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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bridget Ochuko on Sunday August 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FDNS 4050 at University of Georgia taught by Alex K. Anderson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 134 views.
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Date Created: 08/23/15
FDNS 4050 Week 1 08172015 Introduction to Nutrition and the Life Span Nutrient something your body needs to function without this the body cannot function 0 Example water protein carbohydrates Nutrition is a vital component to overall wellness and health Diet affects energy well being and many disease states There is a connection between lifetime nutritional habits and the risks of many chronic diseases A balanced diet can prevent chronic diseases and improve energy levels and overall health and wellness 0 There are a set of principles that will guide us on how to consume a balanced diet in moderation Increase in Life Expectancy The increase in life expectancy is primarily from decreases in infant mortality and in deaths from infectious diseases because infants are the ones who will grow to be a part of the population Other factors 0 Availability of immunizations prevents children from catching common diseases that can kill a young child 0 Improved healthcare and sanitation in countries with low life expectancy ratings the facilities are not as advanced as those where people are expected to live longer 0 Increases in the availability and quality of the food supply The US ranks 42nCI in the world and 31st among developed countries 0 Average life expectancy is about 79 0 Females average longer life expectancies than males 8283 Our menstrual cycle helps regulate and protect our hearts until we hit menopause Men tend to live riskier lifestyles 0 Reasons why we are ranked lower than 41 other countries given the amount spent on healthcare About half of the gap between US life expectancy and countries with higher life expectancy is due to heart disease rates in the US Smoking among women appears to account for lower life expectancy relative to other countries The type of services our healthcare system provides is more treatment than prevention Teenage pregnancy the children of these teens are dying Obesity rates contributes 15 to 13 of the shortfall in the US life expectancy Portion sizes What is Nutrition 0 The study of foods their nutrients and other chemical constituents and the effects of food constituents on health 0 A source of materials to nourish the body 0 The processes by which an organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and maintenance What is Dietetics The application of nutrition knowledge in disease managementtreatmentprevention to improve quality of life 0 Two types of iron 0 Heme meat source and non heme plant source Why are people living unhealthy Consumers are following incorrect information for dieting and nutritional help 0 Consumers don t know how to nd out the nutritional value of foods 0 Consumers feel like they can t afford healthy food 0 Consumers don t care Connection between Nutrition and Health 0 Today there is substantial evidence that food is essential for sustenance and wellbeing 0 Depending on the choice consumers make contribute to the development and progression of chronic diseases heart disease cancer stroke Foundation of Nutrition there are 10 sets of principles that govern and provide the foundation for knowledge in the eld of human nutrition Principle 1 Food is a basic need of humans 0 Food security acquiring food in a socially acceptable way always having nutritious food available at an affordable cost 0 Food insecurity not knowing where you re next meal is coming from not having access to nutritious food in an affordable way 0 About 14 of the households in American are insecure Principle 2 Food provides energy calories nutrients and other substances needed for growth and health Calorie a measure of the amount of energy transferred from food to the body Nutrients chemical substances in food that are used by the body 0 Nutrient needs Energycalories Macronutrients Micronutrients Water 0 Essential nutrients Carbohydrates Certain amino acids Linoleic acid and alphalinoleic acid Vitamins Minerals Water o Nonessential nutrients the human body is able to synthesize or manufacture these nutrients and do not necessarily have to be present in one s diet Cholesterol Glucose Creatine and certain types of amino acids 0 Dietary Intake Standards 0 Dietary Reference Intakes DRls Recommended Dietary Allowances Adequate Intakes not any evidence to give a set amount to consume Estimated Average Requirements Tolerable Upper Levels of Intake Daily Values standards for daily intakes of nutrients used on nutrition label of food Carbohydrates 0 Simple carbohydrates Monosaccharaides Disaccharides 0 Complex carbohydrates Starches Glycogen Fiber 0 Alcohol sugars 0 Alcohol ethanol o Glycemic Index of Carbohydrate Glycemic index extent to which carbohydrate containing foods increase blood glucose levels a Foods with high glycemic index raise blood glucose levels higher a Foods with low glycemic index improve blood glucose control in diabetes Glycemic Load GI x grams of food 100 glycemic load of a serving of food can be calculated as its carbohydrate content measured in grams g multiplied by the food s GI and divided by 100 GL greater than 20 is considered high GL of 1119 is considered medium GL of 10 or less is considered low 0 Recommended intake level 4565 of calories added sugar 25 or less of total calories 2135 g berday for females 3038 g berday for males 0 food sources Protein primary function is development and growth we only depend on protein for energy when our body runs out of carbohydrates to use gluconeogenesis therefore our body needs a much smaller percentage of protein in our meals as opposed to carbohydrates 0 Amino acids building blocks of proteins Non essential can be synthesized by the body Conditionally essential can be synthesized by the human body except in conditions Essential cannot be synthesized by the body must be supplied through nutrition High quality proteins provide all essential amino acids Recommended intake 1035 of calories Food sources Each gram of protein produces 4 calories OOOO 0 Main functions of protein Chemical messengers hormones neurotransmitters Enzymes Acts as a source of energy Transport Immune response Regulation of uid and acidbase balance Growth building blocks for construction and replacement of all cells and tissue 0 Fats Lipids O 0000 Essential fatty acids Linoleic acid omega6 Alphalinoleic acid omega3 4 or less omega6 to 1 omega3 is recommended Food sources Saturated try to stay away from these fats Unsaturated Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Trans fats extremely unhealthy making an ingredient stronger than it is Hydrogenation Cis versus trans structure 0 Cholesterol non essential our bodies make them There is no cholesterol in any plant food 0 Recommended intakes 2035 pf calories from fat limiting unhealthy fats o Vitamins o Watersoluble vitamins easily excreted from the body through urine Must make an effort everyday to obtain these because we cannot see if there is a de ciency Destroyed by excessive heat Thiamin ribo avin niacin B6 folate 812 biotin panthothenic acid C o Fatsoluble vitamins A D E K 0 Functions Coenzymes Antioxidants 0 Recommended intakes de ciencies toxicities o Other substances in food phytochemicals Minerals 0 Essential minerals Calcium phosphorus magnesium iron zinc uoride iodine selenium copper manganese chromium molybdenum sodium potassium chloride 0 Water 0 Adults are 6070 water 0 Recommended intakes 1516 cupsday for males 11 cupsday for females 75 from uids 25 from foods 0 Dietary sources Best are water and nonalcoholic beverages Alcoholic beverages increase water loss through urine 0 Why is water important Maintain body temperature Metabolize body fat Aids in digestion Lubricates and cushions organs Transports nutrients Flushes toxins from your body 0 Factors that In uence Nutrient Needs 0 Age Gender Growth Pregnancylactation Body compositionbody type Body size Genetic traits Illnessdisease state OOOOOOO 0 Lifestyle habits 0 Medication use Principle 3 Health problems related to nutrition originate within cells Homeostasis Principle 4 Poor nutrition can result from both inadequate and excessive Ie vels of nutrient intake Micronutrients low Deficiencies begins with inadequate nutrient intake Toxicities begins with excessive nutrient intake The quotripple effectquot dietary changes introduced to improve intake of one nutrient may affect intake level of other nutrients Principle 5 Humans have adaptive mechanisms for managing uctuations in food intake 0 Regulation of absorption or appetite Nutrient storage Principle 6 Malnutrition can result from poor diets and from disease states genetic factors or combinations of these causes 0 Primary malnutrition dietary in origin 0 Secondary malnutrition precipitated by a disease state surgical procedure or medication ex Someone who has down syndrome 0 NutrientGene Interactions Single gene defects Interaction of genetic environmental factors including nutrition n Ex Alcohol intake during pregnancy Principle 7 Some groups of people are at higher risk of becoming inadequately nourished than others Pregnantbreastfeeding women 0 Infants and children 0 People who are ill frail elderly persons Principle 8 Poor nutrition can in uence the development of certain chronic diseases 0 Heart disease hypertension cancer stroke osteoporosis type 2 diabetes obesity Principle 9 Adequacy and balance are key characteristic of a healthy diet 0 Variety Nutrient density 0 Limiting quotemptycalorie foods Principle 10 There are no good or bad foods 0 All things in nutriment are good or bad relatively based on o If nutrient needs are met 0 If calorie intake maintains healthy body weight Nutrient Labeling 0 Nutrition facts panel mustlist fat saturated fat trans fat cholesterol sodium tota carbohydrates ber sugars protein vitamins A and C calcium and iron also daily values 0 Nutrient content and health claims 0 Ingredient label
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