bind to receptors in other neurons and kill them as a result of over excitation Massive cell death results Ps ch 101 Lecture 11 4 17 14 1 Sensation and perception a Sensation the passive process by which stimuli are received by the sensory systems b Perception the active process by which the brain interprets the sensory information 2 Properties of sensation a How many senses i Vision hearing taste smell touch amp balance temperature pain b Receptor cells and transduction i Receptors neurons specialized for collecting information from the world and converting the energy into nerve impulses transduction c Types of receptor Neurons i Photoreceptors sensitive to photons vision ii Chemoreceptors sensitive to molecules smell taste iii Mechanoreceptors sensitive to pressure touch hearing balance iv Thermoreceptors sensitive to heat temperature v Nociceptors sensitive to painful stimuli pain 1 Fast receptors sharp pain slow receptors burning dull pain 2 Keep us alive 3 Congenital insensitivity to pain syndrome born without nociceptors important properties of sensory systems a Our sensation is selective ie electromagnetic spectrum we can only sense a sliver of it color b Our sensory systems are highly adaptive to changes in the environment ie put on clothes and then you forget about them Visual adaptation From sensation to perception a How we perceive the world b Stage 1 sensory receptors sense part of the world c Stage 2 Transduction sensations are translated into neural impulses in the nervous system d Stage 3 Interpretation brain digests and transforms the sensory information e Stage 4 Conscious perception An example of Sensation Vision a Major elements of the visual system eyes visual pathways visual centers of the brain b What is light One form of electromagnetic energy c Amplitude brightness Wavelength color Parts of the Eye Sclera white of the eye Cornea lets light in Iris muscles change pupil size Pupil allows light in Lens bends light rays so that they focus on the back of the eye Retina contains photoreceptors captures light and transduces light into nerve impulses Fovea center of vision Periphery peripheral vision i Optic nerve going to the brain to process information Causes a blind spot Fquot quotS39 P 799 7 Photoreceptors in the retina a Two types of photoreceptors rods and cones b Both absorb light and transduce light c Difference cones are used for day vision Rods are used for night vision Ps ch 101 Lecture 12 4 18 14 1 The retina El Fovea center and Periphery area surrounding the Fovea 2 types of neurons in the retina photoreceptors capture transduce light rods and cones Cones used for day vision located primarily in the fovea very sensitive to changes in wavelength blue 430 nm green 530 nm red 580 nm on a scale Why do we see more than three colors i Our perception of color re ects the relative activation across all 3 cone types not the absolute activation in any one cone ii OR opponent process neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus Rods used for night vision located primarily in the periphery insensitive to changes in wavelength insensitive to color great at detecting motion What happens after the photoreceptors transduce light into nerve impulses i Rods and cones send messages to bipolar cells ii Bipolar cells send messages to ganglion cells iii The axons of the ganglion cells comprise the optic nerves which leaves the eye by passing through the retina no photoreceptors exist here iv The retinal signal is first processed in primary visual cortex in the occipital lobe v Then separate neural pathways process the shape motion and color of objects in the visual field g Perception an active interpretation of sensations 2 Depth Perception a We sense a 2D world but perceive a 3D world b Binocular cues involve both eyes Retinal disparity our eyes receive slightly different C views of the world providing cues to distance Monocular cues involve just one eye Relative clarity texture gradient linear perspective 3 Object Perception Principles of Perceptual Organization a Gesalt Psychologists 19305 the whole is greater than the sum of its parts b Figure Ground Discrimination C i Figure foreground usually an object ii Ground background Grouping i Proximity the tendency to group close objects together ii Similarity the tendency to group similar objects together iii Closure the tendency to fill in missing pieces to perceive a solid object
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