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by: Carlos Gutierrez

Week1NotesAug17-21.pdf BSC 197

Marketplace > Illinois State University > Biology > BSC 197 > Week1NotesAug17 21 pdf
Carlos Gutierrez
Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life
Dr. Nichols

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About this Document

This is the set of notes we took in class for this week. It has everything from both the lecture and the PowerPoint presentation cut down to just five pages. The information here is concise, on poi...
Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life
Dr. Nichols
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carlos Gutierrez on Saturday August 22, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 197 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Nichols in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life in Biology at Illinois State University.


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Date Created: 08/22/15
The Big Themes in Biology 8 17 19 Hierarchy of Living Things Life s made up of relationships among individuals at many unique levels It all starts with atoms and molecules and gradually moves up to the biosphere In biology cells are the basic units of life This hierarchy has 10 levels and is structured like this 1 The Biosphere 2 Ecosystems 3 Communities 4 Population 5 Organisms 6 Organs and Organ Systems 7 Tissues 8 Cells 9 Organelles 10 Molecules It s important to know that this hierarchy applies only to multicellular organisms Singlecelled organisms such as bacteria can t move past the 8th level and so are not included within the hierarchy This course will focus largely on the last 5 levels Emergent Properties It s the idea that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts Energv Flow Through Biological Systems Most of the energy within living things originates from the sun One way or another energy is transferred between living things sunlight to plants plants to herbivores etc These relationships are often complex and at times delicate Ecology covers this energy ow in great detail Diversity and Classification of Life Life can be found in many forms anywhere on the planet Scientists are obsessed with classifying organisms 0 They take every chance they get at naming a new living thing 0 They choose these names based on the organism s characteristics In general though scientists first organize life forms into three domains according to cell type Archaea The Archaea domain consists of the bacteria that live in extreme environments like tundra and ocean trenches Bacteria Similar to Archaea this domain contains most of the prokaryotes a name given to single celled organisms that have DNA but lack a nucleus Eukarya This domain is home to the eukaryotes multicellular organisms that have DNA enclosed in a nucleus like humans for instance Although scientists begin classifying organisms from their cell types it wasn t always the case Before they came up with these domains scientists initially grouped living things according to kingdoms a term referring to the different types of life found in our world There are five that are wellknown the last three of which can be found in the Eukarya domain Protoctista Prokaryotae Fungi Plantae and Animalia In order to explain how life changes over time a biologist named Charles Darwin 18021882 came up the theory of evolution through natural selection In this theory the survival of an organism in an environment depends largely on its characteristics The process can be observed anywhere and goes as follows 1 There s a population with a wide variety of traits ex SkinFur Color 2 Individuals with certain traits are wiped out 3 The survivors reproduce over time 4 The traits from these survivors have an increased frequency in the new population resulting in better chance for survival This process is how biology is best understood and it s accepted by a vast majority of scientists It can be seen anywhere in Nature and is demonstrated in labs on a daily basis A hypothesis is a prediction based on previous observation Most research done by scientists is based on hypotheses and this research is known as the scientific method Although it s often misunderstood what happens in the scientific method that a hypotheses is created often from the results of previous research and then research is conducted in order to determine whether the hypotheses is correct or not Several hypotheses can be tested at once and each one can be tested either through an experiment or through observation Although supporting data can make it correct a hypotheses can never be proven true as it s always open to debate Additionally hypotheses that withstand many experiments are generally known as laws The really challenging part about science is how it interacts with society Since society s needs are constantly evolving scientists will always have to discover new concepts ideas and theories or edit old ones in order to keep with this fast pace Model systems are organisms scientists use to gather data about other organisms A model organism usually has some features similar to the organism it s standing for making experimentation easier for scientists Most of the time they re used to gather information on humans People often get confused as to why scientists use other living things to carry out their research More often than not the reason why is because their research can be potentially dangerous especially if they re testing things like a new drug or vaccme Chemistry 82115 Chemicals Common in Biology Carbon oxygen hydrogen and nitrogen are the most prominent Phosphorus calcium sodium magnesium potassium and sulfur are also common Most organisms contain trace amounts of only 15 other elements making 25 in total Although the cell is the basic unit of life atoms are what make up every living thing on this planet An atom s structure composes of three subatomic particles protons neutrons and electrons A proton is a positively charged particle found in the atom s nucleus A neutron also found inside the atom s nucleus is a particle that carries no charge and is a little heavier than a proton An electron the smallest of the three is a negatively charged particle that can be found orbiting the atom s nucleus in what s called an electron shell An atom s characteristics depend largely on its number of protons neutrons and electrons Atomic number for instance refers to the number of protons in an atom s nucleus when this number is combined with the number of neutrons you get the atom s atomic mass Isotopes are atoms that share the same number of protons but have different numbers of neutrons ex carbon12 and carbon14 Under most conditions an atom has the same number of protons and electrons so there s usually no net charge In chemical bonding only an atom s valence outermost electrons are involved and whether or not it s reactive depends on how many of these electrons are present If an atom has a full octet 8 it s stable and thus unreactive if not then it s reactive Atoms with one or seven valence electrons like sodium and chlorine are considered the most reactive Reactive atoms bond in order to reach a full valence shell whether by losing its outermost shell or filling it When they do the product contains characteristics not found in either of the atoms before they bonded Atoms can form four types of bonds ionic covalent polar covalent and hydrogen Ionic Bonds They form between to atoms with strong electronegative differences One atom donates an electron to the other Each atom gains a different charge and these charges pull them together These bonds are strongest outside an aqueous solution and weakest when inside Covalent Bonding Two or more atoms share electrons in order to fill the outer shells Two identical atoms can be linked this way like N2 or H2 It s the most common way carbon atoms are bonded ex CH4 An atom s electronegative force is a measure of its attraction for electrons A polar covalent bond is produced when there s a signi cant difference in electronegative force between two covalently bonded atoms In some compounds this difference is so large it causes one of the atoms to pull the shared atoms towards itself The result is a molecule that has slightly charged areas Hydrogen bonds form when a hydrogen atom from a polar molecule pair up with a nitrogen or oxygen atom from another polar molecule Since the charged regions on polar molecules are so weak hydrogen bonds break just as easily as they form A compound s molecular shape is determined by both the size and electron shell of each of its atoms The best way to see this shape is by using a spacefilling model likewise the biological actiVity of its molecules is heaVily dependent on 1 Its shape A 3D structure allows one molecule to interact with other molecules 2 Its charge or the charge on its portions One charged region can attract an oppositely charged region of another molecule and 3 Its bond type covalent bonds are easier to break and form In molecular mimicry one molecule s shape is similar to that of another Most of the time this similarity also means the two compounds work the same way This phenomena can be seen in pharmaceutical development and pathogenic microbiology


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