Introduction, chapter 1
Introduction, chapter 1 NUTR 244 004
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dinha on Sunday August 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR 244 004 at University of New Mexico taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 08/23/15
Human Nutrition gtNutrition is the scienti c study of nutrients chemicals necessary for proper body functioning and how the body uses them Or it is the science that studies food and how food nourishes our bodies and in uences our health Food does not mean the same as nutrition Food refers to the plants and animals we consume gtA proper nutrition can help to improve health status prevent certain diseases achieve and maintain a desirable weight and maintain energy and vitality gtWellness could be de ned as only the absence of disease but it is considered to be a multidimensional process one that includes physical emotional and spiritual health Chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease can be prevented through a proper nutrition Health People 2020 Four primary goals 0 Improve quality of life and longevity via 0 Prevention of disease disability injury and premature death 0 Improve health for all health equity 0 Create social and physical environments that promote health 0 Promote quality of life healthy development and healthy behaviors across all life stages gt Lack of nutrients can cause de ciency diseases such as pellagra and scurvy gt Nutrients are necessary for the growth maintenance and repair of our body s cells Nutrients are chemicals necessary for proper body functioning gtgt There are six classes of nutrients carbohydrates fats and other lipids proteins vitamins minerals and water Carbohydrate fats and proteins are macronutrients nutrients needed in gram amounts daily and that provide energy and organic they contain the element carbon and vitamins minerals and water are micronutrients because the body needs very small amountsmilligrams or microgramsof them to function properly and inorganic Carbohydrates are the primary fuel source for the body particularly for the brain and for physical exercise Lipids are a diverse group of organic substances that are largely insoluble in water Protein is the only macronutrient that contains nitrogen the basic building blocks of proteins are amino acids Minerals are inorganic substances meaning that they do not contain carbon And minerals differ from the macronutrients and vitamins in that they are not broken down during digestion or when the body uses them to promote normal function Vitamins are organic compounds that assist in the regulation of the body s physiologic processes They can be fat soluble A D E and K and water soluble C Bvitamins thiamin ribo avin niacin vita min B6 vitamin B12 pantothenic acid biotin and folate Water is a vital organic nutrient supporting all body processes uid balance energy production nutrient transportand we can nd it in many drinks and foods we need to consume in amounts of at least 100 mg per day and of which the total amount in out bodies is at least 5g calcium phosphorus sodium potassium chloride magnesium sulfur we need to consume in amounts less than 100 mg per day and of which the total amount in our bodies is less than 5 g iron Zinc copper manganese uoride chromium molybdium selenium iodine gtAn essential nutrient must be supplied by food because the body does not synthesize the nutrient or make enough to meet its needs Water is the most essential nutrient Vitamin C is an example of essential nutrient when the amount in the cells it is too low we can develop physical signs of scurvy gt Risk Factor personal characteristic that increases a person s chances of developing a disease Kilocalorie X Calorie Energy the capacity to do work Kilocalorie the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kilogram kg of water 1 degree C Calorie kilocalorie unit of energy Find in food labels gtgtC URREN T DIETARY RECOMMENDATIONS lt lt are intended to help people reduce their risk of nutrient deficiencies and excesses prevent disease and achieve optimal health An is the amount of the nutrient that should meet the needs of 50 of healthy people who are in a particular life stagegender group 4 The are standards for recommending daily intakes of several nutrients RDAs meet the nutrient needs of nearly all healthy individuals 975 in a particular life stage gender group are dietary recommendations that assume a population s average daily nutrient intakes are adequate because no deficiency diseases are present The is the highest average amount of a nutrient that is unlikely to harm most people when the amount is consumed daily The is the average daily energy intake that meets the needs of a healthy person who is maintaining his or her weight gtgtAssessing Nutritional Status Anthropometrics height weight waist circumference Biochemical data clinical signs and symptoms dietary review and environmental factors Malnutrition is a state of health that occurs when the body is improperly nourished Undernutrition is a situation in which too little energy or too few nutrients are consumed over time causing significant weight loss or a nutrient deficiency disease Overnutrition is a situation in which too much energy or too much of a given nutrient is consumed over time causing conditions such as obesity heart disease or nutrient toxicity symptoms Nutrient deficiencies are further classified as primary or secondary Primary deficiency occurs when a person does not consume enough of a nutrient in the diet thus the deficiency occurs as a direct consequence of an inadequate intake Secondary deficiency occurs when a person cannot absorb enough of a nutrient in his or her body when too much of a nutrient is excreted from the body or when a nutrient is not utilized efficiently by the body Subclinical deficiency a deficiency in its early stages when few or no symptoms are observed Covert symptom a symptom that is hidden from a client and requires laboratory tests or other invasive procedures to detect Overt symptom a symptom that is obvious to a client such as pain fatigue or a bruise Nutrigenomics is a scientific discipline studying the interactions between genes the environment and nutrition Nutrigenomics Applied wisely it will promote an increased understanding of how nutrition in uences metabolic pathways and how this regulation is disturbed in the early phase of diet related disease and to what extent individual genotypes contribute to such diseases Methylation Primary mechanism of gene expression regulation methyl group attaches to a site on the DNA associated increased or decreased gene expression can be passed from parent to offspring Vitamin B12 folic Acid Vitamin B6 and Choline are promoters of Methylation Nutrition researchers rely on scientific methods that may involve making obser vations asking questions and developing hypotheses performing tests and collecting and analyzing data information to find relationships between variables A hypothesis is a possible explanation for an observation that guides scientific research gtEvaluating the research What is the study telling you Observational Studies 0 Correlates contributing factors and outcomes 0 Correlation Causation Experimental Studies 0 Establishes Cause and Effect 0 Potential cause are controlled to evaluate effects Human vs Animal Studies 0 Similar but not identical models 0 Can not generalize
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