First Week of Notes
First Week of Notes 80203 - GEOL 1010-003
Popular in Physical Geology
Popular in Geology
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Casale on Sunday August 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 80203 - GEOL 1010-003 at Clemson University taught by Mine Dogan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 153 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Geology at Clemson University.
Reviews for First Week of Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/23/15
Geology 819 826 Chapter 1 An Introduction to Geology 0 Basic Geology O O O 0 James Hutton Father of Geology Geology the science that pursues an understanding of planet Earth Physical Geology Examines the materials composing Earth and seeks to understand the many processes that operate beneath and upon its surface Historical Geology Deals with the origin of Earth and its development through time involving the study of fossils and their sequence in rock beds Types of Geology natural disasters resources world population growth environmental issues and global change Careers with Geology work field with other people in a lab and on computers The Nature of Scientific Inquiry O O O Hypothesis a tentative or untested explanation Theory welltested and widely accepted view that the scientific community agrees best explains certain observable facts Catastrophism Created by James Ussher The theory stated that Earth s landscapes have been shaped by great catastrophes produced by unknown causes Uniformitarianism Created by James Hutton The theory stated that people should use the present to identify the past There is no strict rule guide that scientists for their knowledge 0 Earth 0 0 Earth dynamic planet with interacting parts and spheres 4 Major Spheres 1 Hydrosphere The dynamic mass of water that makes up 71 of our Earth 2 Atmosphere Lifegiving gasses that surround Earth 3 Biosphere All life on Earth 4 Geosphere Earth Beneath the atmosphere and the oceans I Earth s Inner Structure 0 Crust thin rocky rich and less dense I Continental Crust I Oceanic Crust o Mantle solid rocky shell that extends to a depth of 1800 miles I Upper Mantle broken into 2 parts I Lithosphere Sphere of rock entire crust and the upper part of the mantle Forms the cool rigid brittle outer shell I Asthenosphere below the lithosphere Solid but extremely weak I Lower Mantle I Mesosphere increased pressure leads to higher density and rigidity o m I IronNickel I Outer Core liquid I Inner Core sphere of solid I The Face of the Earth 0 Continents I Mountain Belts Most prominent features of Continents The places where thick sequences of rocks have been squeezed and highly deformed creates the mountain and mountain belts I Stable Interior Comprised of cratons shields and stable platforms 0 Ocean Basins I Continental Margin portion of the sea oor adjacent to major landmasses I Continental Shelf Gently sloping platform of material that is along the coast I Continental Slope a diViding line between ocean basins and continents A steep dropoff that extends from the outer edge of the continental shelf to the oor of the deep ocean Continental Rise A gradual incline when trenches don t exist I DeepOcean Basins located between continental margins and oceanic ridges Abyssal Plains parts of these consist of incredibly at features DeepOcean Trenches deep narrow depressions that represent a significant part of the ocean Seamounts submerged volcanic structures Can form long narrow chains 0 Oceanic Ridges I Most prominent feature is the oceanic ridge or mid ocean ridge Consists of layer upon layer of igneous rock that has been lifted Chapter 2 From Continental Drift to Plate Tectonics Continental Drift 0 Alfred Wegener the artist of the continental drift theory Stated that continents and ocean basins had fixed geographic positions 39 Evidence Continents fit together like jigsaw puzzles This theory assumed that coastlines have not changed hardly at all Fossils Mesosaurus glossopteris Rock Types and Geologic Features mountain belts faults lithology Ancient Climates Glaciation Patterns Magnetic Anomalies in the Sea Floor Age of the Sea Floor Plate Tectonics O O O 0 Examples of Plates Eurasian plate Australian indian plate Philippine plate pacific plate Nazca plate Cuzco plate Theory of Plate Tectonics Earth s outer shell consists of individual plates that interact in various ways Divergent Boundary 2 plates move apart upwelling of the material from the mantle to create new sea oor Convergent Boundary 2 plates move together Transform Boundary 2 plates grind past each other Changing Boundary new plate boundaries are created in response to changes in the forces acting on the lithosphere Oceanic vs Continental Oceanic plate sinks below the continental plate due to its density Oceanic vs Oceanic one plate will be slightly denser will descend below the other triggering volcanic activity Continental vs Continental Forms a mountain Testing the Plate Tectonics Model 0 Evidence 39 Ocean Drilling 39 Hot Spots Loose material leaks out from lithosphere then to the outer core Creates a long chain of volcanic islands Hawaii 39 Paleomagnetism How do Continental Plates Move O O 0 Track by GPS Wegener s mechanism continentals plow through oceans Convection Cells the water will lose its density so it will oat up the cool dense material will oat down Ridge Push Slab Pull cold slabs of oceanic lithosphere are denser that the underlying warm asthenosphere and sink like a rock that is pulled down into the mantle by gravity
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'