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Week 1 Lecture Notes

by: Kara Brzostowski

Week 1 Lecture Notes BSC 197

Marketplace > Illinois State University > Biology > BSC 197 > Week 1 Lecture Notes
Kara Brzostowski
GPA 4.0
Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life
Dr. Nichols

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About this Document

This is a detailed outline of the first week of lecture notes, including the Big Themes of Biology and Chemistry.
Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life
Dr. Nichols
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kara Brzostowski on Sunday August 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 197 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Nichols in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cellular Basis of Life in Biology at Illinois State University.


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Date Created: 08/23/15
Hierarchy of Living Things Life is made up of relationships between individual at man different levels simple to complex Begins at atoms and molecules expanding all the way to the biosphere o Molecules gt Organelles gt Cells gt Tissues gt Organs and Organ Systems Cell interact and Tissues then interact communicate to gt and communicate to create tissues create organs Cell basic unit of life 0 Atoms and molecules are NOT living Tissue collection of similar cell types Organ collection of tissues that work together Organ System organs and auxiliary tissue that serve a common role Emergent Properties the whole is greater than the sum of its parts Energy Flow through Biological Systems Vast majority of energy in living things originates with the sun 0 Autotroph organism converts sunlight into energy 0 Sunlight gt Plants gt Herbivores gt Carnivores gt Heat Energy is transferred among living things Diversity of Life and Clarification of Living Things Diversity variability of living organisms There are living things everywhere on the planet Scientists are obsessive classifiers Q We like naming and organizing things 0 Living things are classified by their characteristics 0 Domain gt Kingdom gt Phylum gt Class gt Order gt Family gt Genus gt Species I 3 Domains based on cell type Archaea archaebacteria extreme environmentloving Bacteria eubacteria Eukarya eukaryotes truenucleus all other cells Eukarya gt Animalia gt Chordata gt Mammalia gt Carnivora gt Ursidae gt Ursus I 5 Kingdoms Prokaryotes Protoctista Fungi Plantae and Animalia Prokaryotes beforenucleus bacteria cells WITHOUT nucleus Evolution through Natural Selection Framework in which biology is studied Accepted by overwhelming majority of scientists Observed in nature and demonstrated in labs on a daily basis 0 Charles Darwin 1 Population with varied inherited traits 2 Elimination of individuals with certain traits 3 Reproduction of survivors 4 Increasing frequency of traits that enhance survival 0 Mutations that are beneficial become more common in later generations 0 Changes occur resulting in organisms wellsuited for environment Science as a Process Scientific Method often misunderstood and the majority are hypothesis driven with predictions based on previous observations 0 Several hypotheses may be possible for one system 0 Hypotheses are tested by experimentation or observation 0 Can always eliminate incorrect hypotheses but never prove a hypothesis Animal Models in Research Typically used as a standin for another organism often for humans o EXAMPLE Yeast fruitflies rats or mice Models are used because they have a feature similar to the organism in which they are standing in for and hey are easier to use in a scientific setting 0 This often confuses the general public Chemicals in Common Biology Carbon Oxygen Hydrogen and Nitrogen are most abundant Phosphorus calcium sodium magnesium potassium and sulfur are also common Most organic material comprises of only 25 elements Atomic Characteristics Electrons no mass negatively charged balances proton by orbiting the nucleus Neutrons mass comparable to electron no charge o First Shell 2 electrons Second Shell 8 electrons Protons positively charged at 1 Number of protons and electrons is equal under most conditions no net charge Atomic Number number of protons Atomic Mass combined number of protons plus neutrons in nucleus Isotopes atom that contains the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons 0 Same atomic number 0 Different atomic mass equals extra neutrons Chemical Bonding Atoms or molecules with full valence shells are very stable inert gases 0 Valence Shells the outermost energy shell of an atom containing the valence electrons involved in the chemical reactions of that atom Chemical bonding takes place to allow filling of valance shells New molecule often has characteristics unique from parent atoms NaCl Two types of chemical bonds ionic and covalent bonds 0 onic Bonds Attracted due to the donation of an electron I Caused by strong electronegative differences between atoms I One atom donates an electron to another I Both atoms become charged and their opposite charges cause an attractive force I Strong bonds outside of an aqueous solution weak in solution 0 Covalent Bonding I Multiple atoms share electrons to fill outer shell I Can take place between two identical atoms 02 or H2 The number of bonds these atoms will make depends on outer shell I Carbonbased molecules are typically covalently linked 0 Polar Covalent Bonds Connected by shared resource I Electronegative Force attraction of atom for electron I In some compounds the different in electronegative force is large enough that one atom pulls shared electrons to itself Resulting in a molecule with slightly charged regions fig 213 Weak positive and negative poles Hydrogen Bonding Polar molecules only 120th strength of covalent Weak bonds that are made and broken easily Hydrogen of a polar covalent molecule with attraction to N or O of a similar molecule Results from a weak charge of regions on polar molecules Molecular Shape Determined by electron shells and the size of atoms included Spacefilling models attempt to demonstrate the shape of a molecule Biological Activity Largely determined by 0 Shape of Molecule 3D structure allows molecule to interact with other molecules 0 Charge of molecule on portions of molecule I Charged regions often interact with oppositely charged molecules 0 Bond Type covalent bonds are more easily broken and assembled Molecular Mimicry One molecule has a shape that is similar to another molecule The similarity in shape often results in a similarity in function Seen in pharmaceutical development and pathogenic microbiology


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