Popular in Course
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mallory Jean Becker on Sunday August 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 161 views.
Reviews for Art275Islamweek1.pdf
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 08/23/15
Art 275 08202015 Arts of the Islamic World 0 This session will help you understand 0 The founding of Islam and the character of earl Islamic society the major events personalities ideas key terms and monuments o Pertinent art historical terms for speaking effectively about art 0 Muslim attitudes toward representational images 0 The basic compositional elements Muslim artists used to create surface ornament 0 Mount of light quotJabal unNoor Mecca 4 0 Key Terms I Ramadan I quotNight of Power 17th night of Ramadan The arch angel appeared to Muhammad and commanded him to recite Muhammad didn t want to so there was a great struggle between the Angel and him but he eventually did and became the prophet I Muhammad the Prophet of Ala first leader of Islam I Qur an messages of Muhammad 0 Prophet Muhammad at the Ka ba in Mecca Miniature paining in the manuscript entitled Life of ii F iwi Wm l39 7 if i i the Prophet Made in Cairo Egypt 16th century 0 Art historical terms I Manuscript a handmade book I Miniature or illumination painting in a manuscript they often use gold in the paintings 0 Key Personalities and Terms I Khadija Muhammad s first wife and first convert died in 619 0 His uncle also died in the same year I Ai Muhammad s cousin I Abu Bakr Muhammad s close companion and eventually fatherinIaw first leader after Muhammad s death I Caliph the leaders of Islam I QurayshMuhammad s Tribe who controlled the Ka ba 0 Two Phases of the Prophets career I Mecca preached Monotheism I Medina begins in the year 622 he migrates to Medina I Hijra migration to Medina 622 marks the first year in the Muslim Lunar calendar snag 248 g i quot quot 7 r in 39 39 4 a o m h a t t w a 3 quot quot quot mu x xi 4 o The destruction of icons at the Ka ba 0 Two page miniature painting in the manuscript quotThe Wonderful Story of Muhammad in Verse 11th Century 0 After his victory he rode in on his white hose and had his soldiers destroy all the pagan idols and rededicated the shrine to Muhammad o Ka ba Surrounded by the Mosque of Mecca o 624 Mecca proclaimed the qibla I Qibla direction of prayer All Muslims should direct their prayers towards Mecca o 632 Muhammad establish the hajj o quot12 V Zr R 5W 39 39 my gt 4 O v x o Ka ba in Mecca Draped with Kiswa 39 0 Key Terms I Tawaf circling ritual done around the Ka ba try to get close enough to kiss the black rock I Qibla direction of prayer 624 I Hajj the pilgrimage to Mecca I Kiswa quotcoveringquot a black cloth made of silk and embroidered with gold replaced every year during the Hajj and distributed to dignitaries who give it to people they feel are deserving to have it covers the Ka ba 0 Death of the Prophet surrounded by family members 0 Miniature in the manuscript copy of Fuzuli s text entitled quotGarden of the blessed 0 Manuscript made in 1598 in Baghdad 0 Key Personalities and Terms Caliph leader of the faithful Abu Bakr became the leader after Muhammad died Umar elected after Abu Bakr assassinated Uthman elected after Umar assassinated Ali Muhammad s cousin elected after Uthman Sunni believe the Umayyad dynasty inherited the right to appoint successive Caths Rashidun quotThe rightly guided the First four Caliphs Abu Umar Unthman and Ali Shia the party of Ali Rejected the first three Caliph Said the Prophet Muhammad had appointed Ali to succeed him as the leader quotOnly the descendants of Ali are the legit leaders Imam 1st 712 direct descendants of the Prophet Muhammad Muawiyya Ali s rivals governor of Syria kinsman of Uthman comes to power after Ali is assassinated Founded the first hereditary dynasty of ruler the rulers son will inherit the title of Caliph Umayyad Dynasty 0 Pages from an Early Qur an o Copied in Mecca or Medina 8th century 0 Key Terms and Concepts Qur an first source of authority in Islam The Revelations of God to Muhammad and they establish the basic beliefs and principles of Islamic faith Hadiths 2quot l source of authority Eye witness accounts of what Muhammad said and did Many different versions Made in early 8th and 9th centuries Sunna the customary practice following the model of the prophet recorded in the Hadiths Sharia 3rel source of authority the legal system compiled by early Muslims in accordance with the teachings of the Qur an and the Hadiths o Muhammad Preaching in the Mosque 0f Medina quot o Miniature painting in the manuscript of The Murder of the House of the Prophet 0 Made in Baghdad end of 16th century 0 Key Terms Minbar the pulpit where Muhammad stood when he preached Masjad place of prostration or a masque quotFive Pillars Unified the Arabic communities Established by the Prophet to be established by all Muslims 0 Profession of Faith Shahabad there is no god but Ala and Muhammad is his messenger o Ritual prayer salat observed five times a day 0 Giving alms zakat formal tidings process generosity towards the unfortunate o Fasting during Ramadan sawm do not eat for one month 0 Pilgrimage in Mecca hajj not the going to mecca it is certain rights that take place in the 12th month of their lunar calendar 0 Geometric designs and framing in the Mihrab of the Mosque of Sultan Hasan I Cairo Egypt 13561363 I Key term in mosque architecture 0 Aniconic with no images 0 Mihrabthe prayer nitch in the middle of the Kiblah o Minbar the pulpit where they stand to preach o Arabesque scroll work and Kufic Calligraphy o Mosque of Sultan Hassan o Cairo Egypt 0 13561363 0 Key terms of Islamic Ornament I Arabesque plant forms that weave in and out of the designs I Palmette little abstract tree I Split Palmette Little tree split in two so it looks like two leafs I Calligraphy the art of beautiful writing I Frieze a band of decorations Reading Notes Chapter 2 pages 2428 0 Silk Road overland trade routes used to trade goods such as arts and supplies across Asia 0 quotarteries through which the life blood of Asian economies flowed I Rises and falls in patronage of the arts were linked to the strength of those economies I Works of arts arriving at different lands influenced the artists 0 The Sasanian Person and the Romans located their capitals at major Silk Road hubs o Sasanian Persons capital was Ctesiphon near the intersection of the main Silk Road trail and where the Tigris River meant o Romans Capital was Byzantium modern day Istanbul where ships entered the black sea and the Silk Road connected Asia and Europe o Weakened by wars in the 7th century I Made it easier for the Muslims and to build their empire 0 Masters of central and west Asia within a few decades 0 Muhammad and Early Islamic Throughout O Muhammad lived in Mecca in his youth I An important tradingjunction I Location of Ka ba 0 Covered in a black cloth 0 Reflect earlier traditions or placing symbols of divinities in cloth covered wood frames in designated holy areas of limited access I Direction of Muslim prayer 0 Jahiliyya time or ignorance O O 0 Prior to Islam Many tribal symbols fetishes and statues representing other Arabian gods Muhammad began to preach monotheism the belief in one god in 610 when he received his first visions from Alah I Because of his monotheism teachings he had to flee to Medina o This is called the Hijra or hegira o The Hijra marks the beginning of the Muslim Linear Calendar 0 The Qur an and Islamic Art 0 The Qur an doesn t say hardly anything about visual arts role is religion I Reflects the limited role art played in Arabian life up until this time compared to other cultures Early Muslims had issues with foregoing pictorial traditions in Western Asia I Inherited second commandment of the Jews and Christians quotThou shalt not make to thyself a graven thing nor the likeness of anything that is in heaven above Allah is transcendent and has no human I Led to a prohibition against the representation of Allah in art and often a broader prohibition against images of human or animal figures in religious art Calligraphy I Islam s single most sacred art form I Found on nearly all objects I First art form to spawn instruction manuals a tradition of connoisseurship and thinkers who discussed it in aesthetic terms Zarifs a group of poets who expressed their discriminating tastes in diverse matters ranging from the arts to the court dancers images of court dancers were popular in bath houses 0 Key terms O 0000 Sunnis Umayyad dynasty should appoint Caliphs 85 of Muslims Masjid the quotplace of prostration Caliphs the leaders of the early Sunni Muslim community Minbar a staircaselike structure with a canopy that served as a pulpit Shias believe only descendants of Ali could be Caliphs