Exam 1 Material Notes - Elements of Biology
Exam 1 Material Notes - Elements of Biology BIOL 101
Cal State Fullerton
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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiffany Notetaker on Monday August 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 101 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Dr. Molinder in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Elements of Biology in Biology at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 08/24/15
Chapter 1 Scienti c Method Science collection of facts and a process that helps us to discover and better understand the world around us Biology study of living things Scientific Literacy 0 Fact base understanding 0 Process of scientific inquiry 0 Ability to communicate thoughts to others 0 Integration of ideas into decision making process Anecdotal Evidence can lead people to believe that links exist between two phenomena when none exists 0 NOT part of scientific literacy Pseudoscience scientific sounding claims that are NOT trustworthy or supported by methodical scientific studies Scienti c Method 0 Fact base analysis 0 Selfcorrecting 0 Based on empirical knowledge 0 Utilizing rational experiences and observations that are testable and repeatable o Tells you when to change your mind to eliminate bias 0 You CANNOT quotprovequot a hypothesis 0 Just because evidenceobservations support a hypothesis today doesn39t mean that it will in the future 0 note patterns for cause and effect relationships 0 proposed explanation for an observed phenomenon 0 Clearly establishes mutually exclusive alternative explanations for phenomena 0 Generates testable predictions a Null Hypothesis proposed negative statement a No relationship between 2 factors i Easier to disprove b Single piece of evidenceobservation is enough to reject null hypothesis b Hypothesis v Theory a Hypothesis proposed explanation for a phenomena b Theory explanatory hypothesis for a phenomena that is exceptionally well supported by empirical data design an experiment 0 Hypothesis must generate a testable prediction regarding a new situation 0 Must give one outcome if the hypothesis is supported and a different outcome if it is not O determines if a hypothesis is correct Experimental observations determine if the hypothesis is accepted or rejected Researchers look for 4 things in a well designed experiment a Control of Variables hold constant all variables that are not of interest a Control Groups should only differ from the Experimental Groups by the variable of interest b Experimental Group group of subjects exposed to an experimental treatment c Control Group group of subjects that are treated identically to the experimental group a NOT exposed to the experimental treatment b Variables Characteristics of the experiment subject to change over the course of the experiment Avoiding biases a Blind Experimental Design subjects do not know what treatment they are receiving b Double Blind Experimental Design neither the test subjects nor the researchers know which treatment is being given c Randomization subjects are randomly assigned to experimental groups a Researchers and subjects had no in uence on group composition If there are multiple explanations that can explain your experimental results then it is not really a critical experiment Experiments need to be repeatable by yourself and other researchers in order to validate the results a This gives confidence to your experimental results Get experimental results Look for patterns and relationships Draw conclusions Determine if resultsconclusions support the hypothesis Revise hypothesis based on your results 0 Visual Displays of Data 0 Allows people to Think about and compare data Synthesize information Look for useful patterns Bar Graph used to represent data Line Graph connects data points to illustrate data trends Pie Chart quotslicesquot represent data values as a proportion of the whole 0 Statistical Analysis is a tool that allows the researcher to O Quantify and summarize large amounts of data 0 Draw more accurate conclusions 0 Evaluate if the research data was the result of random chance 0 95 Confidence Intervals Independent Variables measurable entity that is available at the start of a process 0 Value can be changed as required 0 On Xaxis 0 Dependent Variables measurable entity that is created by the process observed 0 Value is expected to change in response to change in the independent variable 0 On yaXis 0 Scientific Limits questions science can39t answer 0 Moral statementsethical problems 0 Existence of God 0 Art Literature or Poetry 0 Mathematical theorems Chapter 2 Chemistry Molecules groups of atoms held together by bonds Macromolecules Large molecules made up of smaller building blockssubunits Building blocks of living or23nisms O o o Carbohydrates Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen molecules quot osequot ending indicates carbohydrate Primary fuel for running all living organisms Energy is in the chemical bonds 0 Available to the organism as carbonhydrogen bonds are broken down or formed Responsible for cell structure formation Classified by size and composition Monosaccharide simple sugars 0 36 Carbon atoms per molecule 0 Glucose naturally occurring in plant sap and fruits glucose Provides energy to cells Digestive system breaks down larger molecules into Circulates in blood stream Uses for glucose in the blood stream Fuel for cellular activity Acts as energy source once it has reached or enters cell Converted by chemical reactions into other molecules With stronger bonds Energy is released When it is converted from weaker to stronger bonds Stored temporarily as glycogen Works to remove excess glucose from the blood stream 0 Stored in liver and muscles Glycogen stored glucose molecules linked together to form a large web of molecules 0 Can easily be broken down to release energy at a later time 0 Primary form of in animals 0 Weight loss 0 Play role in initial rapid water loss When dieting 0 Decreased calorie intake causes body to burn more calories than it is taking in 0 Body must use stored energy to compensate 0 Converted to fat lipid 0 Works to remove excess glucose from the blood stream 0 Converted to fat Form Of in animals Fructose sweetest of all naturally occurring sugars in fruits vegetables honey etc Disaccharide two monosaccharides that are bonded together 0 Important source of fuel for cells 0 Human body cannot get energy from disaccharides 0 Must break down to original monosaccharide components in order to release energy Polysaccharide large amounts of monosaccharides linked together 0 Molecules must be quotprocessedquot before energy can be released from bonds 0 Must break down to original monosaccharide components in order to release energy 0 Starch 0 Stores energy 0 Consists of glucose molecules joined in a line 0 Molecular shape does not stimulate the quotsweetquot taste receptors on the tongue 0 Found in roots potatoes grains barley wheat rye corn and rice 0 Complex Carbohydrates oatmeal rice pasta 0 Time released fuel pellets 0 Energy will gradually become available as simple sugars are broken down 0 Cellulose plants 2 0 Indigestible by most animals 0 Most prevalent compound on Earth 0 quotRoughagequot scrapes the wall of the digestive tract 0 Passes through body untouched 0 Chitin insects and crustaceans Carbloading Doublestriples amount of short term glycogen stored in the muscles or liver 0 Increases available fuel storage for extended exercise 0 Delays fatigue during endurance events 39 Depletion Phase 7 days before event super low carb diet and exhaustive exercise deplete glycogen stores 39 Loading Phase 2 days before event super high carb diet and reduced exercise loads glycogen stores Li ids 0 Consists of carbon hydrogen and oxygen atoms 39 Are in different proportions than carbohydrate atoms 0 Stores significantly more energy than carbohydrates in CH bonds 0 Wide structural variability 0 Does not dissolve in water due to long chains of CH bonds 0 Greasy to the touch 0 Tend to be hydrophobic does not like water 39 Lipids cluster together when mixed with water and never fully dissolve 0 Types of lipids 39 Fat long term energy storage and insulation 0 Composition 0 Head small molecule of glycerol 0 Tail 2 or 3 long fatty acids 0 Fatty acids Hydrocarbon tails 0 Chain of 12 carbon molecules 0 Linked together with 12 hydrogen atoms attached to each carbon atom 0 Triglyceride 1 head of glycerol 3 tails of fatty acid hydrocarbons 0 Solid at room temperature 0 Two forms 39 Saturated Fat 0 Glycerol head connected to fatty acid tail 0 Straight fatty acid tail allow molecules to be tightly packed together 0 Fatty acid tail has 2 hydrogen atoms per carbon atom 0 Fat molecule has maximum number of hydrogen atoms to release more energy when bonds are broken 0 Accumulates in the blood stream 0 Causes vessel walls to narrow 0 Leads to heart disease and strokes Found in most animal fats meat and eggs Unsaturated Fat Glycerol head connected to fatty acid tail Fatty acid tail has 1 hydrogen atom per carbon atom them Found in most plants Fatty acids have kinks in Monosaturated there is only one kink double bond in fatty acid tail Polysaturated more than one kink double bond in fatty acid tail Do not pack tightly together Still high in calories Preferable to saturated fats Lowers cholesterol levels Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils Hydrogen atoms added to fatty acid tail to increase saturation Creates more desirable texture in foods Creates foods that are between liquids and solids Make foods less healthy Body less able to break fats down Accumulates in blood vessels and increases risk of heart disease Trans Fats Raises bad cholesterol level Lower good cholesterol level Increase risk of heart disease Fake Fats Designed to be similar to fats in taste and texture Cannot be digested by humans Olestra 1 sucrose head 8 hydrocarbon fatty acid tails 0 Stimulate taste buds 0 Tricks brain into believing that it is fat 0 Digestion system cannot break down fake fat 0 Passes through system undigested 0 Side effects 0 Reduced ability to absorb some vitamins 0 May cause some abdominal cramping o Triglycerides 0 2 glycerol head 0 3 hydrocarbon fatty acid tails Sterol regulate growth and development kind of like steroids Does not function in energy storage Cholesterol 0 Essential molecule for living organisms 0 Important component for cell membranes 0 Not a fat 0 Liver cells produce 90 of cholesterol that circulates in the blood stream 0 Made from saturated fats in our diet 0 Diet provides 10 of cholesterol that circulates in the blood stream 0 Attaches to blood vessel walls if there is too much circulating in bloodstream 0 Clogs arteries 0 Raises blood pressure 0 Maj or contributor to strokesheart attacks Testosterone 0 Built by slightly modifying cholesterol 0 Steroid hormone that directsregulates in males 0 Sexual development Maturation 0 Sperm production Estrogen 0 Built by slightly modifying cholesterol 0 Steroid hormone that directsregulates in females 0 Sexual development Maturation 0 Egg production Both testosterone and estrogen are found in both males and females 0 Testosterone stimulates muscle growth 0 Estrogen in uences memory and mood Steroid abuse 0 Athletes make synthetic variants of testosterone to increase muscularity 0 Dangerous side effects 0 Extreme aggressiveness roidrage High cholesterol 0 Impotence and infertility 0 Increased cancer risk due to long term use 39 Phospholipid form membranes that enclose cells 0 Not a fat 0 Major component of cell membranes 0 Controls ow of chemicals into and out of the cell 0 Similar structure to fats but With 2 differences Phosphate atom 0 2 fatty acid tails 0 Waxes 0 Similar to fats 0 Glycerol head 0 1 long fatty acid tail 0 Hydrophobic able to repel water 0 Natural coating surface for 0 Plantsinsects prevents essential water loss 0 Birds coats Wings to prevent being water logged 39 Fat molecules have more stored energy released during chemical breakdown of atomic bonds than carbohydrates 0 1 gram of Carbohydrates 4 calories 0 1 gram of Fat 9 calories 0 Proteins 39 Skin Feathers Horns Bones 39 Muscles 0 Fight invading microorganisms Stops cuts from bleeding out Controls blood sugar and other chemical reactions in blood stream Carries oxygen throughout the body Enzymes Constructed from amino acids 20 different kind of amino acids 0 10 your body makes Made up of carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen Attached together like beads on a string Amino acids Molecules foundation protein backbone forms when multiple amino acids join together Essential Amino Acids Not all proteins created equally Every protein has a different quotchainquot of amino acids 10 amino acids can only come from diet 0 Complete Proteins milk eggs fish chicken beef 0 Incomplete Proteins vegetables fruit grains 0 Do not have all of the essential amino acids 0 Need to mix and match complementary proteins to compensate Responsible for our bodies Growth Repair Replacement Store energy to use as fuel 0 Energy is released when bonds are broken Energy use Amount of protein we need depends on activity level Average person 4080 grams proteinday Pregnantnursing women and body builders 150 gramsday Molecular shape 3D shape determines function 0 Must maintain 3D shape or will lose its ability to function 0 Shape determines behavior how the protein will interact with other molecules Denaturation 0 Disruption in proteins ability to fold 0 Inability to maintain 3D shape 0 Egg frying 0 Heat of frying pan breaks down hydrogen bonds 0 Proteins in clear egg white begin to unfold turning white 0 Egg white loses its secondary and tertiary structure Proteins form and take their shape when amino acids link together with peptide bonds 0 The amino group of one amino acid bonds bond to the carboxyl group of another Structure of proteins 0 Primary structure sequence of amino acids on a polypeptide chain 0 Secondary structure hydrogen bonding between amino acids causes primary structure chain to fold Tertiary structure secondary structure continues to bend and fold upon itself 0 Proteins fold into an unique and complex 3D shape 0 Quaternary structure 2 or more polypeptide chains are held together by bonds between the amino acids in different chains 0 Hemoglobin 0 Carries oxygen from lungs to cells 0 4 polypeptide chains held together by peptide bonds Types of combinations of proteins Lipoproteins 0 Proteins attached to other types of macromolecules lipids or fat transports 0 Circulates through bloodstream carrying fat 0 Combination of proteins cholesterol and triglycerides Glycoproteins 0 Combination of carbohydrates and proteins 0 Found on surface of all animal cells 0 Helps immune system distinguish between host cells and foreign invading cells Enzymes 0 Proteins that initiateassists every chemical process that occurs in every cell of every living organism 0 Molecules that help to initiate and speed up chemical reactions in our bodies 0 Molecular shape remains unchanged when the chemical reaction is complete 0 Can be used over and over Bind to active site like a key 0 Substrate moves into the active sites groove allowing chemical reaction to take place quickly 0 Chemical reactions either release or consume energy for the cells 0 Active sites are electrically charged thereby attracting substrate molecules Activate energy little push needed to initiate chemical reaction 0 Enzymes do not alter the amount of energy released by the chemical reaction 0 Act as catalyst only by lowering activation energy 0 Causes reaction to occur more quickly Reduce activation energy and initiate the chemical reaction in variety of ways 0 Catalytic capacities put them at the heart of every chemical reaction in living organisms Regulate actions in many ways but they do not alter reaction outcomes Needed to assist chemical processes that sustain life 0 Increase reaction rates a million times faster than the catalytic rate 0 In uences of reaction rate times 0 Enzyme and substrate concentration 0 If there is a given amount of substrate 0 Increased enzymes increased reaction rate 0 Reaction rate can only increase up to the point of the limiting enzyme or substrate 0 Temperature 0 Increases in temperatures increases in molecule movement increases in reaction rates 0 Works until optimum temperature for the enzyme is reached 0 Above optimum temperature 0 Enzyme loses shape or denatures 0 Reaction rate decreases 0 Optimum temperatures vary widely between different types of enzymes 0 pH enzymes have an optimum pH 0 Enzyme function can be disrupted above or below the optimum pH Disruptions in the interactions between excess hydrogenhydroxide ions and amino acid side chains Decreases overall reactions rates 0 Presence of inhibitors or activators 0 Regulate metabolic pathways by binding chemicals to enzymes 0 Alters enzyme shape 0 Increasesdecreases enzyme activity 0 Inhibitors reduce enzyme activity 0 Turns an enzyme quotof quot 0 2 types 0 Competitive Inhibitors 0 Bind to active site 0 Blocks substrate molecules from the site 0 Does not take part in the chemical reaction 0 NonCompetitive Inhibitors 0 Do not compete for the active site but do bind to part of the enzyme 0 Alters the enzyme shape 0 Changes active site structure 0 Reducesblocks enzymes ability to bind with the substrate 0 Activators binds the enzyme to quotturn it onquot 0 Alters shape of enzyme in order to catalyze the chemical reaction Products of the metabolic pathway can act as an enzyme inhibitor early in the pathway 0 The products of the chemical reaction shut the entire process off when they reach a certain concentration Problems in enzyme formation 0 Enzyme no longer functions if the amino acid sequence is incorrectly strung together 0 Proteins are quotmisspelledquot 0 Phenlketonuria body is unable to break down the amino acid phenylalanine 0 Builds up in the body interrupting melanin production and the brains ability to develop properly 0 Individuals must limit phenylalanine in their diet Nucleic Acids Macromolecules Store information By varying the order of which base is attached to sugar molecules Made up of nucleotides Sugar molecule Phosphate group connected to 4 oxygen atoms Nitrogen containing molecule Lactose intolerance Under normal conditions lactose is broken down into glucose and galactose for energy Some adults are unable to break the bond between the two simple sugars No longer make lactase to assist with the process Lactose passes through the stomachsmall intestine undigested Reaches large intestine where the bacteria there eat the lactose 0 Bacteria produce carbon dioxide and other gases while breaking down the lactose Trapped gas cause severe discomfort Primarily found in people from regions of the world that do not have long traditions of raising and eating livestock 0 China is historically a nonpastoral region 0 90 of the population is lactose intolerant Lactose intolerant individuals can consume dairy if they take the lactase pill before eating 0 Pill puts lactase enzyme in the stomach thereby breaking down the lactose before it arrives in the large intestine DNA deoxyribonucleic acid Bases fit together or form 2 strands of double helix GC AT Nucleotide base sequence stores information on how to make a particular protein Cell nucleus majority of the DNA 0 This DNA contains instructions for building every protein needed by the human body RNA ribonucleic acid 0 1 strand 0 quotMiddle manquot between DNA and protein production 0 Double stranded DNA is transformed into single stranded RNA 0 RNA strand contains information on the amino acid sequence to produce a particular protein 0 Moves to another part of the cell 0 Directs the cell to string the amino acids together in a particular order to create a 3D protein DNA and RNA play central roles in directing protein and production in liVing organisms 39 Determine all inherited characteristics of an indiVidual DNARNA molecular structure each sugar molecule is attached to a nitrogen containing molecule called a base Cells Friday February 06 2015 1257 AM Most basic unit of any organism Smallest unit of life 0 Functions independently o Performs all necessary life functions 0 Reproduces itself 3D structure 0 Resembles a lled balloon Carries out essential chemical reactions of life 0 Breaks down carbohydrates for energy 0 Modi es cholesterol to create testosterone and estrogen o Translates the DNA to produce proteins Nearly contains all DNA 0 Information molecule that directs chemical reactions in a cell 0 Creates various cellular productions o Gives cell ability to reproduce itself Cell Theory 0 All living organisms are made up of one or more cells 0 All cells arise from other preexisting cells 2 tvpes of cells 0 Prokaryotic Free owing like a stew Structure Prokaryote organism consisting of a prokaryotic cell 0 Single celled organisms Does not have a nucleus 0 DNA found in cytoplasm 35 billion years old Plasma Membrane encloses cell contents DNA ribosomes and cytoplasm Intracellular anything inside the plasma membrane Extracellular anything outside the plasma membrane Cytoplasm jellylike uid inside the cell No compartmentalization Random molecular movements quickly blend the chemicals throughout the cell Reduces ease with which different reactions can occur simultaneously Ribosomes granular bodies in the cytoplasm that convert genetic information into protein structure 0 Basically makes proteins that make your body function 0 Free oating DNA one or more circular loops containing genetic information 0 Cell Wall protects and gives shape to the cell Slimy sugary capsule Can anchor cell in place if needed hairlike projections that help cells attach to other surfaces 0 Hair like projections Thinner than agella Act as tubes through which cells exchange DNA Flagellum whiplike projections that aids in cellular movement Rotates like a propeller Moves cell through the liquid medium Prokarvotic Bacteria Escherichia cola E coli lives in your intestine and assist body in creating essential vitamins Streptococcus pyogens causes strep throat Found everywhere on Earth Fuel cell activities withwithout Earth Able to utilize almost any energy source Deepsea thermal vents Hydrogen Sun Euka ryotic 2 billion years old 10 times larger than Prokaryotic cells Plants and animal cells Share common eukaryotic ancestor Cytoplasm contains cellular compartments with specialized functions like organs to animals Structure Nucleus membrane enclosed structure that contains linear strands of DNA Plasma membrane Ribosomes Rough endoplasmic reticulum ribosomes attached Smooth endoplasmic reticulum no ribosomes attached Cytoplasm Cytoskeleton Golgi apparatus Lysosome Speci c to animals Centriole Mitochondria help animals harness energy stored in food molecules Speci c to pants Chloroplast help plants and algae convert sunlight into a more usable form of energy Cell wall Vacuole O Organelles enclosed separately within their own membranes Multiceluar organisms dolphins humans Venus y trap etc Uniceluar organisms fungi protists Endosymbiosis Theory explains presence of mitochondria in animal cells and chloroplasts in plant cells Occurred billions of years ago One prokaryotic cell engulfed smaller prokaryotic cell that was no digested Plant Cells Smaller symbiotic prokaryote may have come to live inside the larger host prokaryote Smaller symbiotic prokaryote was capable of performing photosynthesis and made some of its energy available to the host prokaryote Two cells became more dependent on each other to survive over time Evolved into single more complex organism Smaller symbiotic prokaryote evolved into a chloroplast Animal Cells Larger host prokaryote ingested smaller symbiotic prokaryote Smaller prokaryote was unusually ef cient at converting foodoxygen into energy that it shared with the larger prokaryote Two cells became more dependent on each other to survive over time Evolved into single more complex organism Smaller symbiotic prokaryote evolved into a mitochondria Evidence Chloroplastmitochondria are similar in size to prokaryotic cells 0 Divide by splitting ssion just like prokaryotes Chloroplastsmitochondria have separate ribosomes Similar to the circular DNA found in Proka ryotes Separate from linear DNA found in the Eukaryotic nucleus Chloroplastsmitochondria DNA analysis has revealed it is related to bacterial DNA lnvagination origins of organelles in cell Folded membrane compartments became modi edspecialized Both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes 2 layered plasma membrane Function body Takes in food nutrients and water Disposes of waste products Buildsexports molecules needed elsewhere in the Mediates communicationadhesion with cell39s external environment Gatekeepers that control flow of molecules intoout of the cell Phospholipid Bilayer Head Polar partial electron charge Hydrophilic mixes easily with water Ta Nonpolar no electron charge Hydrophobic does not mix with water Free oating Solutions on one side of the plasma membrane cannot leak across the membrane Membrane molecules are embedded Within or attached to surface Proteins Transmembrane proteins Penetrates through lipid bilayer Hydrophilic and hydrophobic Surface proteins 0 Found on inner or outer membrane surface 0 Only hydrophilic Proteins tertiary structure determines if it resides on the membrane surface or extends through the bilayer Hydrophobic and hydrophilic forces keep proteins properly oriented Float around without ever popping out of the membrane FuncUons Receptor Proteins Binds to external chemicals in order to regulate processes within the cell Regulate chemical processes within the cell 0 Recognition Proteins Example Heart cells have receptor proteins that bind to adrenaline Adrenaline released into the bloodstream in times of extreme stress Binds to heart cell receptor proteins 0 When this happens your heart rate increases and moves blood faster through the body 0 Beta Blockers medication that reduces anxiety Prevents adrenaline from binding to heart cells Provides a ngerprint for the cell Allow it to be recognized by other cells Allows immune system to identify cells that belong in the body Allows cells to bind to other cells or molecules in the body Transport Proteins Provide a passage way for molecules to travel into and out of the cell Transmembrane proteins that help polarcharged substances pass through plasma membrane Come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes Allows for wide variety of molecules to be transported through membrane Enzvmatic Proteins Accelerates intracellular and extracellular reactions on the plasma membrane Carbohydrate Chains Provides a quot ngerprintquot for the cell Signals other cells and the immune system that cells belong Cells with the improper ngerprint are attacked by the immune system 0 Organ transplants The body does not recognize the cells from the new organ Transplant patients must take antirejection medication These suppress the immune system to avoid organ rejection 0 Patient is open to bacterial infections o It can be recognized by other cells 0 Attached to membrane proteins or phospholipid heads 0 Cholesterol helps the membrane retain its exibility Helps membrane maintain its shape at moderate to freezing temperatures Fluid mosaic molecules oat freely in uid membrane o Diseases Cystic Fibrosis side effects improper salt balance in cells 0 Thick sticky mucus build up in lungs Mucus too thick to be expelled from the lungs by coughing Molecules move across membranes in several ways Passive Transport Spontaneous Diffusion of molecules across a membrane Molecules move across a membrane without energy input Diffusion solute dissolved in solvent and moves from area of high solute concentration to an area of low concentration Molecules of a substance will always move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated Simple Diffusion small molecules that carry no charge can pass directly through the lipid bilayer of the membrane without assistance of any other molecule Oxygen and carbon dioxide Facilitated Diffusion large molecules that carry an electrical charge cannot pass directly through the lipid bilayer of the membrane without assistance of carrier molecules 0 Ex Transport Protein Osmosis passive diffusion of water across a membrane Tonicity of the solution Isotonic Solution Solute concentration are balanced Water movement is balanced Hypotonic Solution Solute concentrations are lower in the extracellular uid 0 Water diffuses into cells Hypertonic Solution Solute concentrations are higher in the extracellular uid 0 Water diffuses out of the cells Cell Connection Multicellular organisms Most cells are connected to other cells by specialized structures that hold them in place Enables them to communicate with each other 0 Tight lunctions Form a watertight seal between the cells Desmosomes Acts like Velcro that hold sheets of cells together Allows uid to pass between Acts like a secret passageway Allows minerals to pass between the cells Carbohvdrates Lipids Holds cell contents in place Regulates what entersleaves the cell Endocytosis 0 Plasma membrane surrounds an object that is outside the cell 0 Forms a little pocket or vesicle to bring it inside the cell Cell Organelles o 9 important organelles distinguished eukaryotic cells 0 Specialized structures in cells perform speci c lifesustaining functions 0 Nucleus Genetic control center of eukaryotic cells Directs protein production Storehouse for all hereditary information 0 Nuclear membrane Perforated with proteins Contains chromatin that organizes DNA Nucleolus creates ribosomal units 0 Cvtoskeleton lnner scaffolding of the cell O 0 Give the cell its shape and support Serves as a series of tracks on which organelles and molecules are guided around the inside of the cell quotRoads of the cell Microtubules Thick hollow tubes Tracks to which molecules and organelles within the cell may attach and be moved along Roads Intermediate Filaments Durable ropelike systems of numerous overlapping proteins Gives cells great strength quotSkeletonquot Micro laments Long solid rodlike bers Helps with cell contraction and cell division Mitochondria Found in virtually all eukaryotic cells Act as allpurpose energy converters Harvests energy to be used for cellular functions THE MITOCHONDRIA IS THE P0 WERHOUSE OF THE Converts energy from chemical bonds breaking between molecules into ATP ATP molecule is the energy source to fuel all cellular func ons Lysosomes Acid lled organelles Function as cellular garbage disposals TaySachs Disease Cannot dissolve certain lipid molecules Cell continues to send lipids to lysosomes until they explode Digestive contents spill out and dissolve the entire cell Lead39s to child39s death Endonlasmic Reticulum ER Production and modi cation of biological molecules in eukaryotic cells Occurs in a system of organelles called endomembrane system Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum folds and packages proteins to be shipped elsewhere in the body Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum lipids are synthesizedmade alcohol antibiotics and other drugs are detoxi ed Golgi Apparatus Endomembrane Svstem processes and packages molecules destined for use elsewhere in the body Plant Cell Wall Provides structural strength Increases resistance to water loss Provides some protection from insects and other organisms that might eat them Plasmodesmata Connects cells to each other Enables communication and transport between cells Vacuoles plant cells 0 Storage spaces found in several eukaryotic taxa Nutrition Waste management Predator deterrence Reproduction Physical support Chloronlasts plant cells0 Site of photosynthesis Converts light energy into chemical energy Produces oxygen byproduct Stroma Fluid inside chloroplast Contains DNA and proteinmaking machinery Thylakoids Interconnected sacs Collects light for photosynthesis Energy Thursday February 12 2015 639 PM Energy ows from the sun and through all life on earth The sun39s energy fuels all life on earth as it is converted to different forms Living organisms need energy to work just like machines 0 Machines cars run on fossil fuels and biofuels 0 Living organisms people run on food fuels Sun39s energy is the energy source for bio fossil and food fuels Energy is stored in the chemical bonds of the atoms in all these fuels o Chains of Carbon and Hydrogen atoms Fossil Fuels o Gasoline is burned by a car 0 Bonds break between long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms in the gasoline molecule 0 This releases carbon dioxide water and energy 0 Released energy is harnessed by a car39s engine to push the pistons Biofuels o Fats and oils have long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms bound together 0 Carbon dioxide water and energy is released when the bonds are broken 0 Released energy is harnessed by car39s engine to push the pistons Food Fuels 0 Living organisms eat carbohydrates and lipids that have long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms bound together 0 Carbon dioxide water and energy is released when the bonds are broken 0 Provides cellular energy to the living organism Capture and Conversion 0 All life depends on capturing energy from the sun and converting it into a form that living organisms can use Photosynthesis I Plants capture energy from the sun 39 Energy is stored in the chemical bonds of sugars and other food molecules 0 Cellular Respiration 39 Organisms release energy stored in chemical bonds of food molecules they eat 39 Uses released energy as fuel Energy is the capacity to do work 0 Work moving mater against an opposing force 2 Types of Energy 0 Kinetic Energy 0 Energy of moving objects 0 Heat 0 Light 0 ACTUALLY moving 0 Potential Energy 0 Stored energy or the capacity to do work that results from an object39s location or position 0 Chemical Energy energy stored in chemical bonds 0 POTENTIAL to move Transformations 0 Energy is captured and converted 0 Amount of energy available to do work decreases 0 Some energy is released as heat 0 Not easily harnessed to do work 0 Less useful form of energy Thermodvnamics 0 Study of the transformation of energy from one form to another 0 lst Law of Thermodynamics Energy can NEVER be created or destroyed Energy can only change from one form to another 0 2nd Law of Thermodynamics Every conversion of energy includes the transformation of some energy into heat Heat is almost completely useless to living organisms All energy now present in the universe has been here since the universe began Quantity of universe39s energy is not changing but the quality is 0 Amount of energy available to do work decreases over time Adenosine Triphosphate ATP 0 Free oating rechargeable batteries in all living cells 0 Chief energy currency of the cell 0 Free oating quotrechargeable batteriesquot for the power house of the cell mitochondria In all living cells 0 Cells cannot use light energy directly to do cellular work 0 The energy has to be converted into chemical energy in the bonds of ATP molecules 0 Cells temporarily store energy in the bonds of ATP molecules 0 The potential energy can be converted to kinetic energy o It is used to fuel life sustaining chemical reactions ADENDSIINE TlRlPlIIlDSPHATE ATP AND ADENDSiNE DIIPHDSPHA39TI39E ADP lAdenine l H Separate Adenine f 39 I I r Ph sphatg V 5 Phosphate E I PhospilIa39e gmupe 1 gmup groups 3 l Irla f I Tia 1 15 m n ener N I j Rllb as39e lsugla rl r bong Hibese sugar used in this lboek it used in this book 7quot The green halo represents V ATP s potential energy Figure 45quot Whmvls LifePA Guide To BEIGEquot 52mm Edition 3 2012 W H Freeman and Eompany Begin with ADP Add a Phosphate ATP 0 Energy output fuels cell Loses a Phosphate back to ADP Cellular Respiration O O 0 Process that allows living organisms to fuel their actions High energy bonds of sugar and other energyrich molecules are broken releasing energy that went into creating them In the cells of plants and animals highenergy bonds of food and molecules are broken down releasing energy Requires fuel molecules and oxygen Fuel potential energy stored in chemical bonds of sugar protein and fat molecules that is ingested by organism Oxygen from atmosphere Acts as electron magnet Captures carbon molecules to create carbon dioxide Captures hydrogen molecules to create water Yields carbon dioxide water and ATP molecules IMIPUT UWT PM T vxygeni Sugar E39xalrihen water Enrgy rdieuiixde Figure IllEB part 2 What We Elam 11 Ellril39aml Second minim C 2111i 2 I 39 HF Form 1 a 11 Tween Breaks simple sugar bonds to release high energy electrons that are captured in ATP molecules
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