Environmental Studies 3 Week 3
Environmental Studies 3 Week 3
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This 7 page Reader was uploaded by Helen Notetaker on Tuesday April 29, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of California Santa Barbara taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 56 views.
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Date Created: 04/29/14
ENV S 3 041514 The Power Societies of Eurasia Major IDs Bronze Age Iron Age Ch 13 Applied technology ability of people to manipulate technology Autocatalytic process o Advances depend upon previous mastery of simpler problems Gutenberg printing press 0 Developed in 1455 AD by Iohann Gutenberg 13971468 0 Needed durable paper moveable tile advanced metal work presses inks and scripts 0 First book published was the Gutenberg Bible o Example that other technologies had to be in place before advanced technology example of autocatalytic process Metal fabrication o Bronze fabrication occurred first in the Fertile Crescent 4000 BC I Areas in the Fertile Crescent had the highest level of organization sedentary societies o Refined as iron fabrication o Had to have soft metal ores furnaces to melt into a liquid state and sedentary societies Soft metal ore 0 Include copper gold and tin Furnaces Sedentary societies Copper gold tin 0 These combined make bronze Bronze o Advantages of bronze over stone I Weapons swords spears etc I Wagons chariots I Practical things shovels chisels ovens pots utensils I Statues I Coins Artisan class Iron ore o Iron age began in Eurasia not necessarily in the Fertile Crescent 900 BC 0 Smelt process of getting molten iron I When cooled was much harder than bronze 0 Larger infrastructure developed with iron technology I Worth because it was far more usable for weapons and tools than bronze Industrial Revolution 0 0 Iron age lasted until Industrial Revolution Development of steel I By blowing air into iron to make it even purer Germs Iron and Guns 0 Greece Guns Germs and Steel can seen as a misnomer One of the power societies heavily in uenced by ancient civilizations Mesopotamia ancient Egypt Indus Valley had all the gifts of Guns Germs and Steel had the gifts from earlier civilizations Diamond39s haves had time to develop education science eclipsed by the Roman empire Minoan culture 0 0 Strong in uence in the southern part of what became Greece Heavily in uenced by Egypt Mycenaean culture 0 0 Crete 0 Made their way southward coming into contact with Minoans in about 2000 BCE Descendent culture of eastern Fertile Crescent cultures Heavily in uenced by Mesopotamia Both cultures were Bronze Age cultures I Become known as Greek culture Worked well with stone built temples for gods Most advanced culture in the world at the time Strong language based on Sumerian Greek culture spread through the Greek islands to Crete Sheep goats pigs cows horses 0 Had all the animals to domesticate Wheat barley rice grapes olives O O 0 Vin o o 0 Didn39t have the kind of cereal cultivation as you see in Egypt and Mesopotamia Known for grapes and olives Lot of gathering and hunting because things grew wild didn39t have to stockpile Vin wine Greeks were the first to produce wine in abundance Had bad water so everyone drank wine Homer Herodotus Aristotle Plato Pythagoras Archemedes Periclean Athens 0 O O Homer developed epic poetry Herodotus historian Aristotle founder of logic great philosopher Plato founder of discourse argument Pythagoras geometry Archemedes mathematician Periclean Athens 495 429 BC I More or less agreed that Athens was the principal city state of Greece I Greek democracy developed I Wars pretty much disappeared Democraciesslaveocracies o Slaves were in control of some of the city states Pericles o Able to unite the Greek city states State level culture 0 Powerful state level government highly organized highly educated Greek nature worship 0 Didn39t have to do quite as much as environmental manipulation because they could gather and hunt I Relative harmony with the environment Strong in uence of the Minoans who were nature worshippers Nature worship loving of nature wanting to worship it Built their nature around nature polytheistic believed in many gods Many of the gods were based on nature OOOO OOOO Today39s Music Theme Music from the film Gladiator 2000 Monty Python 1982 Brian born the same Day as esus in Iudea where Ierusalem is today 33 AD ENV S 3 041714 Today39s IDs Roman Empire Greco Roman times 0 Romans conquer the Greeks in Greece o Shared culture between Greeks and Romans I Polytheistic religion Legend 1 Numitor Amulius 0 Royal power struggle between Numitor and Amulius brothers o Amulius had all of Numitor s sons killed Rhea Silvia Ares Mars o Mars abducts Rhea Silvia in her sleep Romulus and Remus o Rhea Silvia s sons o Put in baskets to save them from being killed by Amulius Tiber River o Romulus and Remus create a city near the Tiber River She wolf o Raises Romulus and Remus o Shepherds come to take them o Romulus and Remus decide to take back the throne I Put Numitor back on the throne Legend 2 Aeneas Venus King Latinus Latium o Demigod Aeneas comes to the Italian peninsula after the Trojan War and marries the daughter of King Latinus I Unites Latins and Etruscans Latins and Etruscans o United by Aeneas and daughter of King Latinus marriage Roman paganism o Like Greek polytheism Latin o Develop their language through Greek and created their own version Latin I Using declensions and conjugations Architecture o Inherited the know how from the Greeks o Baths roads state houses I Were more practical ZeusIupiter Herauno o Gave their own names to the gods 0 Nature in their religion State level empire o Rome was a state level empire since the beginning Environmentalmanipulation 0 Air and water pollution o Ambivalent about nature because they worship nature I But massively exploit nature at the same time o Didn39t have to manipulate the environment as strenuously Pax Romana 0 Roman Peace 0 20 BC 200 AD 0 Moving into Britain Barbarians o Underestimated power of Barbarians 0 Means non Romans o Eventually sacked Rome in late 400 AD Huns o Came in 476 AD I When Rome failed Polytheism many gods poly many theos godsMonotheism one god monos single Paganism 0 Negative description to describe polytheism Henotheism 0 Accept the possibility of many gods but believe in one Akhenaton 0 Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaton 1300 BCE I Means living spirit of the Aton o The Aton I Sun disk with rays as hands I Only deity that should be worshipped Dualism o Belief that there are two fundamental parts of the universe battling each other 0 Power of good v power of evil Spiritual v physical o Gnosticism Zoroastrianism and Manchaeism I Had direct in uences on each other I Come from Eurasia Gnosticism o Gnosis knowledge Zoroastrianism o Zoroaster Zarathustra I Zoroastrianism is based on the teachings of the prophet Zoroaster I Physical is good and the forces of darkness are evil 0 Ahura Mazda I Good god 0 Manchaeism o Widespread o Mani I Founder I Persian who lived in 3rd c CE 0 Combined the other two The Hebrews 0 Nomadic tribe of herdsmen 0 Enslaved by the Egyptians for a time 0 Highly structural and ethical society 0 Henotheistic then evolved into monotheism Death and the Afterlife People ofthe Book Iudaism Christianity and Islam 0 All worship the same God Abraham 0 Father of great nations Covenant 0 Sacred agreement The Hebrew Bible 0 Torah Scroll I Part of the Hebrew Bible I First 5 books Old Testament New Testament Torah Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Creation Story 0 Genesis 12630 0 One of domination 613 Commandments o In the first 5 books 0 Govern how you live your life Iesus of Nazareth 0 Born in 1st century in udea Gospel 0 Good news ofesus o 4 books Paul of Tarsus 0 Modern day Turkey 0 Never met esus in his life 0 Didn39t have to follow 613 commandments The Codex 0 Prototype of the modern book 0 Developed around the same time as the rise of Christianity 4th century 0 Easier to read out of the codex than the scroll I By the 6th century it completely replaced the scroll Today39s Music Enigma MCMXC 1992 Midterm Major IDs 50 2 in all Essay 48 Film Clip and Walk in music MC 2 Tuesday April 29 Blue Book Tuesday 0 Please bring 3 large blank blue books to class for midterm and final 0 In class review that day
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